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CIVIL  WAR  Literature 



CLASS    OF    1869 


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GREAT  WAR   l86l-'65. 




(Lieut. -Colonel  Seventieth  Regiment  N.  C.  T.)- 




E.  M.  UzzELL,  Printer  and  Binder. 




Preface v 

Generals  from  North  Carolina,  by  the  Editor xi 

Regiments  and  Brigades,  by  the  Editor xiii 

Naval  Ofpiobhs  from  North  Carolina,  by  the  Editor xiv 

Organization — • 

Adjutant-General's  Department,  by  Major  A.  Gordon 3 

Quartermaster-General's  Department,  by  Major  A.  Gordon—  23 

Subsistence  Department,  by  Major  A.  Gordon 37 

Ordnance  Department,  by  Major  A.  Gordon 39 

Pay  Department,  by  Major  A.  Gordon 45 

Board  op  Claims,  by  Major  A.  Gordon 45 

Adjutant-General's  Department,  by  Major  W,  A.  Graham 50 

Bethel  Regiment,  by  Major  E.  J.  Hale 69 

First  Regiment,  by  Colonel  H.  A.  Brown 135 

Second  Regiment,  by  Captain  Matt.  Manly 157 

Third  Regiment,  by  Captains  John  Cowan  and  J.  I.  Metis 177 

Third  Regiment,  by  Colonel  W.  L.  DeRosset 215 

Fourth  Regiment,  by  Colonel  E.  A.  Osborne 229 

Fifth  Regiment,  by  Maj.  J,  C.  MacRae  and  Sergt.-maj.  C.  M.  Busbee,  281 

Sixth  Regiment,  by  Captain  Neill  W.  Ray 293 

Sixth  Regiment,  by  Major  A.  C.  Avery 337 

Seventh  Regiment,  by  Captain  J.  S.  Harris 361 

Eighth  Regiment,  by  Drummer  H.  T.  J.  Ludwig 387 

Ninth  Regiment  (First  Oav.),  by  General  Riifus  Barringer 417 

Ninth  Regiment  (First  Cav.),  by  Colonel  W.  H.  Cheek 445,  775 

Tenth  Regiment  (First  Art.),  Companies  B,  F,  G,  H,  K  (Heavy 

Batteries),  by  Colonel  S.  B.  Pool 489 

Tenth  Regiment  (same  Companies),  by  Lieutenant  J.  W.  Sanders  —  499 
Tenth  Regiment,  Company  C  (Light  Battery),  by  Captain  A.  B. 

Williams 537 

Tenth  Regiment,  Light  Batteries  A,  D,  F  and  I,  by  Captain  J.  A. 

Ramsay j 551 

Eleventh  Regiment,  by  Col.  W.  J.  Martin  and  Capt.  E.  R.  Outlaw,  583 

Twelfth  Regiment,  by  Lieutenant  W.  A.  Montgomery 605 

Thirteenth  Regiment,  by  Captain  R.  S.  Williams 653 

Thirteenth  Regiment,  by  Adjutant  N.  S.  Smith 689 

Thirteenth  Regiment,  by  T.  L.  Rawley 701 

Fourteenth  Regiment,  by  Colonel  R.  T.  Bennett 705 

Fifteenth  Regiment,  by  Lieutenant  H.  C.  Kearney 733 

Sixteenth  Regiment,  by  Lieutenant  B.  H.  Cathey 751 

Sixteenth  Regiment,  by  Captain  L.  Harrill 771 


More  than  two  thousand  years  ago  Pericles,  speaking  of  his 
countrymen  who  had  fallen  in  a  great  war,  said:  "In  all  time  to 
come,  whenever  there  shall  be  speech  of  great  deeds  they  shall 
be  had  in  remembrance."  More  truly  than  to  the  Athenian 
soldiery  can  these  memorable  words  be  applied  to  those  North 
Carolinians  who  for  four  long  years  carried  the  fortunes  of  the 
Confederacy  upon  the  points  of  their  bayonets. 

With  a  voting  population  at  the  outbreak  of  the  war  of  less 
than  115,000,  North  Carolina  furnished  to  the  Confederate  cause, 
as  appears  from  Major  Gordon's  article  herein,  127,000  troops, 
or  more  than  one-fifth  of  the  men  who  marched  beneath  the  South- 
ern Cross,  in  addition  to  the  Militia  and  Home  Guards  who  ren- 
dered useful,  though  short,  tours  of  duty,  under  State  au- 
thority. In  the  first  battle  of  the  war,  at  Bethel,  North  Caro- 
lina was  at  the  front  and  the  first  man  killed  in  battle  was  Wyatt 
from  Edgecombe.  When  the  great  tragedy  was  closing  at  Appo- 
mattox it  was  the  men  of  Cox's  North  Carolina  Brigade,  of 
Grimes'  Division,  who  fired  the  last  volley  at  the  foe.  The  two 
great  pivotal  battles  of  the  war  were  Gettysburg  in  the  East  and 
Chickamauga  in  the  West.  Upon  them  turned  the  issue  of  the 
great  struggle,  and  in  both  the  men  who  fell  farthest  to  the  front, 
nearest  to  the  muzzles  of  the  enemy's  guns,  were  from  North 
Carolina  regiments.  This  is  demonstrated  not  only  by  the  nar- 
ratives of  eye-witnesses  in  these  volumes  but  by  the  monuments 
which  the  Federal  Government  has  erected  on  those  great  battle- 
fields to  indicate  the  "high-water  mark"  to  which  the  tide  of 
Southern  success  rose,  and  from  which,  after  those  days  of  historic 
struggle,  it  painfully  and  slowly  but  surely  ebbed  away. 

Not,  therefore,  in  boast,  but  in  sober  historic  truth,  on  the 
cover  of  these  volumes,  has  been  inscribed  the  lines  which  tell 
the  story  of  North  Carolina's  fidelity  to  duty: 

VI  Preface.  . 

"First  at  Bethel. 

Farthest  to  the  Front  at  Gettysburg  and 


Last  at  Appomattox." 

It  is  to  tell  the  plain,  unvarnished  story  of  the  men  at  the 
front  that  these  sketches  have  been  written  by  those  who  partici- 
pated therein,  and  by  the  authority  and  at  the  expense  of  the 
State  they  are  now  printed  in  order  to  hand  down  to  posterity  an 
authentic  account  of  what  the  soldiery  of  this  State  suffered  and 
did  in  the  discharge  of  their  duty.  It  was  inscribed  upon  the 
stones  piled  above  the  Spartan  dead  who  died  at  Thermopylae: 
"Stranger,  go  tell  it  in  Lacedemon  that  we  lie  here  in  obedience 
to  her  command."  North  Carolina  can  never  forget  that  in 
obedience  to  her  command  more  than  40,000  of  her  bravest,  best 
and  brightest  young  men  fill  soldiers'  graves  from  "the  farthest 
north"  at  Gettysburg  to  that  far  Southern  shore 

"  Where  the  mightiest  river  runs,  mingling  with  their  fame  forever." 

These  dead  have  not  died  in  vain.  The  cause  of  Southern 
Independence  for  which  they  fell  has  passed  forever  from 
among  men.  Not  an  advocate  remains.  But  as  long  as  valor 
shall  move  the  hearts  of  men,  as  long  as  the  patient  endurance 
of  hardship,  and  fatigue,  and  danger  in  the  discharge  of  duty 
shall  touch  us,  as  long  as  the  sacrifice  of  life  for  the  good  of 
one's  country  shall  seem  noble  and  grand,  so  long  shall  the 
memory  of  the  deeds  recorded  in  the  plain,  sober  narratives  in 
these  volumes,  written  by  men  whose  gallantry  is  surpassed  only 
by  their  modesty,  and  who  were  more  eager  to  handle  the  sword 
than  to  use  the  pen,  be  preserved  and  cherished  by  their  coun- 

The  story  of  these  volumes  is  briefly  told.  At  the  meeting 
of  the  State  Confederate  Veterans  Association  at  Raleigh,  N.  C, 
in  October,  1894,  on  motion  of  Judge  A.  C.  Avery,  seconded  by 
F.  H.  Busbee,  Esq.,  it  was 

"Resolved,  That  a  history  of  each  regiment  and  organization 
from  North  Carolina  which  served  in  the  Confederate  Army 

Preface.  vii 

shall  be  prepared  by  a  member  thereof,  and  that  Judge  Walter 
Clark  be  requested  to  select  the  historians  from  each  command 
and  to  supervise  and  edit  the  work;  and  further,  that  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly  be  memorialized  to  have  these  sketches  printed  at 
the  expense  of  the  State." 

On  motion  of  Captain  W.  H.  Day,  Judge  A.  C.  Avery,  Gen- 
eral Robert  F.  Hoke  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Wharton  J.  Green 
were  appointed  a  committee  to  present  this  memorial  and  pro- 
cure the  passage  of  the  legislation  desired. 

Already  at  that  date  (1894)  nearly  thirty  years  had  passed 
since  the  close  of  hostilities  and  the  steady  advance  of  the  years 
had  driven  gaps  in  our  ranks  wider  than  those  made  by  the  leaden 
hail  of  battle.  Suitable  men  for  the  work  were  difficult  to  find 
for  many  of  the  regiments,  and  when  found  they  often  pleaded 
the  press  of  business,  loss  of  memory  and  increasing  infirmities. 
But  by  persistent  effort  competent  historians  were  secured  for 
each  regiment,  except  the  73d,  74th,  76th,  77th  and  78th. (which 
being  Senior  Reserves,  over  forty-five  years  of  age  during  the  war, 
had  few  survivors  left),  and  some  of  the  battalions.  As  to  the 
Senior  Reserves,  the  only  resource  was  to  utilize  some  sketches 
heretofore  written. 

But  here  another  difficulty  arose.  Among  those  who  promised 
to  write  the  story  of  their  regiments  some  died  and  others  procras- 
tinated. The  latter  class  was  large  by  reason  of  the  failure  of  the 
General  Assemblies  of  1896  and  1897  to  assume  the  publication 
by  the  State.  This,  however,  was  done  by  the  General  Assembly 
of  1899,  the  bill  being  introduced  and  eloquently  championed 
by  Hon.  H.  Clay  Wall,  member  from  Richmond  county  and 
historian  of  the  Twenty-third  Regiment.  Upon  the  passage  of 
the  act  the  vacancies  caused  by  death  or  declination  were  filled 
up  and  the  remaining  sketches  (with  a  few  exceptions)  being  in 
hand  by  the  spring  of  1900,  and  the  others  promised,  publication 
was  begun.  The  printing  was,  for  certain  causes,  however,  so 
much  delayed  that  the  General  Assembly  of  1901  passed  an  act  to 
expedite  the  completion  of  the  work,  which  is  now  guaranteed  to 
be  finished  during  the  current  year. 

VIII  Preface. 

The  work  of  the  several  historians  and  of  the  Editor  has  of 
course  been  one  of  love  and  without  pecuniary  compensation. 
We  would  that  our  labors  could  have  been  worthier  of  the  sub- 
ject and  of  our  noble  comrades  living  and  dead.  The  State 
assumed  the  cost  of  publication  and  the  work  is  its  property,  as 
the  deeds  it  commemorates  are  the  noblest  inheritance  of  its 
people  and  their  sure  gage  of  fame. 

It  was  thought  that  it  would  add  vividness  to  these  pen-and- 
ink  sketches  of  their  deeds  to  give  engravings  of  as  many  of  the 
actors  in  those  stirring  times  as  could  be  readily  obtainable.  The 
selection  of  these  was  left,  of  course,  to  the  several  regimental 
historians.  No  line  was  drawn  at  rank.  The  only  restriction 
has  been  that  each  picture  shall  have  been  taken  "during  the 
war  or  soon  thereafter"  — the  object  being  to  present  the  men  as 
they  then  looked — and  that  the  subject  made  an  honorable  record 
in  the  Great  War.  Major  C.  L.  Patton,  a  Southerner  residing 
in  New  York  City  and  the  head  of  a  great  publishing  house, 
kindly  and  without  remuneration  undertook  the  supervision  of 
the  engravings  and  their  proper  grouping  to  go  with  the  histo- 
ries of  their  respective  commands.  In  this  way  it  is  believed 
that  the  interest  of  the  work  has  been  greatly  enhanced  and  that 
this  will  grow  as  the  years  diminish  the  number  of  survivors. 
Many  of  their  descendants,  perchance,  will  look  back  as  a  patent 
of  nobility  to  the  men  whose  names  or  whose  features  are  pre- 
served in  these  volumes.  The  cost  of  the  engravings  has  heen 
defrayed  by  the  relatives  or  friends  of  the  parties.  A  few  maps 
have  been  also  added  to  illustrate  the  text. 

The  requirement  that  the  history  of  each  command  should  be 
written  by  a  member  thereof  was  to  insure  authenticity.  But  as 
by  reason  of  wounds  or  other  temporary  absence  few  men  were 
every  day  of  the  four  years  present  with  their  commands,  and  the 
lapse  of  time  might  cause  errors  of  memory,  the  several  historians 
were  requested  to  refresh  their  memories  by  conversation  and  cor- 
respondence with  their  surviving  comrades,  and  they  also  had 
access  to  the  publication  by  the  Government  of  the  invaluable 
series   of    "Official   Records   of    the   Union    and    Confederate 

Preface.  ix 

Armies."  In  addition,  the  sketch  of  each  regiment  as  sent  in 
was  published  in  the  newspaper  of  largest  circulation  in  the 
section  in  which  the  regiment  was  principally  raised,  and  sur- 
vivors were  requested  to  note  errors  and  omissions  and  to  com- 
municate them  to  the  writer  of  the  regimental  history. 

This  was  a  heavy  tax  upon  the  columns  of  the  press,  but  with 
the  patriotism  which  has  always  characterized  the  editors  of 
North  Carolina  this  service  was  cheerfully  and  freely  rendered 
without  charge  or  compensation.  The  Confederate  Veterans 
of  North  Carolina  are  greatly  indebted  for  this  great  service  in 
rendering  onr  histories  more  full  and  accurate  to  the  Raleigh 
News  and  Observer  and  Morning  Post,  the  Wilmington  Messen- 
ger and  Star,  the  Charlotte  Observer,  the  Fayetteville  Observer, 
the  New  Bern  Journal,  the  Asheville  Citizen,  the  Wayuesville 
Courier,  and  perhaps  others. 

During  the  compilation  of  these  sketches  we  have,  up  to  this 
date,  lost  no  less  than  nine  of  the  writers  of  these  sketches  by 
death.  Captain  John  Cowan,  TJiird  North  Carolina;  Captain 
Neill  W.  Ray,  Sixth  North  Carolina;  Professor  H.  T.  J.  Lud- 
wig.  Eighth  North  Carolina;  General  Rufus  Barringer,  Ninth 
North  Carolina  ;  Colonel  Stephen  D.  Pool,  Tenth  North  Caro- 
lina; Colonel  W.  J.  Martin,  Eleventh  North  Carolina;  Sergeant 
H.  C.  Wall,  Twenty-third  North  Carolina;  General  Robert  B. 
Vance,  Twenty-ninth  North  Carolina;  Captain  M.  V.  Moore, 
Sixth-fifth  North  Carolina,  and  there  were  others  who  died 
before  completing  their  sketches  and  for  whom  substitutes  were 

If  errors  or  omissions  of  importance  are  discovered  by  any  of 
our  comrades  as  these  volumes  successively  issue  from  the  press, 
they  are  requested  to  promptly  communicate  the  needed  correc- 
tion to  the  historian  of  the  regiment  concerned,  that  proper 
amendment  maj'  be  made  among  the  Errata  in  the  last  volume. 
The  most  scrupulous  and  exact  accuracy  is  earnestly  desired  in 
these  volumes. 

North  Carolina  has  grandly  known  how  to  make  history.  She 
has  till  now  always  left  it  to  others  to  write  it.     Hence  she  has 

X  Preface. 

never  had  full  justice  done  the  memory  of  her  sons.  With 
these  volumes  the  reproach  is  taken  away.  Herein  the  historian 
will  find  authentic,  reliable  material,  compiled  by  the  gallant  men 
who  saw  the  deeds  they  narrate.  From  these  volumes  some  yet 
unborn  Thucydides  or  Macaulay  of  the  future  may  draw  some 
of  his  material  for  that  history  which  shall  transmit  to  all  time 
the  story  of  this  most  memorable  struggle,  and  the  historians 
in  these  pages  shall  have  thus  contributed  their  share  in  per- 
petuating the  fame  of  their  State  and  of  their  comrades  to  the 
most  distant  times.  Walter  Clark. 

Raleigh,  N.  C, 

26  April,  1901. 


By  WALTER  CLARK,  LiEUT.-Coi,.  Seventieth  N.  C.  T. 

From  General  Ainsworth,  Chief  of  the  Eecord  and  Pension  OflBce  at 
Washington,  in  whose  custody  are  the  "Archives  of  the  War  Depart- 
ment of  the  Confederate  States,"  I  have  procured  the  following  certified 
list  of  the  Generals  appointed  from  North  Carolina,  with  the  date  of  com- 
mission of  the  highest  rank  attained  by  each,  and  graded  accordingly  to 
seniority  of  commission: 

^^ame.  Bate  of  Rank. 

1.  Thbophilus  H.  Holmes 10  October,  1862 

2.  *Daniel  H.  Hill  (not  sent  to  Senate) 11  July,  1863 


1.  W.  H.  C.  Whiting  (killed  in  battle) 28  February,  1863 

2.  BoBEKT  Ransom,  Jr 26  May,  1863 

3.  William  D.  Pender  (killed  in  battle) 27  May,  1863 

4.  Robert  F.  Hoke 20  April,  1864 

5.  tSiEPHEN  D.  Ramsbue  (killed  in  battle) 1  June,  1864 

6.  Bryan  Grimes 15  February,  1865 


1.  Richard  C.  Gatlin 8  July,  1861 

2.  L.  O'B.  Branch  (killed  in  battle) 16  November,  1861 

3.  J.  Johnston  Pettigrew  (killed  in  battle) 26  February,  1862 

4.  James  G.  Martin 15  May,  1862 

5.  Thomas  L.  Clingman '---17  May,  1862 

6.  George  B.  Anderson  (killed  in  battle) 9  June,  1862 

7.  Junius  Daniel  (killed  in  battle) 1  September,  1862 

8.  James  H.  Lane 1  November,  1862 

9.  John  R.  Cooke 1  November,  1862 

10.  Robert  B.  Vance 1  March,  1863 

11.  Alfred  M.  Scales 13  June,  1863 

12.  Matthew  W.  Ransom 13  June,  1863 

13.  Lawrence  S.  Baker 23  July,  1863 

14.  William  W.  Kirkland 29  August,  1863 

15.  Robert  D.  Johnston 1  September,  1863 

16.  Jambs  B.  Gordon  (killed  in  battle) 28  September,  1863 

17.  tWiLLiAM  R.  Coz  (temporary) 31  May,  1864 

XII  Generals  from  North  Carolina. 

18.  tTHOMAS  F.  Toon  (temporary) 31  May,  1864' 

19.  tW.  Gaston  Lewis  (temporary) 31  May,  1864 

20.  RuFus  Baheinger IJune,  1864 

21.  fJoHN  D.  Bakey  (temporary) _. ,3  August,  1864 

22.  Aechibald  C.  Godwin  (killed  in  battle) 5  August,  1864 

23.  William  MacRae 4  November,  1864 

24.  CoLLETT  Leventhoepe 3  February,  1865 

25.  William  P.  Roeeets 21  February,  1865 

This  is  a  full  list  of  the  Generals  appointed  from  North  Carolina. 
There  were  several  other  Generals  who  were  born  in  North  Carolina  but 
who  went  into  the  service  from  other  States  of  which  they  had  become 
citizens  and  which  justly  claim  them,  as  Generals  Braxton  Bragg,  Cad- 
mus M.  Wilcox,  Jeremy  F.  Gilmer,  Gabriel  J.  Rains,  Felix  ZollicOfFer, 
Ben.  McCullough,  and  possibly  others.  On  the  other  hand.  General  D. 
H.  Hill,  born  in  South  Carolina,  had  long  been  a  citizen  of  this  State,  and 
General  W.  H.  C.  Whiting,  born  in  Mississippi,  and  General  John  R. 
Cooke,  of  Missouri,  threw  in  their  lot  with  us  and  were  appointed  from 
this  State  and  commanded  North  Carolina  troops  the  whole  war. 

General  James  Conner,  of  South  Carolina,  and  General  Alfred  Iverson 
for  a  whilecommanded  North  Carolina  brigades,  but  they  were  appointed 
from  their  respective  States  and  do  not  figure  properly  in  a  list  of  Gen- 
rals  from  North  Carolina. 

It  is  worthy  of  note  that  one-half  of  the  Major-Generals  and  one  in 
four  of  the  Brigadier-Generals  from  this  State  were  killed  in  battle  or 
died  of  wounds  during  the  war. 

The  parole  lists  at  Appomattox  were  signed  by  Bryan  Grimes,  Major 
General,  and  by  James  H.  Lane,  John  R.  Cooke,  Matt.  W.  Ransom, 
William  R.  Cox,  William  MaoRae  and  William  P.  Roberts  as  Brigadier 
Generals.  "  Official  Records  of  Union  and  Confederate  Armies,  Vol.  95, 
pp.  1S77-1S79."  The  parole  lists  at  surrender  of  Johnston's  army  were 
signed  by  Daniel  H.  Hill  and  Robert  F.  Hoke  as  Major-Generals,  and 
Thomas  L.  Clingman,  W.  W.  Kirkland  and  Lawrence  S.  Baker,  Briga- 
dier-Generals.    "  Official  Records  of  Union  and  Confederate  Armies,  Vol. 

*Por  some  unexplained  reason,  President  Davis  did  not  send  in  General  Hill's  appoint- 
ment as  LieatenantGenerat  to  the  Senate  and  he  was  never  confirmed  as  such  by'that 
body,  though  at  the  President's  request  and  by  virtue  of  the  President's  appointment 
he  served  in  that  capacity.  As  LieatenantGeneral  he  commanded  a  corps  in  the  Army 
of  the  West  at  Chicbamauga  in  1863.    Later  he  resljmed  his  rank  of  Major-Genera!. 

fMajor-General  Ramseur  was  a  temporary  Major-General,  and  Brigadiei'-Generals  Cox, 
Toon,  Lewis  and  Barry  were  temporary  Brigadier-Generals.  These  temporary  appoint- 
ments were  peculiar  to  the  Confederate  army.  They  were  made  to  a  command  whose 
head  was  absent  in  prison  or  wounded,  upon  whose  return  It  was  contemplated  that  the 
temporary  appointee  would  go  baoli  to  his  previous  rank,  though  while  occupying  Iiis 
temporary  grade  he  had  the  same  rank  and  authority  as  if  permanently  appointed.  In 
point  of  fact,  each  of  such  appointees  held  his  rank  to  the  close  save  General  Barry,"  who 
went  back  to  the  colonelcy  ot  the  Eighteenth  Eegiment,  being  disabled  by  wounds' very 
soon  after  his  appointment,  whereupon  General  Conner  was  temporarily  placed  in  com- 
mand of  the  brigade  until  the  return  of  General  Lane,  the  permanent  Brigadier  who 
had  been  absent  wounded.  ' 

Generals  from  NoiiTH  Carolina.  xiii 

98,  pp.  1061-1066."  The  other  general  officers  from  North  Carolina 
above  named  were  at  the  time  of  the  above  surrenders  either  dead,  or 
■wounded,  prisoners  or  on  detached  service. 


North  Carolina  furnished  seventy-eight  full  regiments  and  some  twenty 
battalions  to  the  Confederacy,  besides  a  few  scattering  companies  and  a 
large  number  of  individuals  who  served  in  commands  from  other  States, 
of  both  which  latter  we  have  no  data  recorded  in  these  volumes.  The 
composition  of  brigades  was  so  often  changed  that  it  was  found  useless 
to  record  it  here.  Of  the  regiments  the  Tenth,  Thirty-sixth  and  For- 
tieth were  artillery,  and  the  Ninth,  Nineteenth,  Forty-flrst,  Fifty-ninth, 
Sixty-third,  Sixty-fifth  and  Seventy-fifth  were  cavalry  regiments.  Most 
of  the  battalions  were  artillery  or  cavalry. 

The  Seventieth,  Seventy-first  and  Seventy-second  Regiments  and  three 
battalions  were  Junior  Reserves — boys  seventeen  years  of  age,  who, 
however,  did  good  service  at  the  battles  of  Southwest  Creek  and  Benton- 
ville,  and  a  portion  of  them  at  the  bombardments  of  Wilmington  and  of 
Fort  Branch  on  the  Roanoke,  and  in  other  minor  actions.  They  were 
brigaded  and  were  commanded  first  by  Colonel  F.  S.  Armistead,  then  by 
Colonel  Nethercutt  and  later  by  General  L.  S.  Baker,  and  composed  one 
of  the  brigades  of  Hoke's  Division.  They  also  aided  at  Belfield,  Va.,  to 
repulse  the  enemy's  advance  southward. 

The  Seventy-third,  Seventy-fourth,  Seventy-sixth,  Seventy-seventh 
and  Seventy-eighth  were  Senior  Reserves,  between  the  ages  of  forty-five 
and  fifty,  and  rendered  good  service,  a  portion  of  them  being  under  fire. 

All  the  above,  being  regularly  in  the  Confederate  service,  have  a  part 
in  these  volumes. 

Besides  these  there  were  regiments  and  battalions  of  Home  Guards, 
composed  of  those  exempt  from  Confederate  service  by  reason  of  being 
State  officers  (as  justices  of  the  peace,  county  officials,  etc.),  or  for  other 
causes,  who  rendered  service  from  time  to  time,  for  short  tours  of  duty, 
under  the  orders  of  the  Governor.  Also,  in  the  early  part  of  1862  there 
was  service  rendered  by  Militia  ordered  out  for  short  periods,  in  emer- 
gency, notably  those  under-  Brigadier-Generals  David  Clark,  Collett 
Leventhorpe  and  Jesse  R.  Stubbs  for  the  defense  of  the  Roanoke  after 
the  fall  of  Roanoke  Island,  and  a  regiment  of  Militia  shared  in  the  battle 
of  New  Bern.  There  was  also  doubtless  valuable  service  rendered  by 
the  Militia  in  other  parts  of  the  State.  But  from  the  scope  of  this  work, 
and  the  dearth  of  material  at  this  late  date,  no  adequate  account  is 
herein  given  of  the  services  of  our  Militia  and  Home  Guards,  though 
at  the  time  their  aid  was  valuable. 

XIV  Generals  from  North  Carolina. 


The  following  appear,  in  the  Confederate  Archives,  as  the  highest 
officers  in  the  Navy,  appointed  from  North  Carolina,  though  there  were 
many  others  of  lesser  rank: 

Name,  Date  of  Rank. 

James  W.  Cooke Captain 10  June,  1864. 

John  N.  Maffitt Commander 13  May,  1863. 

James  Iredell  VVaddell First  Lieutenant 6  January,  1864. 

Captain  Cooke  commanded  the  ram  "Albemarle"  at  the  capture  of 
Plymouth,  20  April,  1864,  b}'  General  E.  F.  Hoke,  for  which  victory 
General  Hoke  and  himself,  with  the  officers  and  men  under  their  com- 
mand, were  voted  thanks  by  the  Confederate  Congress.  General  Hoke's 
commission  as  Major-General  bears  that  date  in  recognition  of  his  service. 

Lieutenant  James  Iredell  Waddell,  as  commander  of  the  "Shenan- 
doah," was  the  last  to  bear  the  Confederate  flag,  not  having  heard  of  the 
fall  of  the  Confederacy  till  August,  1865,  when  he  was  in  mid  Pacific. 

Commander  J.  N.  Maffitt' s  services  were  also  conspicuous  and  are  well 

Walter  Clark. 

Raleigh,  N.  C., 

26  April,  1901. 



By  major,  a.  GORDON. 




Staff  of  Adjutant-General  of  North  Carolina. 

The  Legislature  met  May  1,  1861,  and  authorized  Governor 
Ellis  to  raise  ten  regiments  of  State  Troops  for  the  war  before 
the  State  Convention  met.  An  Adjutant-General  and  other 
staff  officers  were  authorized  for  these  troops.  Major  James  G. 
Martin,  on  his  arrival  at  Raleigh,  after  his  resignation  from  the 
United  States  Army,  was  appointed  by  the  Governor  Adjutant- 
General  of  this  corps.  Most  of  the  officers  of  these  regiments 
were  appointed  by  the  Governor  prior  to  this,  and  several  of 
them  were  well  advanced  in  recruiting.  The  first  six  regiments 
were  put  in  camp  and  were  soon  armed,  drilled  and  equipped, 
and  sent  to  Virginia.  The  Fifth  and  Sixth  participated  in  the 
first  fight  at  Manassas.  The  Seventh  and  Eighth  were  not  ready 
for  some  time  afterwards.  When  fully  recruited  and  equipped 
the  Seventh  was  sent  to  New  Bern,  N.  C,  and  the  Eighth  to 
Roanoke  Island.  The  Ninth  (First  Cavalry)  was  camped  at 
Warrenton  and  everything  done  to  equip  it  for  service  as  fast  as 
circumstances  would  permit.  There  was  considerable  trouble  in 
getting  this  regiment  ready  for  service.  Horses  were  purchased 
in  Kentucky,  and  after  getting  the  horses  neither  the  State  nor 

4  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Confederate  States  could  furnish  saddles  and  sabres.  An  agent 
of  the  State  was  dispatched  to  New  Orleans  to  purchase  saddles 
to  make  up  the  number  wanted ;  this  done,  there  still  remained  a 
deficiency  in  sabres,  which  could  not  be  purchased.  The  Second 
Cavalry,  formerly  Spruill's  Legion,  was  camped  at  Kittrell 
Springs,  both  of  these  regiments  having  about  sabres  enough  to 
do  for  one.  In  this  condition  of  affairs  the  Governor  and  Gen- 
eral Martin  appealed  to  the  officers  of  the  Second  Cavalry  to  give 
up  enough  of  their  sabres  to  equip  the  First  Cavalry,  which  they 
did  with  some  reluctance,  and  with  the  assurance  of  the  Adju- 
tant-General that  the  State  would  do  everything  in  its'  power  to 
equip  the  Second  Cavalry  as  soon  as  possible.  The  First  Cav- 
alry was  soon  after  this  ordered  to  Virginia.  Every  effort  was 
made  to  get  the  Second  ready  for  service,  which  was  done  late  in 
the  fall  of  the  year,  and  it  was  then>  ordered  to  New  Bern,  N.  C. 
The  Tenth  Regiment  State  Troops  was  artillery.  Five  com- 
panies of  this  regiment  were  light  batteries — Eamseur's,  Reilly's, 
Brem's,  Moore's  and  Sutherland's  :  the  first  two  were  sent  to 
Virginia,  the  other  three  remained  in  the  State  till  later.  During 
the  first  year  of  the  war  the  other  companies  were  assigned  to 
duty  in  the  forts  below  Wilmington.  These  regiments  were  all 
transferred  to  the  Confedei-ate  States,  and  the  State  had  very  little 
to  do  with  them  from  that  on,  except  to  furnish  clothing  to  the 
men  and  horses  to  the  cavalry  regiments  and  light  batteries.. 
The  Adjutant-General's  office  of  North  Carolina  was  practically 
done  with  them  on  their  transfer  to  the  Confederate  States. 

Now,  let  ns  look  at  the  volunteers  and  see  what  had  been  done 
in  that  line.  Colonel  John  F.  Hoke  was  Adjutant-General 
under  the  old  laws  of  the  State,  and  it  was  through  his  office 
that  the  volunteers  were  organized.  The  First  Volunteers  were 
organized  ahead  of  any  other  regiment  in  the  State;  the  Second, 
Third,  Fourth,  Fifth,  Sixth  and  Seventh  soon  followed.  The 
first  six  were  sent  to  Virgina,  the  Seventh  to  Hatteras.  The 
Eighth,  Tenth,  Eleventh,  Twelfth,  Thirteenth  and  Fourteenth 
Volunteers  were  organized  between  the  15th  of  June  and  18th 
of  July,  1861.     All  of  these  regiments,  when  organized,  armed 

Organization  of  Troops.  5 

and  equipped,  were  transferred  to  the  Confederate  States.  Colo- 
nel John  F.  Hoke  was  elected  Colonel  of  the  Thirteenth  Vol- 
unteers, and  he  resigned  the  office  of  Adjutant- General.  The 
Governor  ordered  General  Martin  to  take  charge  of  both  offices, 
that  of  the  State  Troops  and  Volunteers,  until  the  Legislature 
met,  when  that  body  elected  General  Martin  Adjutaut-Geueral 
of  the  State,  and  conferred  upon  him  all  the  military  power 
of  the  State,  subject  to  the  orders  of  the  Governor.  It  con- 
solidated under  him  the  Adjutant-General,  Quartermaster-Gen- 
eral, Commissary,  Ordnance  and  Pay  Departments. 

The  double  sets  of  Nos.  1,  2,  3,  4,  etc..  State  Troops,  and  1, 
2,  3,. 4,  etc.,Volunteers  created  some  confusion,  especially  at  Rich- 
mond, where  they  were  unable  to  keep  up  the  distinction.  This 
led  to  an  understanding  between  the  two  offices  that  the  State 
Troops  should  retain  the  nun^bers  1  to  10,  and  the  First  Volun- 
teers to  be  numbered  Eleventh  Regiment  North  Carolina  Troops 
(First  Volunteers),  etc.  This  caused  some  little  dissatisfaction 
at  first  among  the  volunteers,  but  it  soon  passed  away.  There 
was  some  irregularity  about  the  election  of  field  officers  of  the 
Ninth  Volunteers,  and  the  Governor  withheld  the  commissions. 
Into  this  vacant  number  was  placed  Spruill's  Regiment,  the 
Nineteenth  North  Carolina  Troops,  Second  Cavalry. 

The  next  regiment  organized  was  the  Twenty-fifth  at  Ashe- 
viile  on  the  15th  of  August,  the  Twenty-sixth  at  Raleigh  on  the 
27th  of  the  same  mopth,  and  the  Twenty-seventh  soon  followed. 
Most  of  the  companies  of  this  regiment  were  intended  originally 
for  the  Ninth  Volunteers.  The  Twenty-eighth  Regiment  was 
organized  at  High  Point,  September  21st.  We  are  now  in  Sep- 
tember, 1861,  with  twenty-eight  regiments  organized  and  twelve 
or  thirteen  more  in  sight  at  the  Adjutant-General's  office,  and  as 
yet  neither  the  Convention  nor  Legislature  had  made  any  pro- 
vision for  clothing  the  troops;  and  if  it  was  expected  that  the 
Confederate  Government  would  furnish  clothing,  it  was  getting 
very  plain  that  the  troops  would  suffer  before  the  winter  was 
over.  In  this  state  of  affairs  the  Legislature  directed  General 
Martin,  late  in  the  month  of  September,  to  provide  winter  cloth- 

6  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

ing,  shoes,  etc.,  for  the  North  Carolina  Troops.  The  time  was 
very  short,  and  it  was  no  small  task,  and  he  went  about  it  with 
his  usual  energy.  He  organized  a  clothing  manufactory  in  Ral- 
eigh, under  Captain  Garrett,  an  efficient  officer  in  that  line  of 
business ;  every  mill  in  the  State  was  made  to  furnish  every 
yard  of  cloth  possible,  and,  in  addition,  Captain  A.  Myers 
was  sent  through  North  Carolina,  South  Carolina,  and  as  far  as 
Savannah,  Ga.,  purchasing  everything  that  could  be  made  avail- 
able for  clothing  the  troops.  In  addition  to  what  the  State  fur- 
nished on  such  short  notice  the  ladies  of  North  Carolina,  God  bless 
them,  nobly  came  to  the  assistance  and  furnished  blankets,  quilts, 
etc.  Many  carpets  were  torn  up,  lined  with  cotton,  and  rqade 
into  quilts;  by  the  combined  efforts  of  the  ladies  and  State 
officers  the  troops  of  North  Carolina  were  clothed  during  the 
first  winter  of  the  war,  if  not  exactly  according  to  military  regu- 
lation, in  such  a  manner  as  to  prevent  much  suffering;  and  after 
this  winter  the  State  was  in  better  condition  to  supply  the  wants 
of  her  troops.  Mention  will  be  made  of  this  subject  hereafter, 
when  we  come  to  the  fall  of  1862. 

We  will  now  take  up  the  organization  of  the  troops.  Next 
comes  the  Twenty-ninth  at  Asheville,  September  24th;  the  Thir- 
tieth, October  7th,  at  Weldon;  the  Thirty-first  soon  followed  at 
Haleigh,  and  before  it  was  well  armed  was  sent  to  Roanoke 
Island.  From  a  combination  of  circumstances,  which  could  not 
be  overcome  at  the  time,  this  regiment  was  the  worst  armed  that 
the  State  sent  to  the  front.  The  State  did  not  have  the  arms  to 
furnish,  and  the  Confederate  States  declined  to  furnish  any  more 
arms  to  twelve-months  volunteers.  Great  trouble  was  experi- 
enced in  furnishing  arms  from  this  time  till  late  in  the  spring  of 
1862.  The  Thirty-second  was  organized  with  six  companies  of 
North  Carolina  infantry,  that  went  to  Norfolk,  Va.,  without  the 
formality  of  going  through  the  State  offices.  Additional  com- 
panies were  added  by  the  State  to  make  up  the  regiment.  The 
Thirty-third  was  composed  of  companies  enlisted  for  the  war. 
Some  of  them  were  intended  for  the  first  ten  regiments  of  State 
Troops,  and  being  slow  in  recruiting,  were  left  out;  but  enough 

Organization  op  Troops.  7 

were  added  to  make  a  full  regiment.  The  Goveruor  appointed 
the  field  officers  for  this  regiment.  When  armed  and  equipped 
it  was  ordered  to  Newbern.  The  Thirty-fourth  was  organized, 
as  far  as  my  memory  serves,  at  High  Point,  October  26th,  and 
when  ready  for  service  was  sent  to  Virginia.  The  Thirty-fifth 
was  organized  near  Raleigh,  November  8th,  and  in  January  was 
sent  to  New  Bern.  The  Thirty-sixth  was  made  up  of  artillery 
companies.  Serving  in  the  forts  below  Wilmington,  they  were 
all  in  service  several  months  before  being  organized  into  a  regi- 
ment. The  Thirty-seventh  was  organized  at  High  Point,  No- 
vember 20th.  When  the  officers  recruiting  companies  for  this  regi- 
ment tendered  them  to  the  State  they  were  told  that  arms  could 
not  be  furnished  by  the  State.  They  then  proposed  to  come  to 
camp  with  their  private  rifles,  and,  if  necessary,  go  to  the  field  with 
them.  They  brought  them  tp  camp.  When  they  were  supplied 
with  better  arms  I  am  unable  to  state.  The  Thirty-eighth  was 
organized  at  Raleigh,  January  17,  1862.  When  ready  it  was 
sent  to  Virginia. 

The  Thirty-ninth  was  organized  at  Asheville,  and  when  armed 
and  equipped  went  across  the  mountains  to  Tennessee  (Decem- 
ber 1,  1863).  The  Fortieth  was  heavy  artillery,  and  thecompa-, 
nies  forming  this  regiment  were  on  duty  in  the  forts  below  Wil- 
mington several  months  before  its  organization  as  a  regiment 
(September,  1862).  The  Forty-first  was  a  cavalry  regiment,  and 
the  companies  put  in  this  regiment  were  also  on  duty  many 
months  before  a  regimental  organization.  This  was  the  last  of 
the  twelve-months  volunteers.  The  dates  given  in  Moore's 
"  Roster  "  of  the  commissions  of  the  field  officers  of  the  Thirty- 
ninth,  Fortieth  and  Forty-first  are  not  correct.  These  regiments 
were  organized  soon  after  the  Thirty-eighth,  which  is  given  cor- 
rectly, and  before  the  Forty-second,  which  took  place  April  22, 
1862.  The  State  had  in  January,  1862,  forty-one  regiments 
armed  and  equipped  and  transferred  to  the  Confederate  States 
Army;  twelve  of  these  for  the  war,  one  for  six  months,  twen- 
ty-eight for  twelve  months,  and,  in  addition,  several  battalions 
and  independent  companies.     The  above  is  what  was  accom- 

8  North  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

plished  between  the  passage  of  the  ordinance  of  secession  and 
the  middle  of  January,  1862.  The  Forty-second,  although 
mentioned  above,  belongs  to  the  troops  raised  in  the  spring  of 
1862,  and  will  be  mentioned  hereafter  with  them. 

The  foregoing  narrative  is  well  known  to  all  those  who  have 
kept  up  with  the  military  history  of  the  State.  We  will  now 
take  up  matters  not  so  well  known — official  business  between 
the  Executive  office  and  the  Adjutant-General's  office;  also  mat- 
ters relating  to  the  defense;  all  of  which  are  so  blended  to- 
gether that  the  history  of  the  one  cannot  be  given  without  the 
other.  This  is  more  particularly  the  case,  as  the  Adjutant-General 
of  North  CaroHua  was  for  several  months  in  command  of  the 
defenses  of  the  State,  while  Adjutant-General  also. 

The  State  was  invaded  by  a  large  military  force  under  Gen- 
eral Buruside,  who  captured  Roanoke  Island  on  the  8th  of  Feb- 
ruary, 1862.  It  was  very  plain  to  military  men  that  the  object 
of  the  Buruside  expedition  was  the  capture  of  New  Bern,  Golds- 
boro  and  Raleigh,  which  it  was  expected  to  do,  while  McClel- 
lan's  army  was  to  do  the  same  at  Richmond,  Va.  Both  armies 
expected  to  move  at  the  same  time.  The  Adjutant-General  of 
North  Carolina  was  very  much  concerned  about  the  safety  of 
New  Bern,  N.  C.  He  sent  an  officer  of  his  staff  to  look  at  the 
forts  and  find  out  the  number  of  troops  available  for  the  defense. 
That  officer  was  shown  the  defenses  by  Major  Robert  F.  Hoke, 
then  of  the  Thirty-third,  serving  at  New  Bern,  afterwards  Major- 
General.  After  inspecting  the  forts,  etc..  Major  Hoke  remarked 
that  unless  greater  energy  was  displayed  in  the  near  future  than 
in.  the  past  the  place  could  not  be  successfully  defended,  all  of 
which  was  plainly  to  be  seen.  This  state  of  affairs  was  reported 
to  the  Adjutant-General.  He  in  turn  reported  the  matter  to  the 
Governor.  The  Legislature,  at  the  fall  session  of  1861,  directed 
the  Adjutant-General  to  reorganize  the  militia  of  the  State,  and 
appointed  him  Major-General  of  the  same  when  called  into  ser- 
vice. General  Martin  believed  that  the  Legislature  expected 
something  more  than  a  paper  organization  of  the  militia,  and  he 
requested  the  Governor  to  call  out  ten  thousand  State  militia  to 

Organization  of  Troops.  9 

help  defend  New  Bern.  This  the  Governor  declined  to  do,  on  the 
ground  that  he  expected  the  Confederate  Government  to  defend 
the  place.  Whether  he  wrote  to  the  Government  or  not  for 
re-inforcements  cannot  be  stated  positively,  but  the  impression  in 
the  Adjutant-General's  office  was  that  he  did.  No  re-inforce- 
ments were  sent,  and  on  the  14th  of  March,  1862,  New  Bern  fell 
into  the  hands  of  Burnside.  On  the  following  day  General 
Martin  went  to  Kinston  to  confer  with  General  Branch,  to  find 
out  the  actual  condition  of  his  army,  and  see  if  the  State  could 
render  any  assistance.  That  day  the  writer  went  to  the  Govern- 
or's office,  the  Adjutant-General  doing  this  daily,  to  receive  the 
Governor's  orders,  if  any.  While  there  the  defenseless  condition 
of  the  State  was  discussed  by  ex-Governor  Bragg,  who  was  pres- 
ent, and  at  this  time  aide  to  Governor  Claris.  Governor  Bragg 
was  in  favor  of  calling  out  the  militia,  and  somewhat  urged  the 
Governor  to  do  so.  This  Governor  Clark  declined  to  do,  but 
authorized  the  Adjutant-General's  office  to  write  to  the  militia 
captains  of  the  State  "to  have  one-third  of  their  command  in 
readiness."  This  order  was  somewhat  changed  in  the  Adjutant- 
General's  office — made  more  effective.  The  captains  were  ordered 
to  detail  (draft  was  probably  the  word  used)  one-third  of  their 
men;  the  men  so  drafted,  or  any  others,  were  given  permission  to 
volunteer  for  the  war.  This  order  struck  a  wave  of  patriotism 
that  was  floating  over  the  State  from  east  to  west,  which  was 
almost  dormant  for  some  months  on  account  of  the  Government 
refusing  to  furnish  arms  to  twelve-months  volunteers.  Promi- 
nent men  in  every  county  of  the  State  vied  with  each  other  in 
raising  troops,  and  many  of  those  not  actually  going  to  the  field 
were  as  busy  helping  as  those  going.  Instead  of  getting  one- 
third,  the  writer  believes  that  fully  two-thirds  of  those  liable  to 
service  volunteered  under  this  call.  In  all,  twenty-eight  regiments 
and  several  battalions  promptly  volunteered.  The  Adjutant- 
General's  office  was  daily  crowded  by  men  offering  companies 
for  service.  The  Eleventh  Eegiment  (Bethel)  was  reorganized 
at  High  Point,  April  18th;  the  Forty-second  at  Salisbury,  April 
22d,  and  at  Camp  Mangum,  near  Raleigh,  were  organized  the 

10  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Forty-third,  Forty-fourth,  Forty-fifth,  Forty-sixth,  Forty-sev- 
enth, Forty-eighth,  Forty-ninth,  Fiftieth,  Fifty-second,  Fifty- 
third,  Fifty-fourth  and  Fifty-fifth,  all  between  the  21st  of  April 
and  19th  of  May.  The  Fifty-first  was  recruited  in  the  Cape  Fear 
district  and  organized  at  Wilmington.  The  State  had  now  in 
a  very  short  time  fifteen  splendid  regiments  organized  and  ready 
for  service,  except  the  arms,  which  will  be  mentioned  later.  All 
the  military  departments  of  the  State  were  taxed  to  the  utmost  to 
clothe,  feed  and  equip  this  large  number  of  troops  who  so  promptly 
came  to  the  defense  of  the  State,  In  addition  to  those  mentioned 
above  twelve  or  thirteen  more  regiments  were  in  sight  at  the 
Adjutant-General's  office,  to  be  taken  care  of  when  fully  recruited. 
On  or  about  the  15th  day  of  May,  1862,  General  Martin  was 
surprised  by  receiving  a  letter  from  General  R.  E.  Lee  and  a 
Brigadier-General's  commission  in  the  Confederate  States  Army, 
and  informing  him  that  he  was  expected  to  take  command  at 
Kinston  on  or  about  the  first  of  June,  relieving  General  Rob- 
ert Ransom.  This  commission  at  first  General  Martin  declined, 
and  wrote  General  Lee  that  he  had  a  commission  from  the  State 
of  North  Carolina,  and  as  the  troops  to  be  commanded  would 
be  from  the  State,  he  would  prefer  to  serve  with  the  commission 
he  had.  To  this  General  Lee  replied  that  the  Government  did 
not  wish  to  call  him  out  under  his  State  commission,  and  that 
every  available  man  in  North  Carolina  was  to  be  moved  to 
Virginia  except  four  regiments,  which  he  was  to  take  from  camp 
at  Raleigh  to  Kinston,  and  that  "he  was  expected  to  take  com- 
mand during  the  emergency."  These  were  the  words  used  by 
the  great  chieftain.  Under  the  circumstances  he  accepted,  though 
not  a  very  agreeable  position  to  be  in,  the  command  of  a  large  State, 
with  only  four  or  five  available  regiments,  and  an  enemy  esti- 
mated at  upwards  of  twenty  thousand  in  his  front.  On  or  about 
the  night  General  Martin  received  his  commission  as  Brio-adier- 
General  the  Governor  of  North  Carolina  received  a  communi- 
cation from  the  War  Department  of  the  Confederate  States  Army 
giving  him  in  full  the  plan  of  the  campaign  to  crush  McClellan's 
army,  and  asking  his  co-operation  with  the  North  Carolina  Troops 

Organization  of  Troops.  11 

in  camp  not  yet  turned  over  to  the  Confederate  States.  This  was 
to  reconcile  him  to  the  moving  of  all  the  troops  then  in  the 
State  to  Virginia.  The  statement  above,  that  the  War  Depart- 
ment would  communicate  the  plans  of  one  of  the  most  famous 
battles  of  the  world  more  than  a  month  before  a  shot  was  fired 
might,  without  explanation,  seem  incredulous.  The  State  of 
North  Carolina  had  at  this  time  fifteen  regiments,  each  near  a 
thousand  strong,  not  yet  turned  over  to  the  Confederate  States. 
These  troops  were  raised  on  the  Governor's  call  for  the  defense 
of  the  State,  as  shown  in  this  narrative,  and  he  could  have  kept 
them  for  that  service  if  so  disposed.  This  was  the  only  body 
of  reserve  troops  in  the  Confederacy,  at  least  no  other  State  had 
anything  approximating  it,  and  it  was  very  important  for  Gen- 
eral Lee  to  receive  this  re-inforcement,  hence  everything  was  made 
fully  known  to  the  Governor  of  North  Carolina.  In  brief,  the 
plan,  as  told  me  by  my  chief,  was  to  concentrate  everything  that 
could  be  taken  out  of  North  Carolina  and  elsewhere  on  McClel- 
lan's  army  and  crush  it  before  Burnside  could  move  from  New 
Bern.  It  seemed  to  be  understood  that  the  1st  of  July  was  the 
time  fixed  for  the  movement  of  Burnside's  army ;  this  was 
given  by  the  Confederate  States  War  Department  from 
Richmond.  The  Governor  of  North  Carolina  was  informed 
that  the  defense  of  his  State  would  be  an  easy  problem  after  the 
defeat  of  McClellan's  army,  and  would  not  be  overlooked.  The 
Governor  and  Adjutant-General  of  North  Carolina  went  into 
the  plan  heart  and  soul,  and  did  everything  in  their  power  to 
make  it  a  success;  they,  and  they  alone,  knowing  what  the  Con- 
federate Government  and'General  Lee  expected  North  Carolina 
and  them  to  do. 

About  this  time  the  State  received  a  shipment  of  arms  from 
England,  landed  at  Wilmington,  exact  number  not  recollected 
now,  probably  two  thousand.  They  were  given,  to  the  troops 
now  waiting  for  them.  The  Confederate  Government  now 
came  to  the  assistance  of  the  State  in  arming  the  troops 
at  Camp  Mangum,  and  before  the  1st  of  June  every  one 
of  them  was  armed  and  ready  for  service.     The  troops  serving 

12  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

in  the  State  were  quietly  and  gradually  withdrawn  and  sent  to 
Virginia.  General  Holmes,  who  was  in  command,  moved  to 
Petersburg.  Branch's  Brigade  was  withdrawn  and  Daniel's 
Brigade  also;  the  latter  had  a  brigade,  though  not  yet  a  commis- 
sioned brigadier.  Ransom's  command  moved  on  the  2d  of  June 
to  Eichmond,  and  on  that  date  General  Martin  took  command 
at  Kinston.  His  brigade  consisted  of  the  Seventeenth,  Forty- 
fourth,  Forty-seventh  and  Fifty-second.  The  Fiftieth  was 
ordered  to  Plymouth  and  the  Fifty-first  was  still  at  Wilming- 
ton. This  left  six  regiments  of  infantry  in  the  State.  The  Sec- 
ond Cavalry  was  on  picket  duty  as  close  to  New  Bern  as  possible. 
The  three  artillery  regiments,  Tenth,  Thirty-sixth  and  Fortieth, 
were  on  duty  in  the  forts  below  Wilmington,  except  the  light 
batteries  of  the  Tenth,  which  were  in  Virginia ;  this  was  the 
force  in  the  State  on  the  2d  of  June,  1862.  The  Twenty-ninth 
and  Thirty-ninth  were  in  the  Army  of  Tennessee;  all  the  rest  in 
Virginia.  Everything-passed  off  quietly  for  two  or  three  weeks — 
a  calm  before  the  desperate  struggle.  When  the  struggle  com- 
menced at  Richmond,  General  Lee  was  fearful  that  Burnside 
would  find  out  the  defenseless  condition  of  North  Carolina,  and 
move  forward.  Every  night  he  telegraphed  to  General  Martin  at 
Kinston,  "Any  movements  of  the  enemy  in  your  front  to-day?" 
On  the  night  of  the  sixth  day's  fighting  at  Richmond  the  War  De- 
partment telegraphed  to  the  Governor  of  North  Carolina,  "Any 
troops  in  your  State  that  can  be  spared?"  The  reply  was,  "None 
but  Martin's  Brigade  at  Kinston;  you  can  move  it  if  wanted."  It 
was  ordered  to  Virginia  that  night  and  left  early  next  morning, 
but  the  seven  days'  fighting  was  over  before  it  got  there,  and  it 
was  ordered  to  camp  near  Drury's  Bluff.  The  State  had  now 
left  in  it  two  regiments  of  infantry,  the  Fiftieth  and  Fifty-first, 
the  last  ordered  from  Wilmington  to  Kinston.  One  cavalry  regi- 
ment and  three  artillery  regiments,  the  Twenty-ninth  and  Thir- 
ty-ninth, as  already  stated,  were  in  the  Army  of  Tennessee,  the 
other  forty-seven  regiments  in  Virginia — that  was  North  Caro- 
lina's contribution  to  the  spring  campaign  of  1862.  And  if  the 
defeat  of  McClellan's  army  was  not  as  complete  as  expected,  it 

Organization  of  Troops.  13 

certainly,  from  the  foregoing  showing,  was  not  the  fault  of  North 
Carolina  or  North  Carolinians.  From  the  Governor  down  to 
the  humblest  private,  all  nobly  did  their  duty.  The  Governor 
exposed  his  own  Capital  to  save  that  of  the  Confederacy  and  a 
sister  State;  only  one  regiment  of  infantry,  one  of  cavalry,  two 
or  three  batteries  of  artillery  between  him  and  an  army  estimated 
about  twenty  thousand  strong.  The  risk  taken  in  North  Caro- 
lina at  this  time  was  very  great.  After  the  battles  at  Richmond 
matters  remained  quiet  for  a  few  weeks,  both  in  Virginia  and 
North  Carolina,  and  the  i^djutant-General  of  the  latter  State, 
with  his  brigade,  was  camped  near  Drewry's  Bluff.  In  a  short 
time  the  enemy  commenced  raiding  in  North  Carolina,  and  the 
Governor  telegraphed  to  the  War  Department  to  send  General 
Martin  and  his  brigade  back  to  North  Carolina.  General  Lee 
ordered  General  Martin  to  take  command  of  North  Carolina, 
but  would  not  let  the  brigade  return.  On  showing  him  the  con- 
dition of  the  State,  he  allowed  one  regiment  to  return,  and  directed 
General  Martin  to  organize  more  troops  for  the  defense  of  the 
State.  General  Martin  returned  to  Raleigh,  assumed  his  duties 
as  Adjutant-General  of  the  State,  and  also  commanded  the  troops 
on  duty. 

We  will  now  glance  at  the  organization  of  more  regiments. 
The  Fifty-sixth  was  organized  at  Camp  Mangnm,  July  31st;  the 
Fifty-seventh,  if  memory  serves  right,  was  organized  at  Salis- 
bury ;  the  Fifty-eighth,  Sixtieth,  Sixty-second,  Sixty-fourth 
and  Sixty-fifth  were  organized  west  of  the  Blue  Ridge,  and  when 
armed  and  equipped  went  to  the  Army  of  Tennessee.  McDowell 
was  the  first  Colonel  of  the  Sixtieth,  not  Lieutenant- Colonel,  as 
put  down  in  Moore's  "  Roster."  The  Fifty-ninth  and  Sixty-third 
were  cavalry  regiments,  and  were  raised  and  organized  in  the 
East.  When  ready  for  service,  both  of  them  went  to  Virginia. 
The  Sixty-first  was  organized  at  Wilmington.  All  of  these  regi- 
ments volunteered  for  the  defense  of  the  State,  as  originally 
called  for  by  the  Governor  in  the  Adjutant-General's  order  of 
March  6th  or  7th;  also  the  Sixty-sixth  and  Thomas'  Legion. 
The  Sixty-sixth  was  formed  out  of  Nethercutt's  and  Wright's 

14  North  Carolina  Teoops,  1861-65. 

Battalions.  Some  of  the  companies  of  this  regiment  had  been  on 
duty  since  1861,  but  the  regiment  was  not  organized  till  1863. 
The  next  regiment  is  the  Sixty-seventh,  Whitford's.  Captain 
Whitford  had  a  company  in  the  Tenth  Regiment,  which  was 
raised  in  the  East,  and  was  probably  on  duty  at  New  Bern  when 
that  place  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  At  all  events,  when 
he  was  in  camp  at  Swift  Creek,  in  June,  1862,  he  kept  a  com- 
plete system  of  picket  duty  all  the  way  to  New  Bern,  and  some- 
times brought  communications  from  there.  These  services  were 
considered  so  valuable  that  his  company  was  detached  from  the 
Tenth  and  another  company  put  in  its  place,  and  he  was  authorized 
to  raise  additional  companies,  which  he  continued  to  do  till  he 
had  a  large  regiment.  It  was  principally  recruited  near  the 
enemy's  lines. 

Here  the  writer  will  branch  off  a  little  and  state  that  the  peo- 
ple of  the  East,  under  the  trying  circumstances  in  which  they 
were  placed,  were  loyal  to  the  State  and  Confederate  Govern- 
ments. Every  person  that  could  move  from  New  Bern  did  so 
when  it  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  The  young  men  and  old 
men  also  from  the  surrounding  country  flocked  to  the  nearest 
camps,  hence  the  raising  of  the  Sixty-seventh  Eegiment.  The 
Sixty-eighth  was  raised  in  the  extreme  eastern  counties  of  the  State 
under  the  same  circumstances  as  the  Sixty-seventh.  The  Sixty- 
eighth  was  not  transferred  to  the  Confederate  States,  but  remained 
in  the  State  service  till  the  end  of  the  war.  Moore's  "Roster" 
does  not  give  the  strength  of  this  regiment.  The  writer  was  on 
duty  in  it  for  a  short  time  in  ]  864.  It  might  safely  be  put  down 
at  one  thousand  then,  perhaps  more  before  the  surrender. 

It  was  well  known  that  there  were  many  prominent  men  in 
the  East  opposed  to  the  war.  The  so-called  Governor  Stanly, 
when  in  New  Bern,  tried  to  communicate  with  them,  and  proba- 
bly succeed  in  getting  letters  to  some  of  them.  He  also  made 
a  trip  up  the  Pamlico  to  see  some  of  the  prominent  men  there. 
This  was  reported  by  scouts  at  the  time.  He  did  see  one  or  more 
prominent  men  of  that  section,  but  he  got  no  aid  or  encourage- 
ment there.     He  was  plainly  told  that  there  was  no  Union  senti- 

Organization  of  Troops.  15 

ment  in  the  State,  and  it  is  more  than  probable  that  the  plain 
truths  told  him  at  there  interview  led  him  to  resign  and  leave  the 
State  soon  afterwards.  The  writer  found  out  accidentally  about 
this  interview  after  the  war  was  over. 

One  prominent  man  of  the  East  lost  his  life  trying  to  serve 
the  Confederacy  in  a  diplomatic  way.  I  allude  to  the  Hon. 
James  Bryan,  of  New  Bern.  In  June,  1862,  he  applied  to 
the  Commanding-General  for  permission  to  go  North  by 
flag  of  truce;  it  was  at  a  time  when  no  flags  were  permitted, 
consequently  Mr.  Bryan's  application  was  sent  to  the  War 
Department.  In  a  few  days  an  answer  was  returned  that 
President  Davis  wanted  to  see  Mr.  Bryan.  He  was  informed  of 
this,  and  promptly  went  to  Richmond.  He  was  requested  by 
President  Davis  to  go  to  Washington  and  sound  the  public  men 
there  upon  what  terms  they  would  be  willing  to  a  separa- 
tion. This  was  all  the  writer  learned  of  the  mission.  He  went 
to  Washington,  remained  there  some  time,  and  then  returned 
to  New  Bern,  which  place  he  was  not  permitted  to  leave,  and  died 
there  of  -yellow  fever.  This  is  a  case  of  which  nothing  was 
ever  known  in  the  State.  There  are  some  doubts  in  my  mind 
as  to  his  own  sons  knowing  of  the  mission  he  had  from  the 

We  will  now  get  back  to  the  Adjutant-General's  work  proper. 
The  next  regiment  is  the  Sixty-ninth;  this  was  originally  Thomas' 
Legion,  and  had  been  on  duty  since  1862.  Two  battalions 
belonged  to  this  organization ;  both  of  them  were  detached  in 
Virginia,  and  with  the  view  of  getting  more  efScient  service,  the 
legion  organization  was  discontinued  in  the  winter  of  1864  and 
the  regimental  adopted.  This  regiment  was  raised  in  the  West, 
and  remained  on  duty  there  till  the  end.  The  next  and  last 
regiment  of  the  line  is  what  Moore  puts  down  as  the  Seventy- 
fifth.  This  was  the  Seventh  Confederate  Cavalry,  and  was 
originally  recruited  by  orders  from  the  War  Department.  Two 
companies  of  this  regiment  were  from  Virginia,  two  from 
Georgia,  six  from  North  Carolina. 

The  f  ,d  officers  of  this  regiment  were  appointed  by  the 
War  Department.     At  the  request  of  General  Martin  the  Hon. 

16  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

E.  R.  Bridgers,  of  the  Confederate  Congress,  got  a  law  passed 
through  that  body  that  the  North  Carolina  Troops  in  the  Sev- 
enth Confederate  Cavalry  should  be  detached  with  the  view  of 
organizing  a  full  regiment  of  North  Carolina  Troops.  The  com- 
panies from  Virginia  and  Georgia  were  very  weak  in  men  and 
horses,  and  as  the  regiment  was  on  duty  in  North  Carolina  in 
the  summer  and  fall  of  1863,  it  was  recruited  so  as  to  make  it 
almost,  if  not  altogether,  a  North  Carolina  regiment.  Besides 
above,  through  the  Conscript  Bureau  of  the  Confederacy,  there 
was  organized  the  Seventieth,  Seventy-first  and  Seventy-sec- 
ond (Junior  Reserves),  who  were  nearly  twelve  months  in 
service,  and  the  Seventy-third  and  Seventy-fourth  (Senior  Re- 
serves), who  rendered  short  tours  of  service.  There  were  also  a 
number  of  battalions,  but  the  writer  is  not  able  to  give  much  of 
a  history  of  them.  They  seem  to  be  pretty  well  accounted  for  in 
Moore's  "Roster,"  except  Henry's  Battalion.  This  had  six  com- 
panies in  it,  and  was  probably  five  hundred  strong.  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Kennedy's  Battalion  was  composed  of  Georgians  and 
North  Carolinians,  as  Moore  states.  Kennedy  was  a.  native  of 
North  Carolina,  moved  to  Georgia,  raised  some  of  his  command 
in  the  State  of  his  adoption,  moved  with  them  to  North  Caro- 
lina and  raised  more.  These  irregularities  the  Adjutant-Gen- 
eral's office  tried  to  prevent,  but  sometimes  they  were  in  service 
before  anything  was  known  of  the  case.  Some  companies  went 
to  Virginia  without  reporting  to  the  Adjutant- General's  office. 
This,  if  memory  serves  right,  was  the  case  with  the  First  Bat- 
talion, and  perhaps  others. 

We  will  now  try  to  give  a  history  of  the  clothing  of  this 
large  army  the  State  put  in  service.  When  the  Legislature  in 
1861,  directed  General  Martin  to  furnish  clothing  for  the  North 
Carolina  Troops,  there  were  then  only  about  thirty  regiments  in 
service.  In  less  than  a  year  that  number  was  more  than  doubled 
and  it  became  very  plain  to  General  Martin  that  the  resources  of 
the  State  were  not  adequate  to  the  demands  of  the  army.  la 
August,  1862,  he  laid  the  matter  before  Governor  Clark  and 
asked  permission  to  buy  supplies  abroad  and  a  ship  to  transport 

■Okganization  of  Troops.  17 

them.  The  Governor's  term  of  service  being  near  an  end,  he 
declined  to  give  any  orders,  and  requested  the  matter  to  lie  over 
till  Governor  Vance  was  inaugurated.  Soon  after  Governor 
Vance's  inauguration  General  Martin  brought  the  matter  to  his 
attention.  The  Governor-  took  it  under  advisement  for  a  few 
days.  Soon  his  attention  was  called  to  the  subject  again,  and  he 
requested  General  Martin  to  come  to  the  Executive  ofBce  that 
night  and  meet  two  or  three  prominent  men,  when  the  matter 
would  be  discussed  on  both  sides.  The  Hon.  B.  F.  Moore 
was  the  leader  of  those  present.  He  took  the  ground  that  the 
Governor  and  Adjutant-General  had  no  authority  by  law  to  pur- 
chase a  ship,  and  that  they  would  both  be  liable  to  impeachment 
if  they  did  so.  General  Martin  took  the  ground  that  the  laws 
of  North  Carolina  made  it  his  duty  to  furnish  clothing  to  the 
troops,  and  voted  funds  to  do  this;  that  the  resources  of  the  State 
were  not  equal  to  the  demand ;  that  transport  ships  were  used  in 
all  modern  armies,  and  that  they  were  as  necessary  as  wagons, 
mules,  etc.,  of  which  the  law  made  no  mention.  The  Gov- 
ernor reserved  his  decision  that  night,  but  when  asked  for 
it  the  next  day  he  authorized  General  Martin  to  buy  the  ship 
and  clothing  for  the  troops,  and  signed  sufficient  bonds  for  this 
purpose,  which  were  afterwards  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  State 
agent  sent  abroad.  The  next  thing  for  the  Adjutant-General  to 
do  was  to  get  a  man  of  ability  and  responsibility  to  be  sent  as 
agent  to  England.  The  Governor  made  no  suggestions  on  this 
point.  On  the  recommendation  of  Major  Hogg,  Mr.  White,  of 
Warrenton,  was  selected  as  State  agent  to  go  abroad  to  purchase 
the  ship  and  supplies,  and  Colonel  Thomas  Crossan  was  sent  to 
command  the  ship,  and  well  did  they  perform  this  and  every  other 
duty  intrusted  to  them  by  tlie  State.  In  due  time  the  steamer 
"Lord  Clyde"  was  purchased,  afterwards  named  "Ad- Vance," 
and  arrived  safely  in  Wilmington  with  supplies  for  the  troops. 
Governor  Vance  got  a  great  deal  of  credit  for  this,  while  General 
Martin,  who  was  the  real  author  of  it,  got  practically  none.  From 
this  time  forward  it  is  certain  that  the  North  Carolina  Troops 
were  better  clothed  than  those  of  any  other  State.  In  March, 

18  North  Caeolina  Teoops,  1861-65. 

1863,  the  Legislature  declared  the  office  of  Adjutant-General 
vacant  for  the  reason  that  General  Martin  had  accepted  a  commis- 
sion from  the  Confederate  States.  He  never  drew  any  salary 
from  the  government  for  the  services  he  rendered  while  Adju- 
tant-General of  North  Carolina.  After  this  he  resumed  com- 
mand of  a  brigade,  and  the  duties  of  the  office  were  next  per- 
formed by  General  D.  G.  Fowle  for  a  few  months.  The  troops 
of  the  State  were  practically  organized  before  General  Martin 
left  the  office.  The  only  regiments  that  were  raised  afterwards 
were  the  Sixty-seventh  and  Sixty-eighth,  and  perhaps  two  or 
three  battalions  besides  the  Junior  and  Senior  Reserves. 

In  March,  1863,  the  writer's  connection  with  the  Adjutant- 
General's  office  ceased,  and  he  is  not  able  to  give  any  detailed 
history  of  what  took  place  afterwards.  Major  Graham,  who 
was  assistant  to  General  Gatlin,  can  su|)ply  this  part  of  the  nar- 
rative. There  is  nothing  said  here  of  the  troops  who  took  the 
forts  on  the  coast  and  the  Fayetteville  Arsenal  early  in  1861. 
Major  Graham  Daves,  who  was  Private  Secretary  to  Governor 
Ellis,  could  furnish  this.  No  man  in  the  State  is  more  able  or 
better  qualified  to  do  it.  The  three  reports  would  give  as  com- 
plete a  history  as  can  be  secured  at  this  late  date. 

The  three  war  Governors  of  the  State,  Ellis,  Clark  and  Vance, 
are  dead.  The  four  war  Adjutant-Generals  are  also  dead,  Hoke, 
Martin,  Fowle  and  Gatlin,  and  with  them  a  great  deal  of  the 
war  history  of  the  State  is  lost,  but  the  secretaries  of  the  former 
and  assistants  of  the  latter  are  still  living,  and  enough  can  yet 
be  collected  to  make  a  I'espectable  showing.  Governor  Vance  is 
known  to  history  as  the  War  Governor  of  the  State.  The  rec- 
ords show  that  fifteen  regiments  were  organized  before  Governor 
Ellis'  death,  and  there  were  at  least  fifteen  more  in  active  state 
of  recruiting.  All  the  other  regiments  of  the  North  Carolina 
Troops  were  organized  during  Governor  Clark's  term,  with  the 
exception  of  the  Sixty-seventh  and  Sixty-eighth  and  some  two 
or  three  battalions — exclusive  of  Reserves  organized  under  the 
Conscript  Bureau. 

It  was  Governor  Vance  that  authorized  the  purchase  of  the 
supplies  from  abroad  and  a  ship  to  transport  them.     This  act 

Organization  of  Troops.  19 

endeared  him  to  the  people  of  the  State  more  than  any  other  act  of 
his  life,  perhaps  more  than  all  the  others  combined,  numerous 
and  creditable  as  they  were. 

Something  might  be  expected  here  as  to  the  probable  .number 
of  troops  sent  to  the  field.  The  writer,  stating  facts  as  known 
to  him,- does  not  like  to  go  into  the  realms  of  conjecture.  Major 
Moore  has  devoted  a  great  deal  of  time  and  attention  to  the 
matter  and,  although  his  work  is  unfortunately  not  complete,  it 
is  the  best  there  is.  He  furnishes  the  names  for  several  regi- 
ments that  had  from  fifteen  to  eighteen  hundred  men.  It  is 
almost  certain,  from  what  is  known  of  the  rest  of  the  regiments, 
that  if  a  correct  list  could  be  had  the  whole  line  of  seventy-three 
regiments  would  average  sixteen  hundred  each ;  the  battalions, 
eight  thousand,  total.  This  would  give  a  total  of  nearly  one 
hundred  and  twenty-five  thousand  men  actually  in  the  field  dur- 
ing the  war.  Add  to  this  the  Senior  Reserves,  etc.,  and  there  is  an 
aggregate  of  one  hundred  and  twenty-seven  thousand  men,  a  very 
moderate  estimate,  probably.  The  exact  number  will  never  be 
known  unless  an  effort  is  made  in  the  near  future  to  get  the 
names  of  those  missing  before  their  comrades  are  dead. 

A  few  words  in  regard  to  the  records  in  the  Adjutant-Gen- 
eral's office.  When  troops  were  mustered  into  service  the  origi- 
nal muster-rolls  were  deposited  in  the  Adjutant-General's  office. 
Soon  after  the  first  troops  were  transferred  to  the  Confederate 
States  the  Adjutant-General  requested  them  to  send  copies  of 
their  muster-rolls  to  Raleigh.  Several  of  the  commanding  offi- 
cers objected,  as  involving  too  much  clerical  work  in  time  of  war. 
The  matter  was  dropped  by  the  Adjutant-General,  as  he  had  no 
power  to  enforce  this  request.  He,  however,  requested  a  copy 
of  the  monthly  regimental  returns,  which  most  of  the  command- 
ing officers  sent. 

Here  it  may  be  proper  to  say  something  in  regard  to  the  cloth- 
ing furnished  by  the  State.  All  the  clothing  was  manufactured 
by  the  State  and  then  turned  over  to  the  Confederate  Quarter- 
master at  Raleigh,  his  receipts  taken  for  the  same  and  the  issues 
made  by  him.   So  hard  pressed  was  the  Confederacy  that  on  one 

20  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

or  two  occasions  during  the  writer's  service  in  Raleigh  it  had  to 
draw  on  this  depot  for  the  troops  of  other  States.  The  State 
presented  claims  to  the  Confederate  States  for  the  clothing  fur- 
nished, which  were  paid,  if  there  were  any  funds  on  hand  to  pay 

The  Convention  appointed  a  Board  of  Auditors  at  Raleigh  to 
audit  the  war  accounts  of  the  State.  The  board  consisted  of  the 
Hons.  B.  F.  Moore,  P.  H.  Winston  and  S.  F.  Phillips,  who 
audited  all  the  accounts  of  the  diiferent  war  bureaus  of  the  State. 
During  General  Martin's  term  of  office  they  never  found  a  mis- 
take in  a  single  voucher  or  disbursement,  as  everything  was 
strictly  according  to  law,  something  extraordinary  in  time  of  war. 
This  they  were  at  all  times  ready  to  admit,  although  not  very 
ardent  admirers  of  the  military  policy  of  the  State. 

It  is  conceded  by  all  that  the  State  of  North  Carolina  put 
more  troops  in  the  field  during  the  war  than  any  other  Southern 
State.  We  can  go  further,  and  claim  that  these  troops  were  bet- 
ter armed  and  equipped  before  leaving  the  State,  and  certainly 
better  clothed  during  the  entire  war,  than  those  of  any  other 
State.  The  State  of  North  Carolina  was  the  only  one  thait  fur- 
nished clothing  for  its  troops  during  the  entire  war.  It  was  the 
only  State  that  engaged  in  direct  trade  with  England,  purchas- 
ing its  supplies  and  transporting  them  with  its  own  ship.  In 
this  respect  it  was  not  only  ahead  of  its  sister  States,  but  also  of 
the  Quartermaster's  Department  Confederate  States  Army,  for 
that  department  never  owned  a  transport  ship  during  the  whole 
of  its  four  years'  existence,  although  its  credit  abroad  was  ample 
for  years.  It  is  probably  true  that  it  got  some  supplies  through 
the  blockade,  by  the  "  Sumter  "  and  other  vessels,  before  they  were 
turned  into  armed  cruisers,  but  it  is  here  asserted,  without  fear 
of  successful  contradiction,  that  the  Quartermaster's  Department 
Confederate  States  Army  never  owned  or  purchased  a  transport 
ship  during  the  war.  And,  as  a  matter  of  history,  it  was  in  the 
fall  of  1863  before  any  regulations  were  adopted  by  the  Con- 
federate States  in  regard  to  getting  supplies  by  blockade-runners. 
An  order  was  issued  then  requiring  all  vessels  to  take  out  and  in 

Organization  of  Troops.  21 

one-third  of  their  cargoes  for  the  Confederate  States.  This  was 
one  year  after  North  Carolina  was  running  the  blockade  in  full 
blast  with  its  own  steamer.  That  ought  to  be  sufficient  proof  of 
our  claims. 

Now,  if  our  claims  are  correct  that  the  State  furnished  more 
troops,  and  that  they  were  better  equipped  and  clothed  than  those 
of  our  sister  States,  there  must  be  some  reason  for  this.  All  of 
these  things  could  not  happen  by  accident.  In  the  opinion  of 
the  writer  there  were  three  reasons : 

1st.  When  the  Legislature  elected  General  Martin  Adjutant- 
General  of  the  State  it  conferred  ample  power  on  him  and  voted 
him  sufficient  money.  He  had  power  and  money  combined, 
both  very  essential  in  war. 

2d.  General  Martin  brought  to  the  discharge  of  this  office  a 
great  deal  of  energy  and  mature  judgment,  which  a  long  expe- 
rience in  the  line  and  staff  of  the  United  States  Army  gave  him, 
and  he  went  into  it  heart  and  soul,  expecting  to  win,  and  so  well 
did  he  lay  the  foundations  of  the  business  at  Raleigh  that  none 
of  his  successors,  so  far  as  known,  made  the  slightest  change  in 
the  methods  adopted  by  him. 

Third  and  last  reason.  The  intense  loyalty  of  the  people  of 
the  State  made  the  matter  much  easier  for  the  success  of  the 
cause  desired.  There  was  no  staying  inside  the  enemy's  lines  in 
North  Carolina.  These  were  the  causes  of  North  Carolina's 
superior  military  establishment. 

Mention  has  been  made  here  of  the  loyalty  of  the  people  of 
the  East;  it  would  not  be  just  to  the  West  if  omitted.  The 
great  majority  of  the  people  of  the  West  were  equally  as  loyal 
and  true  as  their  brethren  of  the  East.  No  taint  of  disloyalty 
was  attached  to  any  prominent  man  in  the  West:  this  the  writer 
knows  well,  as  he  was  on  service  there  the  last  eight  months  of 
the  war.  It  is,  however,  true  that  there  was  a  streak  of  disloy- 
alty in  a  few  of  the  counties  bordering  on  East  Tennessee.  This 
was  not  occasioned  so  much  by  Unionism  as  a  dislike  to  be  con- 
scripted into  the  army.  Several  men  from  that  section  went  across 
the  lines  to  Tennessee  and  joined  the  notorious  Kirk's  command. 

22  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Three  or  four  companies  of  North  Carolinians  were  in  that  com- 
mand, which  gave  a  great  deal  of  trouble  during  the  last  months 
of  the  war,  and  in  one  of  these  raids  killed  the  Hon.  W.  W. 
Avery,  of  Burke,  while  he  was  at  the  head  of  a  band  of  citizens 
pursuing  the  raiders. 

The  War  Department,  at  the  suggestion  of  General  Martin, 
who  commanded  this  district  at  the  close  of  the  war,  suspended 
the  conscript  law,  and  there  were  no  more  runaways.  Major 
A.  C.  Avery  was  also  authorized  to  raise  a  regiment  for  local  ser- 
vice. Some  progress  was  made  in  recruiting  several  companies 
for  this  regiment,  but  the  Major  was  captured  during  Stoneman's 
raid.  The  regiment  was  never  organized,  and,  as  far  as  known, 
the  Major  did  not  get  his  colonel's  commission.  This  was  the 
last  effort  made  to  raise  troops  in  the  State  before  the  war  closed. 

The  writer  has  now  given  all  the  information  that  memory 
can  furnish  at  this  late  date;  but  one  secret  remains,  and  that  has 
been  sealed  in  his  breast  since  July,  1861,  and  here  it  is: 

On  the  day  after  the  battle  of  the  first  Manassas  Governor 
Clark  got  a  telegram  from  the  War  Department  informing  him 
that  there  was  not  powder  enough  in  the  Confederacy  for  another 
day's  fight,  and  requesting  him  to  put  nitre  agents  in  the  field. 
This  state  of  affairs  was  known  only  to  five  men  in  North  Caro- 
lina, Governor  Clark,  Colonel  Barringer  (his  aide).  General  Mar- 
tin, Mr.  Pulaski  Cowper,  the  Governor's  Secretary,  and  the  writer. 
Here,  as  elsewhere,  the  Adjutant-General's  office  of  North  Caro- 
lina promptly  came  to  the  rescue  and  appointed  several  nitre 
agents  throughout  the  State.  Their  names  cannot  be  given  at 
this  late  date  or  any  detailed  history  of  their  operations,  though 
they  were  considerable,  and  continued  until  the  end  of  the  war. 
It  was  at  the  request  of  the  Adjutant-General's  office  of  North 
Carolina  that  Colonel  Gorgas,  Chief  of  Ordnance  Confederate 
States  Army,  took  possession  of  the  Salisbury  Machine  Shop,  which 
was  turned  into  an  arsenal,  and  also  the  Cranberry  Iron  Works 
both  of  which  were  so  serviceable  to  the  Confederacy.  It  is  prob- 
able that  mistakes  were  made  of  omission  and  commission,  but  who 
could  have  guided  such  a  revolution  without  making  them?     If 


Quarter  Master  General. 

Okganization  of  Troops.  23 

we  consider  the  condition  of  the  State  and  the  Confederacy,  both 
entering  the  war  without  a  supply  of  arms  and  only  one  day's 
supply  of  powder,  as  stated  above,  it  is  a  wonder  to  those  who 
topk  an  active  part  in  the  war  that  so  much  was  accomplished 
with  such  slender  means  to  begin  with,  and  it  must  remain  a 
wonder  to  future  generations  also.  Such  was  the  condition  of 
affairs  at  Raleigh  in  the  spring  of  1862  that  spears  had  to  be 
manufactured  and  put  in  the  hands  of  several  of  the  new  regi- 
ments coming  to  Camp  Mangum.  No  guns  of  any  kind  or  pat- 
tern could  be  obtained.  No  doubt  some  of  these  spear-heads  are 
lying  around  Camp  Mangum  yet,  if  not  eaten  up  by  rust. 

I  have  now  complied  with  the  request  made  of  me,  and  regret 
very  much  that  this  history  is  so  meagre,  particularly  in  regard 
to  the  organization  of  the  troops,  but  I  have  not  a  scrap  of  mili- 
tary history  of  any  kind  except  Moore's  "  Roster,"  and  cannot  give 
anything  like  a  full  history.  It  is  the  best  I  can  do  from 

Following  this  will  be  given  a  history  of  the  operations  of  the 
Quartermaster,  Commissary,  Ordnance  and  Pay  Departments  of 
the  State. 


The  Quartermaster's  Department  of  the  State  of  North  Caro- 
lina at  the  commencement  of  the  war  was  under  the  direction  of 
Colonel  L.  O'B.  Branch,  Quartermaster-General,  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Samuel  J.  Person,  Majors  A.  M.  Lewis,  T.  B.  Venable, 
Wm.  S.  Ashe  and  John  W.  Cameron,  Captains  Abraham  My- 
ers Robert  Rankin  and  Moses  A.  Bledsoe. 

There  are  very  few  records  of  the  early  operations  of  the 
department  available  for  this  report;  in  fact,  it  seems  few.  have 
been  published.  This  is  probably  owing  to  Colonel  Branch's 
resignation   from   the  department   to    accept    command   of  the 

24  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Thirty-third  Regiment  North  Carolina  Troops  during  the  sum- 
mer of  1861;  but  that  it  was  ably  and  well  managed,  as  was  every- 
thing else  that  Colonel  Branch  and  the  officers  associated  with 
him  had  anything  to  do  with,  is  well  known  to  the  writer  ajid 
those  who  had  any  business  transactions  with  the  department. 
The  rapid  and  satisfactory  equipment  of  the  troops  hurriedly 
called  into  service  fully  attest  this.  Most  of  the  officers  of  the 
department  followed  the  example  of  their  chief  and  took  service 
in  other  positions. 

On  the  20th  of  September,  1861,  the  department  was  reorgan- 
ized according  to  the  law  passed  on  that  date,  and  General  James 
G.  Martin  was  elected  chief  of  all  the  war  departments  of  the 
State.  Major  John  Devereux  was  appointed  Chief  Quarter- 
master, which  position  he  kept  from  that  date  to  the  end  of  the 
war.  It  was  under  his  immediate  direction  and  supervision  that  the 
operations  of  the  department  were  so  ably  conducted  during  the 
rest  of  the  war.  He  was  assisted  by  Captain  Moses  A.  Bledsoe, 
in  charge  of  transportation  and  other  duties;  by  Captain  Abra- 
ham Myers,  in  purchasing  supplies,  and  Captain  I.  W.  Garrett, 
the  latter  in  charge  of  the  clothing  manufactured  by  the  State. 
After  Captain  Garrett's  resignation  Major  Dowd  was  put  in 
charge  of  that  business.  In  addition  to  the  above  there  were 
two  State  agents,  Captain  W.  H.  Oliver  in  the  eastern  and  Captain 
•James  Sloan  in  the  central  part  of  the  State.  The  names  of 
these  agents  do  not  appear  on  the  "  North  Carolina  Roster,"  as  they 
were  not  staff  officers,  but  both  of  them  performed  valuable 
services,  and  should  not  be  lost  sight  of  here.  By  the  law  of 
September  20th  the  Governor  was  required  to  furnish  clothing 
to  the  North  Carolina  Troops  in  the  field,  then  about  thirty 
thousand  men.  The  officers  of  the  department  and  the  resources 
of  the  State  were  taxed  to  the  utmost  to  accomplish  this  before 
severe  weather,  as  no  preparations  had  been  made  for  it  by  the 
State  and  no  law  on  the  subject  prior  to  September  20th,  probably 
supposing  that  the  Confederate  States  would  supply  the  troops 
after  they  were  transferred,  but  it  was  getting  plainer  every  day 
that  the  Government  was  not  able  to  do  it.     The  unpleasant 

Organization  op  Troops.  25 

truth  must  be  stated  that  the  Government  did  not  realize  what 
was  ahead  of  it,  and  lacked  energy  to  supply  the  troops  from 
the  beginning.  In  confirmation  of  this  statement  the  views 
of  the  Hon.  Judah  P.  Benjamin,  Secretary  of  War,  will  be 
given  under  the  head  of  Ordnance  Department.  Everything 
that  could  be  made  available  in  the  State  for  clothing  the  troops 
was  purchased,  and  the  factories  cheerfully  furnished  every  yard 
of  cloth  they  could.  Major  Devereux  and  his  assistants  were 
quite  busy  collecting  and  Captain  Garrett  equally  so  manufac- 
turing. As  fast  as  the  articles  were  received  every  effort  was 
made  by  all  the  officers  of  the  department  to  furnish  the  troops 
with  clothing  before  the  severe  weather  of  winter  set  in.  With 
the  large  and  valuable  help  given  by  the  ladies  of  the  State, 
who  furnished  blankets,  quilts  and  carpets  to  be  cut  up  into  the 
size  of  small  quilts  and  lined,  and  many  other  articles,  the  troops 
of  North  Carolina  were  clothed  during  the  first  winter  of  the 
war  in  such  manner  as  to  prevent  much  suffering. 

In  the  spring  and  early  summer  of  1862  the  department  was 
again  severely  tried  to  furnish  supplies  to  the  large  number  of 
troops  who  volunteered  for  the  defense,  of  the  State,  but  with 
good  management  and  energy  it  provided  for  them  all,  about 
twenty-five  new  regiments  and  several  battalions,  putting  at  that 
date  the  number  of  regiments  up  to  sixty-five.  In  the  fall  of 
1862  it  was  getting  plain  that  the  resources  of  the  State  were 
not  adequate  to  the  demands  of  such  a  large  army,  especially  as 
the  Confederate  Government  was  also  drawing  supplies  from  the 
State,  although  the  Quartermaster-General  of  the  Confederate 
States  Army  agreed  to  withdraw  his  agents  and  let  the  State 
purchase  everything  and  turn  over  to  the  Confederate  States 
what  was  not  needed  for  the  North  Carolina  Troops.  This 
agreement  was  not  kept.  It  is  probable  that  the  necessities  of 
the  Quartermaster's  Department  compelled  it  to  break  the  agree- 
ment— we  will  be  charitable  on  this  point. 

General  Martin,  in  his  report  to  the  Governor  in  November, 
1862,  says:  "Some  articles  are  very  difficult  to  be  obtained  at 
any  price',  especially  blankets  and  shoes.     In  regard  to  shoes. 

26  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

there  are  materials  enough  in  the  State  to  supply  all  that  are 
required  for  our  own  troops  and  citizens  at  reasonable  prices, 
provided  the  agents  of  the  Confederate  States  do  not  come  into 
competition  with  us  and  speculators  can  be  prevented  from  tak- 
ing them  out  of  the  State." 

Governor  Vance,  in  his  message  to  the  Legislature  in  Novem- 
ber, 1862,  says  in  regard  to  clothing:  "I  beg  to  call  your  atten- 
tion to  the  great  and  almost  insurmountable  difficulties  encoun- 
tered by  the  Quartermaster's  Department  in  providing  clothing, 
shoes  and  blankets  for  our  troops.  During  the  administration 
of  my  predecessor  an  arrangement  was  entered  into,  according 
to  a  resolution  of  the  General  Assembly,  with  the  Quartermas- 
ter's Department  Confederate  States  Army,  by  which  North 
Carolina  was  to  receive  commutation  for  clothing  her  troops,  and 
clothe  and  shoe  them  herself.  And  on  our  agreeing  to  sell  to 
the  Confederate  States  all  the  surplus  supplies  that  could  be  pro- 
cured in  the  State,  they  agreed  to  withdraw  their  agents  from 
our  markets  and  leave  the  State  the  whole  field  without  com- 
petition. This  would  have  enabled  the  State  to  clothe  and  shoe 
her  troops  comfortably,  and  it  could  have  furnished  to  the  Confed- 
erate States  all  that  was  to  be  had  anyhow  at  reasonable  rates; 
but  it  was  immediately  violated.  The  country  was  soon  and  is 
still  swarming  with  agents  of  the  Confederate  States,  stripping 
bare  our  markets  and  putting  enormous  prices  upon  our  agents. 
This  is  especially  the  case  in  regard  to  shoes  and  leather.  The 
consequence  has  been  our  troops  could  not  get  half  supplies  from 
home  and  nothing  at  all  from  the  Confederate  Government  be- 
cause of  our  agreement  to  furnish  them  ourselves." 

Notwithstanding  the  difficulties  encountered,  as  above  stated, 
the  operations  of  the  Quartermaster's  Department  for  the  twelve 
months  commencing  October  1,  1861,  and  ending  September  30, 
1862,  were  very  large  and,  all  things  considered,  very  satis- 

General  Martin,  in  his  report  to  the  Governor,  says  the  dis- 
bursements for  the  year  are  as  follows  (we  omit  cents): 

Organization  or  Troops.  27 

Clothing,            .... 


Camp  and  garrison  equipage, 


Mules,  wagons  and  harness, 




Horses  for  two  regiments  of  cavalry, 




Miscellaneous,  consisting  of  trans- 

portation, buildings,  hospital  ex- 

penses, etc.,         .... 


Pay  of  troops. 


Bounty,          ..... 



Showing  a  total  for  the  department  for  the  year  of  over  four 
and  a  half  million  dollars. 

We  will  now  copy  a  statement  of  the  issues  of  clothing,  camp 
and  garrison  equipage  issued  by  the  Quartermaster's  Depart- 
ment at  Raleigh,  N.  C,  to  North  Carolina  Troops  during  the 
fiscal  year  ending  September  30,  1862: 

"Hats  8,918,  caps  61,949,  coats  27,380,  jackets  48,093,  over- 
coats 22,598,  pants  85,779,  drawers  85,597,  shirts  110,723,  pairs 
socks  47,155,  blankets  28,185,  pairs  shoes  75,809,  pouches  927,. 
guard-caps  627,  knapsacks  33,471,  canteens  25,598,  canteen- 
straps  9,676,  haversacks  30,264,  camp  kettles  3,156,  mess  pans 
6,703,  spiders  597,  pots  and  ovens  1,227,  oven  lids  161,  hatchets 
784,  axes  1,919,  axe  handles  1,739,  picks  938,  pick  handles  933, 
tents  4,282,  officers'  tents  531,  hospital  tents  287,  tent  flies  452, 
pounds  nails  6,012,  spades  and  shovels  1,583,  drums  215,  fifes 
82,  flags  22,  flag-staffs  11,  pounds  castings  1,734,  pairs  boots  32, 
knapsacks  935,  tin  cups  340,  plates  220,  buckets  15,  yards  wool 
cloth,  11,810,  yards  cotton  cloth  2,178,  dozen  buttons  14,023, 
pounds  thread  89,  yards  carpeting  521,  frying-pans  25,  blank 
books  2,  bed  sacks  220,  stoves  3,  coffee-pots  21,  saws  5,  augers 
2  broom  1,  cap-covers  418,  oil-cloth  caps  45,  yards  oil-cloth  20, 

28  NoETH  Cakolina  Teoops,  1861-65. 

letters  6,000,  figures  4,000,  mattresses  9,  camp-stools  42,  buckets 
38,  bedsteads  112." 

All  of  these  articles  were  manufactured  in  the  State,  and  showed 
plainly  that  the  department  was  quite  busy  and  energetic.  It  is 
here  due  to  the  memory  of  three  able,  faithful  and  efficient  offi- 
cers, who  had  charge  of  the  business  under  their  chief,  to  state 
that  most  of  the  purchases  and  payments  for  these  supplies  were 
made  by  Major  John  Devereux,  the  articles  of  clothing  were 
manufactured  by  Captain  Garrett,  except  shoes,  which  were  made 
in  different  establishments  and  issued  to  the  troops  by  Major 

This  brings  us  down  to  the  operations  of  the  department  in 
getting  supplies  through  the  blockade.  To  General  Martin  be- 
longs the  credit  of  engaging  in  this  business.  He  tried  to  get 
Governor  Clark's  consent  to  it,  but  on  account  of  his  official 
term  expiring  soon  he  left  the  matter  to  his  successor.  Soon 
after  Governor  Vance's  inauguration  General  Martin  explained 
to  him  everything  about  the  supply  of  clothing,  etc.,  and  asked 
his  approval  of  the  scheme  to  purchase  a  ship  in  England  and 
get  supplies  from  there.  The  Governor  took  the  matter  under 
advisement.  His  attention  was  called  to  the  matter  again  a  few 
days  later.  On  that  occasion  he  asked  General  Martin  to  call 
at  the  Executive  office  that  night  and  he  would  call  in  two  or 
three  lawyers,  as  he  would  like  to  have  both  sides  of  the  question 
discussed.  The  meeting  that  night  was  quite  warm,  that  is, 
the  discussion  of  the  law  between  the  Hon.  B.  F.  Moore,  the 
spokesman  of  those  present,  on  one  side,  and  General  Martin  on 
the  other;  the  law  and  everything  connected  with  the  mili- 
tary supplies  being  discussed.  The  Hon.  B.  F.  Moore  took 
strong  grounds  against  the  State  entering  the  blockade  business, 
and  finally  told  Governor  Vance  and  General  Martin  that  if 
they  engaged  in  the  business  they  would  both  be  liable  to  im- 
peachment. General  Martin  took  the  ground  that  the  laws  of 
the  State  made  it  his  duty  to  supply  clothing  to  the  troops  in  the 
field;  that  a  large  sum  of  money  was  appropriated  for  the  pur- 

Organiza.I'ion  of  Troops.  29 

pose  without  any  restriction  as  to  where  purchases  were  to  be  made; 
that  the  supplies  of  the  State  were  not  adequate;  that  the  Con- 
federate States  were  paying  the  State  large  sums  of  money  for 
clothing;  that  the  Confederate  notes  could  be  turned  into  cot- 
ton and  with  cotton  bonds  buy  the  ship  and  clothing  without 
any  additional  expense  to  the  State,  the  cotton  bonds  and  cot- 
ton itself  used  simply  as  bills  of  exchange,  where  neither  the 
State  notes  nor  Confederate  currency  would  be  available.  As  to 
the  purchase  of  a  ship,  General  Martin  took  the  ground  that  he 
had  as  much  right  to  do  that  as  to  purchase  many  other  articles 
not  mentioned  in  the  law,  it  being  well  known  that  transport  ships 
are  a  part  of  the  equipment  of  all  modern  armies.  The  Governor 
reserved  his  decision  that  night,  but  next  morning,  when  called 
upon  for  it,  decided  to  support  General  Martin  in  his  effort  to 
sustain  the  army.  The  Governor  at  no  time  expressed  any 
opinion  of  the  law  until  his  final  approval  came,  although  he 
had  called  in  able  and  influentiallawyers  to  hear  their  opinions. 
The  facts  of  the  case  are  that  the  law  did  not  authorize  or  prohibit 
blockade-running.  The  manner  of  getting  the  clothing  was  left 
to  the  discretion  of  the  Quartermaster-General,  subject  to  the 
approval  of  the  Governor.  General  Martin  did  not  want  to 
violate  the  law — no  man  was  more  particular  in  that  respect — 
and  if  it  had  looked  like  a  violation  Governor  Vance  would 
not  have  approved  it.  This  was  the  only  law  on  which 
there  was  any  difference  of  opinion  during  the  war.  Governor 
Vance  approved  General  Martin's  construction  of  it,  the  Legis- 
lature approved  the  Governor's  action,  and  that  ended  the  legal 
question  raised.  Governor  Vance  received  a  great  deal  of  credit 
for  the  blockade-running,  but  it  is  safe  to  say  that  had  it  not 
been  for  the  energetic  manner  in  which  General  Martin  advo- 
cated this  measure  it  would  not  have  been  commenced,  although 
he  got  very  little  credit  for  it,  except  from  the  few  who  were 
aware  of  the  facts.  It  is  true  that  Governor  Vance  deserves 
credit  for  his  approval  of  the  liberal  construction  of  the  law 
which  authorized  it,  after  hearing  the  opinions  of  able  and  inilu- 
eutial  lawyers  against  it.     In  addition  to  their  opinions  there  was 

30  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

the  influence  of  an  able  and  unscrupulous  politician  at  Raleigh, 
who  at  this  time  tried  to  throw  every  obstacle  in  the  way  of  the 
success  of  the  Confederate  cause.  He  thought  he  could  control 
Vance,  as  he  had  been  influential  in  nominating  and  electing 
him.  Vance,  however,  sided  with  the  army.  This  was  the  first 
step  in  getting  away  from  that  influence. 

The  above  is  the  inside  history  of  what  took  place  before  the 
Governor's  approval  of  the  blockade  business.  After  the  Gov- 
ernor's approval  of  the  scheme,  General  Martin  appointed  Mr; 
John  White,  of  Warrenton,  N.  C,  State  agent  to  go  abroad,  and 
also  Colonel  Thomas  N.,  Crossan,  formerly  of  the  United  States 
Navy,  both  of  whom  were  to  act  together  for  the  purchase  of 
the  ship.  The  Governor  promptly  signed  the  bonds  for  the  pur- 
chase of  the  ship  and  supplies,  and  they  were  placed  with  Major 
John  Devereux,  who,  as  chief  disbursing  officer  of  the  Quarter- 
master's Department,  had  charge  of  the  matter  from  that  time 
forward.  In  due  time  they'  were  turned  over  to  Mr.  White, 
when  ready  to  go  abroad.  It  is  proper  here  to  state  that  Mr. 
White  and  Colonel  Crossan  purchased  a  first-rate  steamer,  the 
"Lord  Clyde,"  a  splendid  vessel  in  every  respect.  All  the  busi- 
ness intrusted  to  Mr.  White  and  Colonel  Crossan  was  ably  and 
satisfactorily  done ;  no  better  agents  could  have  been  selected. 
Colonel  Crossan  made  two  or  more  trips  in  charge  of  the  "Ad- 
Vance"  and  then  retired.  The  '"Ad-Vance"  made  seven  or  eight 
trips  to  Wilmington  and  took  in  a  large  amount  of  military 
supplies  for  the  North  Carolina  Troops  and  for  the  Confederacy 

The  writer  has  tried  to  get  the  exact  amount  of  army  supplies 
imported  by  the  State,  but  regrets  to  say  that  he  has  not  been 
able  to  do  so,  although  kindly  assisted  by  Mrs.  Hinsdale,  who 
placed  her  father's  papers  (Major  John  Devereux),  or  rather 
"what  was  left  of  them  not  captured  by  the  Yankees,"  at  his 
disposal.  The  papers  wanted  could  not  be  found.  The  fol- 
lowing report  from  Major  Devereux  to  the  Governor  is  pub- 
lished : 

Organization  of  Troops. 



Sum  raised  on  cotton  bonds 

Advanced  by  parties  in  England 

Disbursements  now  due  in  Wilmington 

Sum  raised  on  rosin  bonds 

Cash  balance 

Sterling — 

One-half  steamer  "Ad- Vance"  on  hand — original 
cost  £35,000,  less  10  per  cent,  tear  and  wear  __ 

One-fourth  interest  in  three  steamers  — ■ 

3,788,066  pounds  cotton  at  5d. 

Sale  of  4,080  bales  cotton  at  £50 
















The  report  says:  "Orders  have  been  sent  out  by  the  Governor 
for  scythe-blades,  railroad  findings  and  other  articles  not  charged 
in  the  above  account,  no  bill  of  them  having  been  received.  Mr. 
White's  salary  as  commissioner  has  not  yet  been  settled,  and  is 
not  charged.  Owing  to  the  difficulties  of  communication,  Colonel 
MacRae  has  not  settled  his  account  for  the  transaction  by  which 
rosin  bonds  were  issued.  It  is  believed  that  £6,000  would  be 
the  utmost  extent  of  any  further  charge  to  be  made.  There  is  a 
large  amount  of  goods,  consisting  of  cloth,  blankets,  shoes,  cot- 
ton and  wool  cards,  card  machines  and  factory  findings  now  on 
the  way  and  in  the  islands,  of  which  no  account  has  been  taken. 
The  goods  are  paid  for,  and,  when  received,  will  much  increase 
the  above  balance.  The  purchase  money  of  the  "Ad- Vance"  was 
partly  paid  in  bonds,  as  entered  above,  and  partly  in  cotton.  The 
cotton  is  added  to  the  stock  on  hand." 

Major  Devereux's  report  above  shows  plainly  that  the  fears 
of  the  Hon.  B.  F.  Moore  and  others  that  the  State  might 
sustain  loss  were  groundless.  The  cotton  paid  for  the  ship  and 
supplies  without  drawing  on  the  State  Treasury.  At  all  events, 
what  was  not  paid  at  the  date  of  the  above  report  was  paid  after- 

32  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Mr.  White's  report,  which  accompanied  the  Governor's  mes- 
sage in  May,  1864,  was  not  published,  and  cannot  be  given  here. 

The  writer  asked  Captain  William  H.  Oliver,  who  took  an 
"active  part  in  purchasing  supplies  for  the  blockade-running,  for 
a  statement.     He  says : 

"Early  in  1863  I  was  commissioned  by  Governor  Z.  B.  Vance 
an  agent  for  the  State  of  North  Carolina  to  purchase  cotton  for 
blockade-running  purposes.  The  instruction  which  I  received 
through  Major  John  Devereux,  Chief  Quartermaster  for  North 
Carolina,  was  to  buy  every  bale  of  cotton  that  I  could  purchase, 
and  to  pay  a  stipulated  price  of  twenty  cents  per  pounds.  I  went 
at  once  to  the  sections  nearest  the  Federal  lines,  so  as  to  get  all 
the  cotton  out  of  the  reach  of  the  Federal  troops  if  a  raid  should 
be  made  by  them. 

"  In  a  short  time  I  purchased  about  seven  thousand  bales  and 
paid  for  the  same  about  seven  hundred  thousand  dollars.  On 
account  of  the  scarcity  of  railroad  accommodation  it  was  a  tedious 
matter  to  get  the  cotton  moved. 

"Arrangements  had  been  made  to  ship  the  cotton  as  fast  as 
possible  by  running  it  through  the  blockade  at  Wilmington,  N.  C. 
A  large  portion  of  the  cotton  was  taken  to  Graham,  N.  C,  it  being 
unsafe  to  leave  it  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  State. 

"Mr.  John  White,  of  Warrenton,  N.  C,  was  appointed  agent 
for  the  sale  of  it  in  England.  Mr.  White  sailed  from  Charles- 
ton, S.  C.,on  the  steamer  "Leopard"  on  the  15th  day  of  Novem- 
ber, 1862.  A  number  of  cargoes  were  shipped  to  him,  and  from 
a  report  of  his  to  Governor  Vance  it  will  be  seen  that  he  pur- 
chased with  the  proceeds  of  cotton  and  North  Carolina  cotton 
bonds — 

"The  steamship  "Lord  Clyde,"  afterwards  known  as  the  "Ad- 
Vance,"  at  a  cost  of  £35,000— $175,000. 
150,115  yards  gray  cloth  6-4  wide. 
11,023     "         "         "      3-4     " 
28,582     "         "   flannel  6-4     " 
83,173     "         "         "     ^3-4     " 

Organization  op  Troops.  33 

2,978  yards  brown  canvas  padding. 
25,887  pairs  gray  blankets. 
37,692     "    woolen  socks. 
26,096     "    army  shoes. 
530     "    cavalry  boots. 

1,956  Angola  shirts. 

7,872  yards  gray  flannel  shirts. 

1,006  cloth  overcoats. 

1,002     "     jackets. 

1,010  pairs  cloth  trousers. 
Quantity  of  sole  and  harness  leather. 
20,000  pairs  army  shoes. 
10,000     "     gray  blankets. 

1,920     "     flannel  shirts. 

5,800  yards  army  cloth  6-4. 
10,000      "        "         " 

7,000  pairs  cotton  and  wool  cards. 

5  machines  for  making  cotton  cards,  with  wire 
sufficient  to  keep  them  running  twelve  months. 

"A  large  quantity  of  the  cotton  was  delivered  by  order  of  Gov- 
ernor Vance  to  Messrs.  John  Newland  &  Sons,  at  Saxapahaw 
Factory,  to  be  manufactured  into  cloth  and  yarn.  The  cloth 
was  delivered  to  the  Quartermaster  for  the  use  of  the  army  and 
the  yarn  was  exchanged  in  Virginia  for  leather,  which  was  made 
into  shoes.  The  card  machines  were  put  up  in  Mr.  William  H. 
Willard's  factory,  and  a  large  number  of  pairs  of  cards  were 
made  and  distributed  by  me  all  over  the  State. 

"At  the  close  of  the  war  about  two  hundred  bales  of  the  cotton 
were  at  Graham,  N.  C,  and  it  was  taken  by  Colonel  D.  Heaton 
of  the  United  States  Treasury  Department. 
"  Very  respectfully, 

"William  H.  Oliver." 

We  give  Captain  Oliver's  statemeut  with  the  full  knowledge 
and  understanding  that  it  is  by  no  means  complete.    It  embraces 
only  a  portion  of  the  articles  received. 

34  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

The  Governor,  in  his  message  to  the  Legislature  in  Novem- 
ber, 1863,  says:  "The  enterprise  of  running  th<  lockade  and 
importing  army  supplies  from  abroad  has  proven  a  most  com- 
plete success.  You  will  see  from  the  report  that  large  quantities 
of  clothing,  leather  and  shoes,  lubricating  oils,  factory  findings, 
sheet-iron  and  tin,  arms  and  ammunition,  medicines,  dye-stuifs, 
blankets,  cotton  bagging  and  rope,  spirits,  coffee,  etc.,  have  been 
safely  brought,  besides  considerable  freight  for  the  Confederacy. 
Two  thousand  and  ten  bales  of  cotton  have  been  sent  to  Liver- 
pool, the  proceeds  of  which  were  deposited  to  the  credit  of  the 
State,  less  the  amount  of  the  expenses  of  the  vessel.  With  what 
we  have  imported  and  the  purchases  in  our  home  markets  I  think 
I  can  safely  say  that  the  North  Carolina  Troops  will  be  com- 
fortably clothed  to  January,  1865." 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  Governor  mentions  several  articles  not 
in  Captain  Oliver's -statement,  such  as  "arms,  ammunition,  medi- 
cal supplies,"  etc.  In  fact,  neither  of  the  reports  are  complete, 
for  the  State  continued  to  bring  in  supplies  for  twelve  months 
after  the  date  of  the  Governor's  message. 

The  most  complete  and  trustworthy  report  we  have  on  the 
subject  is  Governor  Vance's  address  before  the  Association  of  the 
Maryland  Line,  delivered  in  Baltimore,  February  23,  1885.  He 
said  : 

"By  the  general  industry  and  thrift  of  our  people,  and  by  the 
use  of  a  number  of  blockade-running  steamers,  carrying  out  cot- 
ton and  bringing  in  supplies  from  Europe,  I  had  collected  and 
distributed  from  time  to  time,  as  near  as  can  be  gathered  from 
the  records  of  the  Quartermaster's  Department,  the  following 
stores:  Large  quantities  of  machinery  supplies,  60,000  pairs  of 
hand  cards,  10,000  grain  scythes,  200  barrels  bluestone  for  the 
wheat  growers,  leather  and  shoes  for  250,000  pairs,  50,000  blan- 
kets, gray-wooled  cloth  for  at  least  250,000  suits  of  uniforms, 
12,000  overcoats  (ready-made),  2,000  best  Enfield  rifles  (with 
100  rounds  of  fixed  ammunition),  100,000  pounds  of  bacon, 
600  sacks  of  coffee  for  hospital  use,  $50,000  worth  of  medicines 
at  gold  prices,  large  quantities  of  lubricating  oils,  besides  minor 

Organization  of  Troops.  35 

supplies  of  various  isinds  for  the  charitable  inatitutions  of  the 
State.  Not  only  was  the  supply  of  shoes,  blankets  and  clothing 
more  than  sufficient  for  the  supply  of  the  North  Carolina  Troops, 
but  large  quantities  were  turned  over  to  the  Confederate  Grov- 
ernment  for  the  troops  of  other  States.  In  the  winter  succeed- 
ing the  battle  of  Chicamauga  I  sent  to  General  Longstreet's 
Corps  14,000  suits  of  clothing  complete.  At  the  surrender  of 
General  Johnston  the  State  had  on  hand,  ready-made  and  in 
cloth,  92,000  suits  of  uniforms,  with  great  stores  of  blankets, 
leather,  etc.  To  make  good  the  warrants  on  which  these  pur- 
chases had  been  made  abroad  the  State  purchased  and  had  on 
hand  in  trust  for  the  holders  11,000  bales  of  cotton  and  100,000 
barrels  of  rosin.  The  cotton  was  partly  destroyed  before  the 
war  closed,  the  remainder,  amounting  to  several  thousand  bales, 
was  captured,  after  peace  was  declared,  by  certain  officers  of  the 
Federal  army." 

This  shows  that  the  operations  of  the  blockade-running  were  a 
complete  success,  and  fully  justified  the  judgment  and  expecta- 
tions of  Governor  Vance  and  General  Martin  when  they  engaged 
in  it. 

We  will  now  drop  the  blockade-running  and  look  at  the 
issues  to  the  troops.  General  Gatlin,  in  his  report  to  the  Gov- 
ernor, under  date  of  May,  1864,  says: 

"  quartermaster's    DEPART.MENT. 

"  This  department  has  furnished  clothing,  camp  and  garrison 
equipage,  pay,  bounty  and  transportation  for  the  troops  and 
paid  other  miscellaneous  accounts.  The  disbursements  for  the 
eighteen  months  ending  the  31st  of  March,  1864,  are  as  follows 
(we  omit  cents) : 

Clothing,  camp  and  garrison  equipage,  $  6,862,043 
Mules,  wagons  and  harness,           .         .  14,147 

Forage, 5,593    - 

Horses  for  two  regiments  of  cavalry  and 

artillery, '        147,801 

36  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Wood, $          6,655 

Miscellaneous, 204,143 

Pay  of  troops,          ....  432,071 

Bounty, 1,669,974 

Cotton, 2,150,998 

Advances  to  officers,             .         .         .  186,803 


"The  Confederate  States  have  paid  for  clothing  since  the  1st 
of  January,  r863,  the  sum  of  $6,008,373.38,  and  there  is  still 
due  for  clothing  turned  over  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  present 
year  $1,247,236." 

It  seems  from  General  Gatlin's  report  that  the  State  was  issu- 
ing clothing  to  the  army  at  the  rate  of  nearly  five  million  dollars 
a  year.  Notwithstanding  all  that  the  State  of  North  Carolina 
did  for  the  army,  it  is  well  known  to  those  who  were  in  the  army 
that  it  was  often  greatly  in  want  of  shoes  and  clothing,  and  it  is 
sad  to  contemplate  what  would  have  been  the  condition  of  the 
gallant  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  without  the  great  help  which 
North  Carolina  gave  it,  ia  which  most  of  her  troops  were.  It 
is  well  known  that  the  Army  of  the  West  was  still  harder  pressed 
for  supplies.  It  had  no  State  to  do  for  it  what  North  Carolina 
did  for  Lee's  army,  and  it  appears  from  Governor  Vance's  speech 
at  Baltimore  that  the  State  had  to  dispatch  "14,000  suits  of 
clothing  complete"  to  General  Longstreet's  Corps  of  that  army, 
after  the  battle  of  Chicamauga.  And  after  furnishing  its  own 
troops  and  other  Confederate  troops  when  necessary,  the  State 
had  on  hand  at  the  surrender  "92,000  suits  of  uniforms  and 
great  stores  of  blankets  and  leather."  The  reports  fully  show 
that  the  Quartermaster's  Department  of  the  State  of  North 
Carolina  was  ably  managed  from  the  beginning  to  the  end.  In 
this  respect  it  was  a  long  way  ahead  of  the  Confederacy,  which 
was  so  sorely  pressed  all  the  time. 

We  have  no  later  reports  of  what  was  done  the  last  year  of 
the  war,  but  as  the  State  of  North  Carolina  had  an  abundant 
supply  of  everything,  and  the  Confederacy  had  not,  it  is  reason- 
able to  suppose  the  issues  were  very  large. 

Organization  of  Troops.  37 


The  Subsistence  Department  of  the  State  of  North  Carolina 
at  the  comoaencement  of  the  war  was  under  the  direction  of 
Colonel  William  Johnston,  Major  D.  G.  Fowle,  Captains  Wm.  W. 
Morrison,  David  Schenck,  Augustus  S.  Merrimon  and  John 
Devereux.  Colonel  Johnston  was  a  man  of  energy,  with  broad 
views  and  enlarged  ideas.  One  of  the  first  things  he  did  after 
it  was  plain  that  the  war  was  coming  was  to  send  an  agent  to 
Louisville,  Ky.,  to  purchase  a  large  amount  of  supplies  at  that 
place,  which  he  had  hurriedly  shipped  to  Chattanooga  before  an 
embargo  was  placed  on  the  railroads.  By  so  doing  he  got  a  large 
lot  of  provisions  from  an  exposed  point  and  saved  the  resources 
of  the  State.  Had  this  example  been  taken  by  the  Confederate 
States  Commissary  the  supplies  of  the  Confederacy  would  not 
have  been  so  scant.  On  the  1st  of  September,  1861,  Colonel 
Johnston  resigned  to  take  charge  of  the  railroad  of  which  he  was 
president,  and  all  the  other  officers  of  the  department  accepted 
other  duties. 

After  the  reorganization  of  the  September,  1861, 
Major  T.  D.  Hogg  was  Chief  Commissary,  and  continued  in 
charge  to  the  end  of  the  war.  The  writer  tried  to  get  reports 
of  the  operations  of  the  department  from  the  officers  still  living, 
but  failed,  except  one  letter  from  Major  Hogg,  in  which  he  says  : 

"Judge  Clark  asked  me  to  write  out  the  Commissary  Depart- 
ment, and  I  told  him  I  did  not  know  there  was  anything  to  write. 
Also,  that  you  told  me  when  we  first  met  that  General  Martin, 
when  he  asked  for  anything  in  my  department,  would  expect  me 
to  have  it.  I  made  up  my  mind  that  if  .the. people  would  part 
with  their  commissary  stores  and  take  paper  money  for  payment 
General  Martin  should  have  what  he  called  for.  The  conse- 
quence was  that  my  supplies  grew  during  the  whole  war,  and  at 
the  close  of  it  I  was  feeding  about  half  of  Lee's  army.     Major, 

38  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Carringtou  would  come  to  me  begging,  and  I  told  him  to  get 
Yaoce's  order  and  he  should  have  anything  I  had." 

This  is  not  very  long,  but  it  is  a  very  important  historical  .fact 
that  near  the  end  of  the  war  the  North  Carolina  Commissary 
was, feeding  about  half  of  Lee's  army. 

General  Martin's  report  in  November,  1862,  says: 


The  disbursements  for  the  year  are,        .         $586,767 

Sales  to  Confederate  States,      .        |1 57,412 

Value  of  stores  on  hand,     .         .        24,395 


Actual  expenses  of  the  department,  $404,960 

General  Gatlin's  report  gives 

The  actual  expenses  of  the  department,        $1,080,958 
Sales  to  Confederate  States,     .       301,197 

Stores  on  hand,       .  .  .       410,070 


Actual  expenses  of  the  department,       .       $369,691 

This  is  the  last  published  report  in  May,  1864.  As  the  de- 
partment had  $410,070  in  supplies  on  hand  and  still  adding  from 
March  31,  1864,  till  the  end  of  the  war,  it  was  able  to  furnish 
considerable  to  Lee's  army. 

No  department  of  the  Confederate  States  Government  was  so 
severely  criticised  as  the  Commissary.  In  the  army  and  out  of 
it,  in  the  newspapers,  particularly  the  Richmond  Examiner, 
and  even  in  the  halls  of  Congress,  its  inefBciency  was  forcibly 
pointed  out.  The  soldiers  of  the  Confederacy  had  for  about  a  year 
only  one-third  of  a  pound  of  meat  ration  issued  to  them.  Many 
believed  it  was  due  to  want  of  energy  of  the  department.  Presi- 
dent Davis  finally  made  a  change,  but,  alas,  so  late  that  no 
human  being  could  overcome  the  disadvantages  which  surrounded 
the  Confederacy.  Therefore,  those  who  are  familiar  with  war 
events  will  not  be  in  the  least  surprised  to  learn  that  the  better 
managed  Commissary  of  North  Carolina  was,  before  the  end  of 
the  war,  "  feeding  about  half  of  Lee's  army." 

Organization  of  Troops.  39 


A  writer  in  the  Enoydopcedia  Britanica,  under  the  head  of 
North  Carolina,  says:  "At  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  between 
the  States  in  1861  North  Carolina,  strongly  averse  to  secession, 
sought  by  every  means  to  avert  the  conflict,  remaining  unmoved 
after  all  the  surrounding  States  had  seceded,  and  was  forced  into 
the  struggle  almost  last  of  the  Southern  States,  and  when  there 
remained  only  the  alternative  of  a  choice  of  sides.  Being  near 
the  seat  of  war,  and  yet  for  the  most  part  outside  of  it,  the  State 
contributed  more  largely  to  the  commissary  supplies  of  the  Con- 
federacy, and  also  sent  into  the  field  a  larger  number  of  troops 
and  lost  more  men  in  battle  than  any  other  Slate,  her  soldiers 
having  a  conspicuous  share  in  all  the  great  battles  from  Bull 
Run  to  Petersburg."  There  is  the  case  clearly,  correctly  and 
concisely  stated.  The  State  so  averse  to  war  had  to  choose  sides, 
and  when  President  Lincoln  called  for  troops  Governor  Ellis 
replied,  "I  can  be  no  party  to  this  wicked  violation  of  the  laws 
of  this  country,  and  especially  to  this  war  which  is  being  waged 
upon  a  free  and  independent  people."  Governor  Ellis  seeing 
plainly  the  dangers  that  threatened  the  State,  a  few  days  later 
ordered  the  capture  of  the  Fayetteville  Arsenal  and  the  forts  on 
the  coast.  With  the  heaven-born  inspiration  of  a  great  com- 
mander, he  did  not  delay  to  give  the  enemy  time  to  capture  or 
destroy  the  arsenal,  as  was  done  in  the  two  great  Southern  States 
of  Virginia  and  Missouri.  In  the  former  the  arsenal  at  Harper's 
Ferry  was  destroyed  by  United  States  soldiers  and  in  the  latter  it 
was  captured  and  the  guns  turned  against  the  brave  Missourians. 
For  the  following  list  of  arms  captured  at  Fayetteville  the  writer 
is  indebted  to  his  friend,  Mr.  Cowper,  who  obtained  the  informa- 
tion from  Colonel  Pemberton  and  Major  Hale : 

[From  the  Observer,  Thursday,  April  25,  1861.1 
"The  arsenal  was  surrendered  on  Monday,  April  22,  1861, 
at  3  P.  M. 

40  ISToETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

"The  arsenal  buildings  and  machinery  have  probably  cost  the 
United  States  more  than  a  quarter  million  dollars.  The  ma- 
chinery especially  is  very  perfect  for  the  manufacture  of  every 
implement  of  war.  There  are  four  brass  six-pounders  and  two 
brass  twelve-pound  howitzers,  forming  a  complete  "battery," 
in  military  phrase,  with  all  the  horse  trappings,  and  two  old 
make  iron  six-pounders,  thirty-seven  thousand  muskets  and  rifles, 
with  other  military  stores  and  a  large  quantity  of  powder.  Lieu- 
tenant John  A.  Pemberton  of  the  Fayetteville  Light  Infantry 
is  temporarily  in  charge  of  the  arsenal." 

We  beg  leave  to  branch  off  a  little  and  here  state  that  Colonel 
Pemberton  has  now  in  his  possession  the  first  cannon-ball  shot 
from  the  Federal  side  at  Bethel  on  North  Carolina  Troops,  which 
came  near  killing  General  D.  H.  Hill. 

The  capture  of  the  Fayetteville  Arsenal,  with  its  thirty-seven 
thousand  stand  of  arms,  placed  North  Carolina  in  the  front  rank 
of  Southern  States.  Ten  or  twelve  thousand  of  these  were  given 
to  the  State  of  Virginia,  not  quite  so  fortunate  as  North  Caro- 
lina, on  account  of  the  destruction  of  the  arsenal  at  Harper's 
Ferry,  already  mentioned.  These  arms  were  rapidly  placed  in 
the  hands  of  the  North  Carolina  Troops  as  fast  as  recruited,  and 
there  appeared  to  be  no  trouble  till  it  came  to  the  turn  of  the 
Thirty-first  North  Carolina  Troops.  This  regiment  was  organ- " 
ized  on  the  19th  of  September,  1861,  and  the  writer  well  recol- 
lects several  interviews  from  both  Colonel  Jordan  and  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Fowle  in  regard  to  arms  for  their  regiment.  The 
arms  of  the  State  were  already  issued,  and  the  Confederate  Gov- 
ernment refused  to  furnish  arms  to  twelve-months  volunteers. 
The  officers  of  the  Thirty-first  had  to  collect  arras  in  the  counties 
in  which  the  companies  were  raised ;  as  far  as  memory  serves 
principally  from  the  militia  the  old  arras  they  had.  In  this 
condition  the  regiment  was  sent  to  Roanoke  Island,  the  worst 
armed  up  to  this  date  turned  over  by  the  State.  But  it  was  the 
best  the  State  could  do.  From  that  time  till  the  spring  of  1862 
the  State  was  greatly  pressed  for  arms.     Some  old  arms  were 

Organization  op  Teoops.  41 

collected  from  the  militia,  altered  aad  repaired  and  made  service- 
able. General  Martin  made  contracts  with  several  establish- 
ments for  this  kind  of  work.  His  report  to  the  Governor  shows 
that  contracts  were  made  by  which  three  hundred  were  to  be 
altered  and  repaired  every  month.  The  Confederate  States  fur- 
nished arms  for  the  Thirty-third  North  Carolina  Troops,  as  that 
regiment  was  enlisted  for  the  war;  but  at  present  memory  can- 
not recall  any  other  arms  received  from  the  Government  till  the 
spring  of  1862,  when  the  troops  at  Camp  Mangum  were  armed 
to  go  to  Richmond. 

In  the  fall  of  1861,  month  not  recollected  now,  the  Hon. 
Judah  P.  Benjamin,  Secretary  of  War,  in  a  letter  to  the 
Governor  of  North  Carolina,  said  it  would  not  be  necessary  to 
make  large  contracts  for  military  supplies  for  any  great  length 
of  time,  as  the  war  would  not  last  long,  or  words  to  that  effect. 
This  baneful  idea  entertained  by  the  head  of  the  War  Depart- 
ment no  doubt  paralyzed  all  the  departments  of  the  Government, 
and  most  valuable  time  was  lost  in  procuring  war  materials. 
With  a  very  imperfect  blockade  the  first  year  of  the  war,  very 
little  advantage  was  taken  of  it  by  the  Confederate  Government, 
and  none  by  the  States.  It  is  undoubtedly  true  that  the  Gov- 
ernment imported  some  war  materials,  but  nothing  commensurate 
^with  its  wants.  In  the  fall  of  1861  from  every  Southern  State 
came  a  call  for  arms,  with  the  Government  unable  to  supply  but 
very  few.  The  Governor  of  the  great  Commonwealth  of  Vir- 
ginia, unable  to  get  arms  from  the  Government,  sent  an  officer  to 
the  Governor  of  North  Carolina  with  a  request  for  arms,  hoping 
that  some  could  be  furnished.  The  Governor  of  North  Caro- 
lina had  none  to  furnish.  From  "  Pollard's  Southern  History 
of  the  War"  it  appears  that  the  Southwest  was  equally  as  bad 
off  for  arms  as  the  States  of  Virginia  and  North  Carolina.  The 
historian,  in  writing  about  General  A.  S.  Johnston's  army  at 
Bowling  Green,  Ky.,  in  October,  1861,  says:  "He  repeatedly 
called  upon  the  Government  for  re-inforcements.  He  made  a 
call  upon  several  States  of  the  Southwest,  including  Tennessee, 
for  a  large  number    of  troops.     The  call  was  revoked  at  the 

42  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

instance  of  the  authorities  in  Richmond,  who  declined  to  furnish 
twelve-months  volunteers  with  arms."  The  fact  of  the  case  is, 
the  Government  had  very  few  arms  to  furnish,  and  volunteering 
came  almost  to  a  stop  on  that  account. 

The  writer  is  satisfied  that  North  Carolina  could  duriug  the 
fall  and  winter  of  1861  have  had  ten  thousand  more  men  iu  the 
field  had  there  been  arms  to  put  in  their  hands.  What  is  true 
of  North  Carolina,  with  its  thirty-seven  thousand  stand  of  arms 
to  start  with,  must  be  equally  true  in  regard  to  the  other  States. 
The  Confederate  Government  could  have  had  one  hundred  thou- 
sand more  men  in  the  field  in  the  spring  of  1862  if  it  had  used 
energy  in  getting  arms  for  them.  With  cotton  selling  in  the 
South  for  ten  cents  in  currency  and  in  Liverpool  for  forty  to 
fifty  cents  in  gold,  and  only  an  imperfect  blockade,  there  was  no 
valid  reason  why  the  arms  should  not  be  on  hand.  The  idea 
entertained  by  the  War  Department,  as  above  stated,  we  fear,  is 
responsible  for  it  all,  and  found  the  South  unprepared  at  every 
point  attacked  in  the  spring  of  1862.  This  unprepared  condi- 
tion cost  the  South  millions  of  property,  important  territory 
never  firmly  regained,  thousands  of  valuable  lives,  and  perhaps 
its  independence.  The  valor  of  the  Confederate  soldiers,  who  at 
every  point  fought  against  fearful  odds,  saved  the  South  from 
being  overrun  in  the  spring  of  1862,  and  not  the  energy  dis- 
played by  the  Government  in  getting  prepared  for  the  struggle. 

We  will  now  return  to  North  Carolina  history  proper.  Gov- 
ernor Clark  and  General  Martin,  though  both  extremely  hopeful 
of  the  final  results  of  the  war,  were  not  so  hopeful  as  the 
Secretary  of  War.  Soon  after  the  Secretary's  letter  was  received 
the  Governor  dispatched  an  agent  to  England  to  purchase  arms 
for  the  State.  The  first  installment,  two  thousand,  was  received 
in  the  spring  of  1862,  no  transportation  could  be  obtained  for 
them  sooner;  and  Governor  Vance  reports  two  thousand  more 
received  by  the  "Ad- Vance."  This  is  all  we  can  trace  up,  but 
believe  more  were  received. 

During  the  fall  of  1861  General  Martin  made  arrangements 
with  several  small  establishments  in  the  State  to  make  arms. 

Organization  of  Teoops.  43 

He  engaged  two  Frenchmen  to  make  sabres,  swords,  bayonets, 
etc.,  at  Wilmington.  They  manufactured  a  large  number,  which 
were  immediately  given  to  the  troops,  sabres  being  greatly 
needed  for  the  cavalry.  Some  mechanics  in  Guilford  county 
entered  into  a  contract  to  make  three  hundred  new  rifles  per 
month.  The  Governor  referred  to  this  contract  in  his  message 
to  the  Legislature.  As  near  as  can  be  ascertained,  ten  thousand 
rifles  were  received  under  this  contract,  making  a  total  of  fifty- 
one  thousand  stand  of  arms  put  in  the  hands  of  soldiers  by  the 
State  of  North  Carolina.  A  large  number  of  old  arms  were  al- 
tered and  repaired,  of  which  no  accurate  account  can  be  given  here. 
The  State  encouraged  every  effort  for  manufacturing  every- 
thing needed  for  the  troops.  Here  we  will  copy  a  report  of  the 
issues  of  the  Ordnance  Department  of  the  State  of  North  Caro- 
lina from  June  30,  1861,  to  September  30,  1862: 

"Twenty-one  thousand  one  hundred  and  forty  muskets,  6,831 
rifles,  609  Hall's  carbines,  2,241  pistols,  2,057  swords,  43,898 
cartridge-boxes,  22,773  belts,  39,999  waist  belts,  41,131  cap 
pouches,  33,889  bayonet  scabbards,  24,096  gun  slings,  1,390,934 
cartridges,  34,244  pounds  cannon  powder,  44,754  pounds  mus- 
ket and  rifle  powder,  1,572,850  musket  caps,  64,959  pounds 
lead,  1,660  saddles,  1,136  saddle-bags,  1,327  bridles,  1,193 
halters,  834  bridles,  104  martingales,  838  holsters,  18  sets  artil- 
lery harness,  4,105  pounds  musket  balls,  253  pounds  buckshot, 
81  boxes  cannon  ammunition,  893  double-barrel  shotguns,  13 
single-barrel  guns,  559  pounds  blasting  powder,  93,000  shot- 
gun caps,  1,361  pairs  spurs,  and  2  six-pound  field  brass  pieces." 

General  Martin's  report  of  the  expenditures  of  the  department 
from  October  1,  1861,  to  September  30,  1862,  was  $512,713. 
General  Gatlin's  report  from  October  1,  1862,  to  March  31, 
1864,  was  $1,160,595. 

No  later  reports  were  published,  and  owing  to  the  death  of  all 
the  officers  who  had  charge  of  the  department,  no  detailed  account 
can  be  given  for  the  last  year  of  the  war. 

In  connection  with  the  Ordnance  Department  will  be  given 
an  account  of  the  effort  made  by  the  State  for  the   manufacture 

44  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

of  powder.  General  Martin,  in  his  report  to  the  Governor, 
says:  "The  State,  through  Governor  Clark,  advanced  Messrs. 
Waterhouse  &  Bowes  ten  thousand  dollars  towards  erecting  the 
Raleigh  Powder  Mill.  After  the  mill  was  put  in  operation  it 
was  destroyed  by  explosion.  At  the  solicitation  of  Governor 
Clark  they  purchased  the  paper  mills  for  the  purpose  of  build- 
ing another  mill,  and  twelve  thousand  dollars  was  advanced  to 
them.  Both  of  these  sums  are  to  be  refunded  in  four  equal 
installments.  This  sum,  with  the  private  funds  of  Messrs. 
Waterhouse  &  Bowes,  being  inadequate  to  complete  the  mill, 
you  [Governor  Vance]  advanced  them  eight  thousand  dollars. 
The  mill  will  be  near  enough  completed  by  the  first  of  Decem- 
ber to  commence  operation,  and  will  yield  weekly  about  four 
thousand  pounds  powder." 

The  above  investment  was  secured  by  mortgage  to  make  the 
State  safe.  The  enterprise  proved  a  complete  success,  and  we 
find  in  General  Gatlin's  report  the  following  year  that  the  State 
turned  over  to  the  Confederate  Government  over  half  a  million 
dollars'  worth  of  powder  and  paid  the  State  for  the  amount  ad- 
vanced. There  is  every  reason  to  believe  it  did  equally  as  well 
the  last  year  of  the  war,  though  no  reports  are  available. 

The  State  also  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  ammunition. 
General  Gatlin,  in  his  report,  says:  "The  operations  of  the  car- 
tridge and  moulding  factory  were  for  a  time  impeded  on  account 
of  the  great  difficulty  of  procuring  lead,  but  a  good  supply  of 
that  article  having  been  accumulated  by  means  of  the  State's 
importing  vessels,  the  factory  is  now  in  full  operation."  The 
policy  of  the  State  from  the  commencement  of  the  struggle  was 
to  encourage  the  manufacture  at  home  of  everything  needed,  and 
the  Adjutant-Generals  of  the  State  always  had  the  ready  approval 
of  Governors  Clark  and  Vance  for  everything  that  was  likely  to 
succeed  and  help  the  Confederate  cause.  From  these  reports  it 
can  be  seen  that  the  State  was  engaged  in  importing  arms  and 
manufacturing  them  in  the  State  also,  making  sabres,  swords 
saddles,  etc.  Also  in  aiding  the  development  of  the  powder 
mill  and  the  manufacture  of  ammunition.  Nothing  that  could 
be  of  service  to  the  Confederacy  was  overlooked. 

Organization  of  Troops.  45 


The  operations  of  this  department  were  under  the  charge  of 
Major  A.  M.  Lewis,  Paymaster,  assisted  by  Lieutenant  E.  G. 
Lewis,  Assistant  Paymaster.  Its  duties  being  clearly  defined  by 
law,  did  not  involve  any  of  the  intricate  questions  of  supply  and 
demand  of  the  other  departments.  It  is,  however,  proper  to 
state  here  that  the  duties  were  at  all  times  satisfactorily  performed. 
The  disbursements  under  this  head  are  included  in  the  Quarter- 
master's Department. 


The  Convention  appointed  a  Board  of  Claims,  or  rather  board 
of  auditors,  composed  of  the  Hons.  B.  F.  Moore,  Samuel 
F.  Phillips  and  P.  H.  Winston,  three  very  able  lawyers.  It 
was  the  duty  of  this  board  to  examine  all  the  accounts  and  see 
that  the  expenditures  were  made  according  to  law.  To  the  eter- 
nal honor  of  the  disbursing  officers  of  the  State  of  North  Caro- 
lina during  the  war,  this  learned  body  was  not  able  to  find  any 
mistakes  or  any  disbursements  not  strictly  within  the  letter  of 
the  law. 

We  will  now  sum  up  what  North  Carolina  did  during  the  war. 
It  put  in  the  field  not  less  than  one  hundred  aud  twenty-seven 
thousand  men,  and  in  all  probability  more,  and  issued  to  them, 
without  the  assistance  of  the  Confederate  States,  fifty-one  thou- 
sand stand  of  arms  and  all  the  necessary  equipments.  It  fur- 
nished horses  for  two  regiments  of  cavalry  and  several  light 
batteries,  with  all  the  necessary  equipments  for  both  branches  of 

46  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

the  service.  Also  equipments  for  the  three  other  regiments  of 
cavalry,  where  the  men  furnished  their  own  horses.  It  had 
sabres,  saddles,  etc.,  manufactured  for  the  cavalry  before  the 
Confederate  States  could  supply  the  troops  raised  with  them.  It 
furnished  transportation  to  the  troops  to  camps  of  instruction 
and  well  drilled  them  before  they  were  turned  over  to  the  Con- 
federate States.  It  furnished  subsistence,  clothing,  camp  and 
garrison  equipage  for  the  troops  as  raised,  and  continued  to 
clothe  them  to  the  end  of  the  war.  When  its  supplies  of  cloth- 
ing and  shoes  were  found  inadequate  it  sent  to  England,  pur- 
chased a  fine  steamer  and  brought  in  several  cargoes  of  army 
supplies  and  various  other  things  greatly  needed.  To  lessen  the 
risk  of  capture,  it  sold  one-half  of  the  "Ad-Vance"  and  invested 
in  three  other  steamers.  It  shipped  to  England  a  large  amount 
of  cotton  to  pay  for  the  ship  and  supplies.  The  money  paid  by 
the  Confederate  States  for  clothing  was  invested  in  cotton,  and 
with  the  cotton  more  clothing  and  supplies  were  purchased. 
This  was  able  financial  management  without  costing  the  State 
one  dollar;  and  it  kept  the  troops  of  North  Carolina  well  clothed 
during  the  war. 

The  State  bought  a  large  portion  of  the  provisions  used  in  the 
early  part  of  the  war  at  Louisville  and  horses  for  the  first  cav- 
alry from  the  blue-grass  regions  of  Kentucky,  securing  them 
from  remote  points  and  saving  State  supplies,  before  the  Con- 
federacy awoke  to  the  importance  of  getting  supplies  from  ex- 
posed places. 

We  will  give  a  detailed  statement  of  the  expenditures  by 
North  Carolina  for  the  war. 

General  Martin's  report  from  October  1,  1861,  to  September 
30,  1862: 

Quartermaster's  Department,       .          .         $4,502,729 
Subsistence,                   ....  404,956 

Ordnance, 512,731 

General  Gatlin's  report  from  October  1,  1862,  to  March  31 

Organization  of  Troops.  47 

Quartermaster's  Department,      .         .       |11, 680,131 

Subsistence, 1,080,958 

Ordnance, 1,160,595 

Sales  of  powder  to  the  Confederate  States,        521,563 
There  is  no  published  report  of  the  ex- 
penditures from  the  commencement  of 
the  war  to  September  30 — we  estimate 

low, 600,000 

No  published  report  of  the  expenditures 

later  than  March  31, 1864— we  estimate,     6,000,000 


Here  we  have  a  total  of  over  twenty-six  million  dollars  con- 
tributed by  North  Carolina  to  the  war,  without  mentioning  the 
arms  taken  at  Fayette ville.  In  regard  to  the  estimate  of  six 
millions  for  the  last  year  of  the  war.  General  Gatlin  says  in  his 
report  "there  is  still  due  $1,247,235  for  clothing  turned  over  in 
the  first  quarter,"  showing  that  the  issues  of  clothing  alone  would 
araouut  to  about  five  million  dollars.  One,  million  for  all  the 
other  articles  is  undoubtedly  below  the  mark.  The  State  of 
North  Carolina  exercised  its  full  sovereign  powers  in  the  prose- 
cution of  the  war  from  the  beginning,  and  did  not  become  an 
applicant  for  support  from  the  Confederate  Government.  On 
the  contrary,  the  Government  was  always  heavily  in  debt  to  it 
for  supplies  of  all  kinds. 

If  a  correct  and  unbiased  history  of  the  war  is  ever  written 
it  will  undoubtedly  be  seen  that  North  Carolina  put  more  men 
in  the  field,  according  to  its  white  population  in  1860,  than  any 
other  State  North  or  South,  and  that  its  devotion  to  the  cause 
and  energy  in  prosecuting  the  war  cannot  be  matched  by  any  other 
State.  The  pages  of  history  may  be  searched  in  vain  for  greater 
achievements  by  any  State  or  country  than  those  accomplished  by 
North  Carolina  during  the  war.  With  its  ports  blockaded,  fur- 
nishing twenty-six  million  dollars'  worth  of  supplies  to  the  Con- 
federate cause,  a  considerable  portion  of  which  was  brought  from 

48  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

abroad,  and,  as  Governor  Vance  says,  "considerable  other  freight 
for  the  Confederacy."  Last,  though  not  least,  from  Major  T.  D. 
Hogg's  report  it  appears  that  the  Commissary  Department  of 
North  Carolina  "was  feeding  about  half  of  Lee's  army"  before 
the  sun  of  the  Confederacy  went  down.  In  every  department 
the  State  of  North  Carolina  ably  sustained  the  army  and  Gov- 
ernment, almost  stepping  outside  of  its  legitimate  duties  in  engag- 
ing in  the  manufacture  of  powder  and  ammunition  for  the  Gov- 
ernment, as  already  mentioned.  We  can  state  without  fear  of 
contradiction,  that  no  Southern  State  can  show  anything  approxi- 
mating this  record. 

The  State  of  North  Carolina  has  reason  to  be  proud  of  the 
record  made  by  her  troops  in  the  field,  which  is  known  wherever 
the  English  language  is  spoken.  It  has  equal  reason  to  be  proud 
of  the  record  made  by  the  executive  and  military  departments  of 
the  State.  Great  credit  is  due  to  the  three  War  Governors  of  the 
State — Ellis,  Clark  and  Yance.  Each  and  all  of  them  supported 
the  Confederate  Government  without  any  friction,  which,  unfor- 
tunately, was  not  the  case  in  some  other  States.  Credit  is  also 
due  to  Colonels  Hoke,  Branch  and  Johntson  for  valuable  services 
during  the  early  stages  of  the  war,  to  General  Martin  for  the 
splendid  condition  in  which  the  troops  of  North  Carolina  were 
organized  andthe  efficiency  of  the  military  departments  established 
according  to  his  directions,  and  for  his  energetic  perseverance  in 
advocating  the  blockade-running  until  he  finally  secured  its 
approval,  and  to  General  Gatlin  for  the  efficient  discharge  of 
the  duties  while  he  was  Adjutant-General.  General  Fo'wle  was 
so  short  a  time  in  charge  that  nothing  of  any  special  importance 
occurred  to  note  here.  But  while  giving  credit  to  each  and  all 
of  these,  we  must  not  overlook  the  valuable  services  performed 
by  three  unassuming,  faithful  and  efficient  officers  at  Raleigh, 
Major  John  Devereux,  Chief  Quartermaster,  who,  in  addition  to 
his  other  duties,  so  ably  managed  all  the  details  of  the  blockade 
business;  Major  T.  D.  Hogg,  Commissary,  whose  store-houses 
were  always  well  filled,  and  Captain  A.  W.  Lawrence,  Ordnance 
Officer.     They  and  their  assistants  had  to  perform  all  the  detail 

Organization  of  Troops.  49 

duties  of  the  vast  amount  of  business  done  at  Raleigh  during  most 
of  the  war,  all  of  which  was  well  done. 

We  cannot  close  this  narrative  without  saying  something  about 
the  women  of  the  State  of  Noi'th  Carolina.  No  women  in  any 
age  or  country  were  more  devoted  to  a  cause  than  were  those  of 
North  Carolina  to  the  Confederacy.  The  women  of  the  State,  by 
their  love,  devotion  and  fortitude,  contributed  as  much  to  the 
Southern  cause  as  the  men  who  were  fighting  the  battles,  and 
they  are  now  foremost  in  raising  monuments  to  the  dead  and 
preserving  the  records  of  the  struggle,  as  they  were  foremost  in 
all  good  works  during  the  war.  In  the  dark  and  dismal  winter 
of  1861,  when  neither  the  State  nor  Confederacy  was  able  to  sup- 
ply the  troops  as  they  should  have  been,  the  women  of  North  Caro- 
,  lina,  in  addition  to  what  they  contributed  through  the  State  officers 
to  be  sent  to  the  army,  sent  direct  during  the  last  three  months 
of  that  year,  according  to  "Pollard's  History,"  three  hundred  and 
twenty-five  thousand  dollars'  worth  of  supplies,  which  were 
recorded  at  the  passport  office  in  Richmond  and  permits  given 
to  have  them  taken  to  the  army.  This  is  the  only  record  we  have 
of  voluntary  contributions,  but  we  know  they  were  continued 
to  the  end  of  the  war.  Many  cases  have  come  to  the  knowledge 
of  the  writer  where  these  kind  acts  were  continued  to  disabled 
soldiers  and  their  families  long  after  the  war  was  ended. 

I  will  now  bid  the  old  guard  farewell.  Though  temporarily 
absent  from  the  State,  I  hope  to  be  there  again  before  the  final 
roll-call;  but  be  that  as  it  may,  the  glorious  achievements  of  the 
North  Carolina  Troops,  with  which  I  have  been  humbly  associ- 
ated during  the  war,  will  remain  dear  to  me  as  long  as  memory 
lasts.  Respectfully  submitted, 

A.  Gordon. 
HuLDA,  La., 

April  9,  1900. 




Major  Gordon,  Assistant  Adjutant-General  during  General 
Martin's  administration,  in  closing  his  article  on  the  history  of 
the  Adjutant-General's  office  to  that  time  suggested  that  I  should 
continue  the  history  to  the  close  of  the  war.  This  is  the 
object  of  this  paper,  with  such  addenda  as  may  appear  of 

The  Adjutant-General,  I  think,  was  elected  or  confirmed  by 
vote  of  the  General  Assembly.  Governor  Vance  was  elected 
Governor  in  August,  1862,  and  inaugurated  January  1,  186.3. 
The  principal  candidates  for  Adjutant-General  were  Hon.  (after- 
wards Governor)  Daniel  G.  Fowle,  of  Wake,  and  Captain  John 
Randolph  (of  Northampton  county),  Company  H,  Second  North 
Carolina  Cavalry.  The  Legislature,  by  resolution  or  act,  con- 
ferred upon  the  Governor  the  right  to  appoint  the  Adjutant- 
General.     Daniel  G.  Fowle  was  appointed. 

Major  R.  S.  Tucker  was  appointed  Assistant  Adjutant-Gen- 
eral. He  commanded  an  independent  cavalry  company,  which 
was  placed  in  the  Third  North  Carolina  Cavalry  on  the  forma- 
tion of  that  regiment.  After  several  months'  service  General 
Fowle  resigned  on  account  of  a  disagreement  between  him  and 
the  Surgeon-General  as  to  the  right  of  the  latter  to  report  directly 
to  the  Governor  and  not  through  the  Adjutant-General's  office 
the  Governor  sustaining  the  Surgeon-General.  Brigadier-Gen- 
eral R.  C.  Gatlin  was  appointed.  He  had  been  an  officer  in  the 
United  States  Army,  was  brevetted  for  gallantry  in  the  Mexi- 

Organization  of  Tkoops.  51 

can  war,  and  had  served  as  Brigadier-General  in  tiie  Confederate 

In  October,  Major  Tucker  resigned  and  Captain  W.  A.  Gra- 
ham, of  the  North  Carolina  Cavalry,  was  appointed  Assistant 
Adjutant-General.  He  had  been  wounded  at  Gettysburg,  July  3d. 

The  officers  of  the  department  to  the  close  of  the  war  were 
Brigadier-General  R.  C.  Gatlin,  Adjutant-General;  Major  W. 
A.  Graham,  Jr.,  Assistant  Adjutant-General;  Lieutenant  John  B. 
Neathery,  Assistant  Adjutant-General;  Lieutenant  I.  H.  Ben- 
nett, Assistant  Adjutant-General;  Lieutenant  T.  W.  Slocum,  As- 
sistant Adjutant-General. 

Roll  of  Honor  Department — Major  James  H.  Foote,  Assistant 

Surgeons — Edward  Warren,  M.  D.,  Surgeon-General;  Otis  F. 
Mason,  M.  D.,  Surgeon  in  charge  Richmond  Hospital. 

Quartermaster — Major  John  Devereux,  Quartermaster;  Major 
Henry  C.  Dowd,  Quartermaster;  Captain  Thaddeus  McGee,  As- 
sistant Quartermaster. 

Commissary — Major  Thomas  D.  Hogg,  Commissary. 

Paymaster — Major  W.  B.  Gulick. 

Ordnance  Officer — Lieutenant  Josiah  Collins. 

The  passage  of  the  conscript  act  by  the  Confederate  Con- 
gress early  in  1862  declared  all  men  between  eighteen  and 
forty-five  years  of  age  subject  to  military  duty,  except  those 
designated  by  the  States  as  necessary  for  State  service  and  exemp- 
tions specified  by  law.  These  exemptions  were  preachers,  school 
teachers,  overseers  of  twenty  negroes,  manufacturors  and  their 
laborers,  editors  and  printers,  and  perhaps  others  not  now  recol- 

The  Confederate  States,  through  its  conscript  bureau,  executed 
the  law,  collecting  and  forwarding  the  conscripts  to  the  armies. 
There  was  nothing  for  the  State  to  do  along  this  line.  The  State 
exempted  the  State  and  county  officers,  justices  of  the  peace, 
officers  of  the  militia  regiments  and  the  Sixty-seventh  and  Sixty- 
eighth  Regiments  North  Carolina  Troops,  Henry's   Battalion, 

52  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Wynn's  Battalion  and  some  companies  which  had  been  enlisted 
as  State  forces. 

The  State  officers,  justices  of  the  peace  and  militia  officers  were 
organized  into  companies  and  by  counties  into  battalions  and 
were  designated  by  law  as  Home  Guards.  The  field  officers  were 
appointed  by  the  Governor  for  the  different  counties.  Colonel 
Collett  Leventhorpe,  who  had  been  Colonel  of  the  Thirty-fourth 
Regiment  and  also  Colonel  of  the  Eleventh  Regiment,  and 
who  had  been  severely  wounded  at  Gettysburg,  was  appointed 
to  command  the  State  Home  Guard,  with  the  rank  of  Briga- 
dier-General. The  force  when  called  into  the  field  made,  I 
think,  four  regiments.  It  was  used  to  arrest  deserters  from  the 
Confederate  army,  quell  disturbances,  and  was  called  to  Wil- 
mington in  December,  1864,  to  assist  in  repelling  General  B.  F. 
Butler's  attack.  I  do  not  recollect  that  it  was  ever  actually 
engaged  in  battle  with  the  Yankees. 

In  1864  Congress  extended  the  ages  of  service  in  the  conscript 
act  so  as  to  include  seventeen  to  eighteen  and  forty-five  to  fifty 
years.  The  former  were  designated  Junior  Reserves,  the  latter 
Senior  Reserves.  They  were  organized  by  counties  into  compa- 
nies of  each  class  and  these  into  regiments  and  battalions.  The 
conscripts  (eighteen  to  forty-five  years)  were  not  so  organized, 
but  when  they  reported  to  the  bureau  they  were  assigned  to  regi- 
ments whose  ranks  had  been  reduced  in  numbers,  without  any 
consideration  as  to  where  the  companies  were  enlisted.  There 
were  three  regiments  and  several  battalions  of  Junior  Reserves 
and  two  of  Seniors. 


In  1862  this  department  of  the  Adjutant-General's  office  was 
established.  Major  James  H.  Foote  was  appointed  to  manage 
it.  The  object  was  to  procure  a  history  of  each  soldier  furnished 
by  the  State,  and  have  it  arranged  by  companies  and  regiments. 
Blanks  were  prepared  similar  to  muster-rolls.for  a  description  of 
the  service  of  each  soldier.  These  were  copied  into  books  pre- 
pared after  the  same  manner.  A  history  of  the  regiment  as  a  whole 
was  to  precede  the  history  of  the  soldier  by  companies.     If  the 

Organization  of  Thoops.  ,     53 

officers  to  whom  these  blanks  were  sent  to  be  filled  had  attended 
to  having  it  properly  done  the  history  of  the  North  Carolina 
soldiers  would  have  been  complete.  Many  of  these  officers 
(under  false  ideas  of  modesty,  perhaps)  paid  little  attention  to 
the  matter,  and  the  blanks  were  either  never  filled  or  not  returned 
to  Major  Foote  when  completed.  Deeds  of  themselves  and  com- 
rades which  would  add  lustre  to  the  record  and  correct  or  con- 
tradict misrepresentation  by  others  will  never  be  known. 

The  average  North  Carolinian  is  a  queer  citizen,  in  that  he 
seems  to  hold  the  opinion  that  if  a  man  or  a  company  perform 
the  duty  assigned,  and  is  satisfied  at  the  time  with  their  conduct, 
it  does  not  matter  whether  any  one  else  knows  of  it,  or  what 
opinion  they  may  have  of  the  transaction. 

I  think  about  two-thirds  of  the  companies  returned  the  blanks 
more  or  less  completed.  They  were  copied  in  the  books  and  are  now 
in  the  Adjutant-General's  office  or  the  State  Library  at  Raleigh. 


This  was  done  by  the  Home  Guard.  The  orders  were  issued 
from  the  Adjutant-General's  office,  and  perhaps  would  now  be 
mistaken  for  a  circular  from  political  headquarters,  as  they  con- 
tained the  following  sentence:  "This  order  is  to  embrace  all  male 
negroes  between  twenty-one  and  forty-five  years  of  age  in  your 

The  number  called  for  being  stated  by  the  Confederate  author- 
ities, one  out  of  a  specified  number  (generally  eight,  I  think)  was 
taken.  None  were  taken  from  those  owning  only  one,  unless 
the  quota  was  unfilled  from  those  owning  more.  Sometimes  it  was 
necessary  to  "lump"  the  owners  and  decide  in  some  way  which 
one  negro  should  be  selected.  After  collecting  the  negroes  they 
were|earried  to  the  designated  places  and  turned  over  to  the 
Confederate  officers. 

THE   "ad- VANCE." 

The  "Ad- Vance"  continued  to  run  the  blockade  to  Ber- 
muda, making  a  trip  in  about  sixty  days,  carrying  out  cotton 
and  Bringing  supplies  for  the  soldiers.     North  Carolina  clothed 

54  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

the  soldiers  she  furnished  the  Confederacy  and  the  Government 
paid  the  State.  The  consequence  was  that  the  North'Carolinians 
were  better  clothed  than  the  troops  of  any  other  State,  and  this 
fact  gave  Governor  Vauce  a  warm  place  in  the  soldiers'  hearts. 
The  Governor  had  a  supply  of  cotton  and  wool  cards  imported 
by  the  "Ad-Vance,"  which  were  very  valuable  to  the  soldiers' 
wives  and  daughters  in  preparing  yarn  for  clothing.  I  suppose 
some  of  these,  although  well  worn  and  now  discarded,  are  held 
as  heir-looms  by  women  of  this  generation. 

It  was  necessary  in  running  the  blockade  to  use  coal  that 
would  not  make  much  smoke.  A  supply  was  kept  on  hand  for 
the  ship  at  Wilmington.  In  September,  1864,  the  Confederate 
Cruiser  "Tennessee,"  coming  into  Wilmington,  took  on  its  de- 
parture the  coal  intended  for  the  next  trip  of  the  "Ad-Vance." 
This  made  it  necessary  to  use  inferior  coal,  and,  being  tracked 
by  the  smoke,  the  "Ad- Vance"  was  pursued  by  the  blockading 
fleet  and  captured.  Governor  Vance  called  the  attention  of  the 
Legislature  to  this,  and  recommended  that  demand  be  made  on 
the  Confederate  Government  for  payment  for  the  ship  and  cargo. 

THE    officers    OF   THE    HOME    GUARD. 

The  officers  of  the  Home  Guard  appreciated  their  position  as 
much  as  any  set  of  men  connected  with  the  war.  If  the  corre-. 
spondence  of  the  office  has  been  preserved  there  are  many  letters 
and  reports  that  would  be  entertaining  to  those  who  were  further 
to  "  the  front."  One  captain  (from  Moore  county,  I  think) 
wrote  about  as  follows : 

"Mr.  Gov.  Vance: 

"  Dear  Sir  : — If  I  was  Governor,  I'll  agree  to  go  to  hell  if  I 
wouldu't  be  Governor." 

Then  followed  a  complaint  of  some  man  in  his  neighborhood 
who  was  distilling  corn,  which  he  thought  ought  to  be  kept  for 
the  soldiers'  families,  and  he  desired  authority  and  orders  to 
stop  him  forthwith. 

Oeganization  of  Troops.  55 

OLD   men's   guard. 

In  the  summer  of  1864,  in  many  of  the  towns,  the  men  above 
the  Senior  Reserve  age,  or  exempt  from  disability,  formed  com- 
panies, procured  arms  and  drilled  "  in  the  cool  of  the  evenings" 
several  times  a  week.  They  presented  a  picture  of  a  peculiar 
type.  I  have  frequently  seen  one  of  them  who  served  in  the 
United  States  Congress  in  Monroe's  administration  repairing  to 
the  rendezvous  under  a  silk  umbrella,  raised  to  ward  off  the 
sun,  while  his  colored  dining-room  servant  brought  up  the  rear, 
carrying  the  musket  with  which  he  was  to  drill.  He  was  not 
alone  in  thus  showing  his  zeal  for  his  country's  defease.  As 
they  stood  in  line  the  commander  often  repeated  the  command : 
"Gentlemen,  please  keep  your  pieces  erect." 

lee's  army  in  1865. 

Each  month  there  were  sent  to  the  regimental  commanders  of 
North  Carolina  Troops  blanks  for  reports,  partly  to  ascertain 
how  much  clothing  it  was  necessary  to  prepare.  The  reports 
which  came  in  March,  1865,  one  month  before  the  surrender, 
showed  thirty-five  thousand  men  for  duty,  as  I  now  recollect. 


It  seemed  certain  that  General  Sherman  would  reach  Raleigh 
in  his  march,  and  in  February  and  March,  1865,  the  books  and 
papers  not  necessary  for  daily  use  were  boxed  and  shipped  to 
Statesville.  General  Joe  Johnston's  army,  with  General  Beau- 
regard's (the  latter  were  troops  serving  on  the  coasts  of  South 
Carolina,  Georgia  and  North  Carolina),  assembled  between  Ral- 
eigh and  Goldsboro,  near  Selma.  At  the  invitation  of  General 
Johnston,  Governor  Vance  reviewed  these  troops.  After  General 
Lee  evacuated  his  lines  around  Richmond  all  people  who  appre- 
ciated the  situation  believed  the  end  was  nigh.  It  was  no  sur- 
prise when  at  the  depot  at  Hillsboro,  on  Monday  night,  April 
11th,  the  train  brought  the  news  "  General  Lee  has  surrendered." 
Governor  Swain  had  written  Governor  Graham  to  meet  him  in 

56  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Raleigh  the  next  day  to  confer  with  Governor  Vance  on  the 
situation.  They  were  thus  on  hand  when  needed.  General 
Johnston,  after  the  battle  of  Bentonsville,  having  announced 
his  intention  to  evacuate  Raleigh  at  an  early  day,  Governor 
Yance  sent  them  as  a  commission  to  General  Sherman  to  se- 
cure the  city  from  pillage,'  to  preserve  the  property  of  the 
State,  and  to  learn  what  his  intentions  were  as  to  the  officers  of 
the  State.  Governor  Graham  prepared  the  papers,  and  a  per- 
mit to  pass  the  lines  having  been  signed  by  Lieutenant-General 
Hardee,  an  engine  drawing  a  coach  in  which  were  the  commis- 
sioners, Surgeon-General  Warren,  Majors  Devereux  and  Hogg, 
and  Colonel  J.  G.  Burr,  of  the  Governor's  staff,  was  started. 
For  some  reason  General  Johnston  or  President  Davis  tele- 
graphed General  Hardee  to  withdraw  the  permit  He  signalled 
the  outposts  and  the  train  was  stopped,  and  started  on  its  return. 
General  Kilpatrick's  advance,  traveling  the  dirt  road,  struck  the 
railroad  ahead  of  the  car,  and,  although  it  bore  a  white  flag,  fired 
into  it,  commanding  a  halt,  and  insisted  they  were  prisoners. 
They  were  sent  to  General  Sherman's  headquarters,  who  said 
they  had  come  out  in  good  faith  and  should  be  allowed  to  return 
the  same  way,  but  that  it  was  now  too  late  to  go  that  night. 
They  laid  their  business  before  him.  Governor  Graham  spent 
the  night  with  General  Sherman  in  his  tent.  Governor  Swain, 
with  General  Frank  P.  Blair,  who  had  been  a  student  at  Chapel 
Hill  under  his  presidency. 

LINCOLN    on   the    CAPTURE    OF    DAVIS. 

General  Sherman,  in  conversation,  told  Governor  Graham 
that  he  had  seen  the  President  the  week  before,  and  asked  him 
if  he  wished  him  to  capture  Jeff  Davis.  Mr.  Lincoln  replied: 
"I  will  tell  you  a  circumstance.  Once  there  was  a  temperance 
lecturer  in  Indiana,  who,  on  going  home  after  the  lecture  with  a 
sister,  asked  for  a  drink  of  water.  She  asked  him  if  he  would 
not  like  to  have  something  stronger  in  it.  "He  replied:  "If 
you  could  get  a  little  in  "  unbeknownst "  to  me,  I  would't  care 
if  you  did." 

Organization  of  Troops.  57 

This  appears  to  have  been  said  at  a  Cabinet  meeting.  After- 
wards, when  Stanton,  Secretary  of  War,  seemed  anxious  to 
capture  President  Davis,  General  Sherman  remarljs  in  a  post- 
script to  a  letter  to  Chief  Justice  Chase  ("Records  War  of  Rebel- 
lion," p.  412,  No.  100)  "to  this  hour  the  War  Department  has 
sent  me  no  orders  to  hunt  for,  arrest  or  capture  Jeff  Da\'is,  but 
on  the  contrary,  as  near  as  I  know,  their  wish  is  that  he  escape, 
provided  it  be  unknown  to  them." 


General  Sherman  agreed  to  have  measures  taken  to  pre- 
serve the  property  of  the  State  and  city.  As  to  the  affairs 
of  the  State,  he  said  that  when  "  there  was  no  interference  with 
him  he  had  nothing  to  do  with  them,  but  left  them  for  the 
courts  to  deal  with."  General  Hardee  informed  Governor 
Vance  that  he  would  "uncover"  the  city  at  12  o'clock  that 
night.  At  that  hour  Governor  Vance  left  Raleigh  and  pro- 
ceeded to  Hillsboro.  General  Sherman  returned  the  commis- 
sioners to  Raleigh  early  the  next  morning,  as  the  Confederates 
were  leaving  and  the  Yankees  entering  the  city.  Governor 
Graham  was  to  endeavor  to  go  on  to  Governor  Vance  and  Gov- 
ernor Swain  to  remain  in  Raleigh  to  see  that  protection  was 
afforded.  Between  St.  Mary's  and  where  the  Agricultural  and 
Mechanical  College- now  stands  Governor  Graham  found  him- 
self between  the  lines  and  a  brisk  skirmish  just  opening. 
The  Confederates  retiring,  he  saw  no  opportunity  of  reaching 
Governor  Vance,  and  returned  to  the  city  to  make  other  arrange- 
ments. Report  that  he  had  been  wounded  between  the  lines  had 
reached  General  Sherman,  and  he  seemed  much  relieved  to  find 
it  not  so. 

Conveyance  was  procured  from  a  friend,  and  Governor  Swain 
joining  him,  they  came  on  to  Hillsboro  the  next  day,  reaching 
there  about  8:30  P.  M.  They  found  Governor  Vance  taking 
tea  with  Governor  Graham's  family. 

The  commissioners   made  their  report,  but  as   Raleigh   had 

68  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

been  evacuated  it  was  thought  best  to  make  no  attempt  to  return 
until  the  Confederate  authorities  had  been  conferred  with. 

The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  papers  carried  by  the  com- 
missioners.    ("Records  War  of  Rebellion,"  p.  178,  No.  100): 

State  of  North  Caholina, 

Executive  Department, 
Raleigh,  April  12,  1865. 

General  W.  T.  Sherman,  Commanding  U.  S.  Forces: 

Sir  :— Understanding  that  your  army  is  advancing  on  this  capital,  I 
have  to  request,  under  proper  safe  conduct,  a  personal  interview  at  such 
time  as  may  be  agreeable  to  you,  for  the  purpose  of  conferring  upon  the 
subject  of  a  suspension  of  hostilities,  with  a  view  to  further  communica- 
tion with  the  authorities  of  the  United  States  touching  the  final  termi- 
nation of  the  existing  war.  IE  you  concur  in  the  propriety  of  such  a 
proceeding  I  shall  be  obliged  for  an  early  reply. 

With  high  respect,  your  obedient  servant, 

Z.  B.  Vance. 

Headquarters  Military  Division  op  the  Mississippi — In  the  Field, 

Gulley's  Station,  N.  C,  April  12,  1865. 

His  Excellency,  Z.  B.  Vance,  Governor  of  North  Carolina: 

Sir: — I  have  the  honor  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  communi- 
cation of  this  date,  and  inclose  you  a  safeguard  for  yourself  and  any 
member  of  the  State  government  that  chooses  to  remain  in  Raleigh.  I 
would  gladly  have  enabled  you  to  meet  me  here,  but  some  interruption 
occurred  to  the  train  by  the  orders  of  General  Johnston  after  I  had 
passed  within  the  lines  of  my  cavalry  advance,  but  as  it  came  out  of 
Raleigh  in  good  faith  it  shall  return  in  good  faith,  and  will  in  no  measure 
be  claimed  by  us.  I  doubt  if  hostilities  can  be  suspended  as  between 
the  army  of  the  Confederate  Government  and  the  one  I  command,  but  I 
will  aid  you  all  in  my  power  to  contribute  to  the  end  you  aim  to  reach, 
the  termination  of  the  existing  war. 

I  am  truly,  your  obedient  servant, 

W.  T.  Sherman, 

Major-  General. 

Headquarters  Military  Division  op  the  Mississippi — In  the  Field, 

Gulley's  Station,  N.  C,  April  12,  1865. 

All  officers  and  soldiers  of  this  army  are  commanded  to  respect  and 
protect  the  Governor  of  North  Carolina  and  the  officers  and  servants  of 
the  State  government,  the  Mayor  and  civil  authorities  of  Raleigh,  pro- 

Organization  of  Troops.  59 

vided  no  hostile  act  is  committed  against  the  oflBcers  and  men  of  this 
army  between  this  and  the  city. 

W.  T.  Sherman, 
Major-Oeneral  Commanding. 

The  train  of  cars  now  here  in  charge  of  Colonel  James  G.  Burr  of  the 

stafi'  of  Governor  Vance  can  pass  to  and  from  Raleigh  without  let  or 

hindrance  until  further  orders.     All  guards  and  pickets  will  see  that  it 

is  not  interfered  with  or  destroyed. 

W.  T.  Sheeman, 

Major-Oeneral  Commanding. 

The  Governor's  staff  was  now  as  follows:  The  writer,  As- 
sistant Adjutant-Greneral,  Colonel  D.  D.  Ferrebee,  Lieutenant 
Julius  Juthrie,  C.  S.  Navy,  and  Captain  James  A.  Bryan,  Ord- 
nance Officer  Lane's  Brigade,  who  was  in  Raleigh  at  the  time  of 
the  evacuation  of  Richmond. 


We  left  Hillsboro  on  Saturday  morning,  going  to  Haw  River, 
whence  Governor  Vance  went  by  train  to  Greensboro,  to  meet 
President  Davis,  but  he  had  left  before  his  arrival.  The  staff 
spent  the  night  with  Mr.  Swepson.  Water-courses  were  much 
swollen  by  recent  rains,  and  we  had  to  swim  several  creeks  en 
route  to  Haw  River — the  river  was  very  high.  Planks  were 
laid  across  the  railroad  bridge,  teams  were  unhitched  and  the 
wagons  and  cannon  pulled  over  by  hand.  The  teams  were  either 
led  over  or  swam  through  the  river. 

Next  day  we  went  to  Company  Shops  (now  Burlington),  and 
received  a  telegram  from  the  Governor  to  come  on  to  Greens- 
boro. The  news  of  Lee's  surrender  seems  to  have  been  kept 
from  Johnston's  army.  As  we  passed  through  the  camps  near 
Greensboro  that  evening  about  dark  I  heard  a  soldier  calling  to 
a  comrade  and  telling  him  that  it  was  certainly  so,  "for  he 
had  seen  one  of  Lee's  men  in  Greensboro  that  day  who  had  his 
parole."  It  had  been  more  than  a  week  since  the  surrender, 
and  it  is  remarkable  how  it  could  have  been  kept  from  being 
known  to  the  whole  army. 

60  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 


At  Greensboro  there  were  large  quantities  of  cloth  and  other 
supplies  belonging  to  the  State.  These  had  been  guarded  by 
the  Home  Guard,  but  on  the  coming  of  Johnston's  army  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel A.  C.  McAlister,  Forty-sixth  North  Carolina 
Troops  of  Lee's  army,  who  was  in  Greensboro  with  a  portion  of 
his  regiment,  was  assigned  to  the  duty.  Some  of  Wheeler's 
Cavalry  determined  to  take  the  cloth,  and  organized  a  crowd  of 
about  fifty  for  the  purpose.  They  were  warned  not  to  go,  and 
told'  with  whom  they  had  to  deal,  but  on  they  came.  When 
they  were  within  one  hundred  yards  of  Colonel  McAlister's 
division  the  front  rank  began  to  fire  over  their  heads,  hoping 
thus  to  stop  them,  but  still  they  came  on.  He  then  commanded: 
"Men,  lower  your  pieces.  Fire!"  Three  were  unhorsed,  and  so 
badly  wounded  that  they  died.  The  others  precipitately  left 
the  field,  and  there  was  no  further  trouble  with  the  State's 

The  North  Carolina  officers  about  Greensboro  of  Lee's  and 
Johnston's  armies  besought  Governor  Vance  to  have  these  sup- 
plies issued  or  to  let  the  soldiers  take  what  they  wanted,  as  "the 
end  had  come."  He  was  willing  for  each  one  to  have  what  was 
necessary  for  his  personal  use,  but  said  "  it  was  the  State's  prop- 
erty, and  he  had  no  right  to  destroy  it." 

As  we'  came  from  Hillsboro,  about  eight  miles  out  we  over- 
took two  of  Wheeler's  Cavalry  with  one  horse  to  a  buggy, 
another  tied  to  this  one,  while  one  of  the  men  was  eopiing  from 
a  house  leading  another,  followed  by  a  woman  and  half  a  dozen 
children,  begging  him  to  leave  the  horse.  These  were  the  family 
of  a  soldier  in  Lee's  army,  the  horse  the  only  work  animal  they 
had.  The  Governor  met  him  at  the  road  and  told  him  if  he  did 
not  give  up  that  horse  he  would  "arrest  him  and  go  to  General 
Johnston's  headquarters  to  see  that  he  was  shot  as  a  horse  thief." 
The  horse  was  released.  The  thanks  and  rejoicing  of  the  mother 
and  family  was  a  touching  scene.  The  buggy  was  loaded  with 
what  had  been  plundered  from  citizens.  This  straggling,  plun- 
dering horde,  known  as  "  Wheeler's  Cavalry,"  seemed  to  be  an 

Organization  of  Troops.  61 

organization  to  itself,  and  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  brave 
men  who  were  with  the  General  at  the  front  have  been  so  often 
confounded  with  this  crowd.  To  us,  who  had  served  with  Jeb 
Stuart,  it  was  a  new  "arm  of  the  service";  we  had  seen  noth- 
ing like  it,  although  we  had  been  almost  to  Harrisburg,  Penn., 
in  our  campaign.  The  nearest  approach  was  the  stragglers  on 
the  Gettysburg  campaign,  whom  General  Stuart  designated  as 
"  Company  Q,"  and  disbanded  by  general  orders,  referring  to 
them  as  a  "  disgraceful  organization." 

governor   VANCE   MEETS   JEFF   DAVIS. 

From  Greensboro  the  Governor  telegraphed  President  Davis 
for  a  conference.  I  accompanied  him  to  Charlotte,  but  was  not 
present  at  the  conference,  which  was  held  in  Mr.  Thomas  W. 
Dewey's  parlor  (now  the  Observer  building).  The  proceedings 
were  about  as  follows:  After  a  general  conversation  on  the  sit- 
uation. Governor  Vance  said:  "  Mr.  President,  I  have  come  to  see 
what  you  wish  me  to  do."  The  President  replied  in  substance 
that  "it  was  a  time  for  every  man  to  stand  to  his  post  and  do 
his  duty."  After  a  short  silence.  General  J.  C.  Breckinridge, 
Secretary  of  War  (the  Cabinet  being  present),  said:  "Mr.  Presi- 
dent, I  do  not  think  you  have  answered  the  Governor's  ques- 
tion." Mr.  Davis  replied  rather  tartly:  "Well,  what  would  you 
tell  him  to  do?"  General  Breckinridge  said:  "The  end  is  evi- 
dently near,  and  .he  should  make  the  best  terms  he  can  for  his 
people  and  his  State."     Mr.  Davis  replied:  "You  would?" 


Generals  Johnston  and  Sherman  had  agreed  upon  terms  to 
close  the  war,  which  were  submitted  to  their  respective  govern- 
ments for  approval.  A  truce  or  armistice  was  declared  until  the 
decisions  of  the  governments  were  known.  The  day  I  was 
in  Charlotte,  James  H.  Orr  and  some  one  else  went  towards  Lin- 
colnton  to  carry  General  Stoneman  notice  of  the  armistice.  That 
day  the  bridge  at  Rozzelle's  ferry  was  burned.  General  E.  D. 
Johnston,  who  was  in  the  peach  orchard  on  the  Mecklenburg 

62  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

side,  with  a  few  others  in  line,  had  a  silver  dollar  in  tis  breast- 
pocket badly  dented  by  a  ball  fired  by  Stoneman's  men  from  the 
Gaston  side  of  the  river. 

There  was  a  large  quantity  of  leather  and  rubber  belting  and 
some  cloth  in  a  house  standing  about  where  Mr.  Clinard's  store 
now  is.  That  afternoon  some  of  the  citizens  broke  the  store 
open  and  helped  themselves  to  the  goods — as  they  thought  the 
Confederacy  was  dead,  they  administered  on  its  effects. 


At  12  o'clock  that  night  we  went  in  a  box-car  to  Salisbury 
and  "put  up"  at  the  hotel  kept  by  Dr.  ^Y.  H.  Howerton.  He 
declined  to  take  Confederate  money  in  payment  for  breakfast 
and  lodging.  Governor  Vance  had  not  a  cent  of  specie.  I  had 
seven  dollars.  When  I  left  Hillsboro  my  father  had  fifteen  sil- 
ver dollars  belonging  to  my  brother  James  (who  was  with  Lee), 
and  he  gave  me  seven  of  it.  He  did  not  have  a  cent  of  specie  of  his 
own.  At  that  time  he  was  a  Confederate  States  Senator.  Neither 
he  nor  Governor  Vance  had  favored  secession  in  the  beginning, 
but  when  they  gave  their  adhesion  to  the  Southern  cause  they 
nobly  stood  by  it.  The  currency  with  which  the  nation  paid  its 
soldiers  they  considered  good  enough  for  them,  and  there  is  no 
stronger  proof  of  faithfulness  to  duty  assumed  in  our  history 
than  this  incident  affords.  Dr.  Howerton  declined  to  receive 
the  silver,  but  said  it  ,was  useless  to  take  Confederate  money, 
and  simply  marked  our  names  paid.  I  think  General  Wade 
Hampton  was  also  present,  and,  like  the  Governor,  had  nothing 
but  Confederate  money.     Dr.  Howerton  did  the  same  for  him. 

After  breakfast  we  went  to  the  depot  and  down  to  the  old 
round-house.  While  in  it  we  heard  firing  at  the  depot,  first  an 
occasional  shot,  then  vollies.  We  thought  Sherman  had  advanced 
and  that  we  were  prisoners.  Some  one  had  fired  the  boxes  of 
ammunition  piled  on  the  depot  platform. 


On  the  return  to  Greensboro,  the  Confederacy  being  at  an  end, 
Governor  Vance  was  desirous  to  communicate  with  General  Sher- 

Organization  of  Troops.  63 

man.  He  went  with  Generals  Johnston  and  Breckinridge  and 
Hon.  J.  H.  Reagan  to  Hampton's  outpost,  near  Strayhorn's  (now 
University  Station).  Here  the  others  held  several  consultations, 
to  none  of  which  was  the  Governor  invited.  He  took  offense 
at  this  treatment  and  the  manner  of  his  transportation  back  to 
Greensboro.  I  bore  several  letters  between  him  and  General 
Johnston  on  the  subject.     All  was  satisfactorily  adjusted. 

While  at  General  Hampton's  outpost  news  came  of  Lincoln's 
assassination,  and  Governor  Vance  abandoned  his  trip  to  Raleigh. 
During  the  armistice  several  hundred  of  General  Johnston's 
soldiers  came  to  Governor  Vance's  headquarters  (the  brick  office 
opposite  the  court-house — Messrs.  Scott's  law  office)  and  called 
on  him  and  General  J.  C.  Brown,  of  Tennessee,  for  speeches. 
They  responded  on  the  close  of  the  war  on  the  basis  laid  down 
by  Generals  Johnston  and  Sherman.  While  in  Greensboro  Gov- 
ernor Vance  was  entertained  by  his  warm  personal  friend  and 
colleague  in  the  United  States  Congress,  Hon.  John  A.  Gilmer. 
On  going  into  Governor  Vance's  room  on  Sunday  morning,  he 
informed  me  that  we  were  prisoners;  that  the  Yankees  had  occu- 
pied the  town  the  night  before.  It  was  concluded  that  flight 
was  impossible,  even  if  advisable;  that  I  should  go  up  town  and 
surrender,  and  tell  them  that  he  was  ready  to  do  so.  On  going 
to  the  court-house,  I  fovind  that  the  Yankees,  who  had  come  by 
train  from  Danville,  had  returned. 

Sherman's  affront  to  halleck. 

President  Johnson  had  rejected  the  Johnston-Sherman  plan 
to  close  the  war.  Stanton,  as  Secretary  of  War,  and  General 
Halleck,  as  Commander-in-Chief,  had  ordered  Generals  Sheridan 
and  Wright  "to  pay  no  attention  to  General  Sherman's  armis- 
tice," but  to  push  into  North  Carolina  and  capture  President 
Davis.  The  subsequent  history  of  this  order,  and  how  General 
Sherman  publicly  affronted  General  Halleck  in  Richmond  and 
Stanton  at  the  grand  review  in  Washington,  makes  an  interesting 
chapter  of  history,  but  I  cannot  spare  space  for  it  in  this  con- 
nection.    It  can  be  gotten  from  the  official  "Records  of  the  Re- 

64  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

bellion,"  No.  100.  General  Johnston  Dotified  General  Sherman 
of  the  presence  of  these  troops.  He  complained  to  General 
Grant,  and  they  were  withdrawn. 

Johnston's  surrender. 

Governor  Vance  went  that  day  half  way  to  Danville  by  rail 
to  meet  Governor  Smith  (Extra  Billy)  for  consultation.  They 
held  this  to  themselves,  and  I  do  not  know  the  trend  of 
the  conversation,  but  it  was  concluded  that  nothing  could  be 
done.  Generals  Johnston  and  Sherman  having  on  April  26th 
agreed  upon  terms  for  the  surrender  of  Johnston's  army  similar  to 
those  between  Lee  and  Grant,  Brigadier-General  Hartranft,  of 
Pennsylvania,  came  to  Greensboro  to  arrange  and  accept  the 
paroles.  He  had  no  orders  as  to  the  ofBcers  of  the  State  govern- 
ment. General  Schofield,  who  had  been  assigned  to  this  depart- 
ment, came  to  Greensboro  and  took  quarters  at  Governor  More- 
head's.  I  bore  a  message  from  Governor  Vance  to  him,  request- 
ing an  interview.  It  was  a  bright  moonlight  night;  the  sentinel 
was  stationed  in  the  front  walk,  about  one  hundred  yards  from 
the  house;  when  I  was  fifty  steps  from  him,  bringing  his  gun 
"to  ready,"  he  called  out:  "Halt;  who  goes  there?"  I  replied: 
"  Friend,  without  the  countersign."  He  answered  back,  "  Who?  " 
I  repeated  my  reply,  with  the  addition,  "  I  have  a  message  from 
Governor  Vance  to  General  Schofield."  He  called  the  corporal 
of  the  guard,  I  advanced,  and  on  explaining  my  errand  to  him, 
I  was  conducted  into  the  house.  General  Schofield  soon  came 
in,  and  on  reading  the  paper,  remarked  :  "  Tell  the  Governor  I 
will  be  happy  to  receive  him  at  his  convenience,"  I  named  8  :30 
o'clock  for  our  return. 

Mr.  Gilmer  and  I  think  Major  A.  M.  McPheeters,  the  Gov- 
ernor's Private  Secretary,  accompanied  us.  Governor  Morehead 
also  came  iu  the  room.  After  a  little  introductory  talk,  the 
Governor  told  General  Schofield  that  he  desired  to  talk  with 
him  about  matters  in  the  State,  and  particularly  about  his  (the 
mountain)  section  of  it.  He  thought  there  would  be  much 
trouble  and  turmoil  if  the  troops  kept  there  for  police  duty 

Organization  op  Troops.  65 

should  be  those  who  had  enlisted  in  the  United  States  service 
from  that  section;  it  would  be  best  to  send  regulars  and  not  vol- 
unteers. General  Stoneman  thanked  him  for  the  suggestion, 
and  said  he  would  consider  it.  One  of  the  cavalry  regiments  of 
the  United  States  army  was  sent  there.  It  was  the  regiment  to 
which  Captains  Hayes  and  Ward  belonged.  After  discussion  as 
to  matters  belonging  to  the  State  for  some  time,  the  Governor 
asked  him  what  he  would  do  with  him.  He  replied  he  had  no 
orders  as  to  him  or  any  civil  officer.  The  Governor  replied  that 
he  would  in  a  day  or  two  join  his  wife  at  Statesville,  and  if 
wanted  he  would  be  found  there. 


The  Governor  asked  General  Schofield  to  forward  to  Presi- 
dent Johnson  a  communication  asking  for  a  permit  to  send  a 
commission  to  Washington  to  arrange  with  the  Federal  authori- 
ties as  to  the  affairs  of  the  State.  Governor  Graham  was  sum- 
moned by  telegraph  from  Hillsboro.  He  prepared  a  paper  to 
be  sent  to  President  Johnson,  asking  that  he  and  Hons.  John  A. 
Gilmer  and  Bedford  Brown  be  sent  a  permit  to  visit  Washing- 
ton. Mr.  Brown  was  summoned  from  his  home  in  Caswell 
county,  and  a  conference  was  held  as  to  the  mission.  President 
Johnson  refused  to  receive  the  commission  or  send  a  permit,  as 
requested;  but  a  short  time  afterwards  summoned  Governor 
Holden,  whom  he  appointed  Provisional  Governor.  Governor 
Holden  had  done  more  to  promote  secession  than  any  man  in 
the  State.  A  day  or  two  aftewards,  at  about  9  o'clock.  Governor 
'Vance  boarded  the  train  for  Salisbury  and  Statesville,  and  at 
10:30  I  did  likewise  for  Hillsboro,  being,  as  I  claim,  the  last 
man  in  North  Carolina  to  leave  the  Confederacy.  A  few  weeks 
afterwar4s  Governor  Vance  was  arrested  at  Statesville  and  con- 
fined for  several  weeks,  with  other  Southern  Governors,  in  the 

old  Capitol  at  Washington. 

W.  A.  Graham. 
Machpblah,  N.  C, 

April  26,  1900. 

Regimental  Histories. 


1.  D.  H.  Hill,  Colonel. 

2.  James  H.  Lane,  Major. 

3.  J.  B.  Starr,  Lieut.-Colonel. 

4.  Charles  B.  Cook,  2d  Lieut.,  Co.  H. 
6.  E.  J.  Hale,  Private,  Co.  H. 

6.  Thomas  Capehart,  23  Lieut.,  Co.  M. 

7.  J.  M.  Sims,  Private,  Co.  C. 

£.  W.  B.  Taylor,  Corporal,  Co.  C. 

9.    E.  F.  Hoke,  Major.    (Picture  in  21st 

10.  W.  G.  Lewis,  2d  Lieut.,  Co.  A.    (Pic- 

ture in  43d  Regiment.) 

11.  P.  M.  Parker,  2d  Lieut.,  Co.  I.    (Pic- 

ture in  30th  Regiment.) 

12.  F.  W.  Bird,  2d  Lieut.,  Co.  L.    (Picture 

in  nth  Regiment.) 




"First  at  Bethel;  last  at  Appomattox!"  is  an  epigram  which 
embodies  the  spirit  of  all  the  serious  acts  of  North  Carolina. 

She  has  not  exhibited  those  boastful  qualities  which  seem  to 
characterize  the  peoples  of  new  countries.  She  had  passed  her 
century  before  she  discovered  that  it  was  the  making,  not  the 
■writing,  of  history  which  chiefly  distinguished  her,  and  recorded 
the  fact  in  her  recently  adopted  motto.  It  may  be  said  of  her 
as  the  Duke  of  York  said  of  Richard's  noble  father : 

"In  peace,  was  never  gentle  lamb  more  mild; 
In  war,  was  never  lion  raged  more  fierce." 

When  we  consider  these  peculiarities  of  our  mother  State, 
assimilating  her  more  nearly  than  her  sisters  to  old-world  com- 
munities, with  their  repose  and  reserved  strength,  we  will  be 
prepared  to  understand  the  secret  of  the  surprises  which  she  gave 
to  her  neighbors.  It  will  also  explain  why  so  few  general  offi- 
cers were  accorded  to  her  at  first,  and  so  grudgingly,  and  how  it 
came  about,  before  the  war  had  ended,  that  the  North  Carolina 
contingent  in  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  were  masters  of 
the  situation.  Indeed,  no  thoughtful  soldier  of  that  army,  ob- 
serving the  course  of  events  in  the  last  year  or  two  of  ithe  war, 
could  hesitate  to  believe  that  if  it  had  lasted  a  year  longer  the 
leadership  of  the  army,  saving  Lee  himself,  would  have  been 
supplied  by  North  Carolinians — that  is  to  say,  by  those  who 
contributed  the  greater  number  of  soldiers  as  well  as  the  greater 

70  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

losses  in  battle.  The  turning  of  the  tide  at  Gettysburg,  so  dis- 
heartening to  the  South,  seemed  only  to  inspire  the  troops  of  our 
glorious  State  with  greater  fortitude  as  they  entered  upon  the 
losing  battle  which  Grant's  new  methods  imposed  in  the  death 
grapple  of  1864  and  1865. 

Bearing  these  things  in  mind,  we  may  review  with  composure 
the  attitude  of  North  Carolina  before  the  outbreak  of  hostilities, 
and  feel  the  thrill  of  compensated  pride  at  the  celerity  and  pon- 
derousness  of  her  blows  afterwards — whether  delivered  by  the 
First  Regiment,  setting  the  pace  at  Bethel  Church,  or  by  any  of 
its  successors.  The  contrast  in  her  two  moods  constitutes  one  of 
the  sublimest  episodes  of  history. 

The  General  Assembly  of  North  Carolina  met  on  the  19th  of 
November,  1860.  South  Carolina  passed  her  ordinance  of  seces- 
sion on  the  20th  of  December.  Mississippi  followed  on  the  9th 
of  January,  1861;  Florida,  on  the  10th;  Alabama,  on  the  11th; 
Georgia,  on  the  19th;  Louisiana,  on  the  26th;  and  Texas,  on  the 
1st  of  February.  Amid  the  profound  agitation  which  these 
events  produced,  North  Carolina  preserved  her  equanimity  as  a 
State,  though  her  people  were  divided.  Those  who  favored  join- 
ing the  newly  formed  Confederacy  advocated  the  calling  of  a 
convention.  Those  who  opposed  secession  opposed  the  calling 
of  a  convention.  There  were,  however,  a  large  number  who 
opposed  secession  as  inexpedient,  who  nevertheless  favored  the 
calling  of  a  convention.  Such  a  body,  it  was  thought,  could 
observe  the  course  of  events,  and  be  ready  for  action  if  circum- 
stances required. 

On  the  30th  of  January  the  General  Assembly  passed  a  bill 
for  an  election  to  determine  the  question  of  calling  a  convention 
and  at  the  same  time  for  choosing  members  of  the  convention  if 
called.  The  28th  of  February  was  named  as  the  day  for  the 
election.  The  call  of  the  convention  was  rejected  by  a  narrow 
majority,  some  seven  hundred  and  fifty;  but  the  number  of  dele- 
gates chosen  who  were  known  as  "unionists" — that  is,  wh& 
thought  secession  inexpedient  unless  coercion  of  the  seceded  States 
were   attempted — was  eighty-two;   while  the  number  of  those 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  71 

who  were  known  as  "  secessionists  " — that  is,  those  who  favored 
immediate  action — was  thirty-eight. 


On  the  12th  of  April  hostilities  began  in  Charleston  harbor. 
On  the  15th,  Mr.  Lincoln  issued  his  proclamation  for  coercion. 
On  the  17th,  Governor  Ellis  issued  his  patriotic  rejoinder,  con- 
vening the  General  Assembly  in  "special  session"  on  the  1st  of 
May.  On  the  18th  of  April  the  leading  organ  of  the  majority 
contained  an  editorial  which  voiced  their  sentiments,  as  these 
were  affected  by  such  a  stupendous  change  in  their  affairs,  and 
which  it  will  be  enlightening  to  quote  as  follows: 

"  It  is  needless  to  remind  our  readers  how  earnestly  and  hon- 
estly we  have  labored  to  preserve  our  once  great  and  glorious 
and  beneficent  Union.  In  its  existence  we  have  believed  were 
involved  that  inappreciable  blessing,  peace;  that  sound  form  of 
liberty  and  law  inaugurated  by  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States;  and  the  security,  nay,  even  the  existence,  of  that  domes- 
tic iustitution  out  of  which  have  arisen  all  our  national  troubles. 
In  the  new  aspect  of  affairs,  we  see  no  reason  to  change  any 
opinion  that  we  have  expressed,  that  the  difficulty  ought  to  have 
been  peaceably  settled,  and  would  have  been  if  good  men  had 
been  influential.  We  believe  now,  as  heretofore,  that  by  the 
exercise  of  that  patience  which  the  immense  issues  at  stake  de- 
manded, there  would  have  been  a  peaceful  settlement.  We 
believe  now,  as  heretofore,  that  a  fratricidal  war  for  such  a  cause 
is  a  wrong  of  which  we  would  not  be  guilty  for  a  thousand 
worlds.  But  with  all  these  opinions  unchanged,  there  is  a  change 
in  the  condition  of  affairs — a  change  with  which  neither  we  nor 
the  people  of  North  Carolina  have  had  aught  to  do — over  which 
they  have  had  no  control,  but  which  of  necessity  will  shape  their 
action.  The  President's  proclamation  is  "the  last  feather  that 
breaks  the  camel's  back."  It  shows  that  the  professions  of  peace 
were  a  delusion  and  a  cheat,  or,  if  ever  really  entertained,  that 
peaceful  intentions  have  been  abandoned.  War  is  to  be  prose- 
cuted against  the  South  by  means  of  the  seventy-five  thousand 

72  iNOETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

men  called  for;  and  North  Carolina  has  been  officially  required 
to  furnish  a  quota  of  the  seventy-five  thousand.  Will  she  do 
it?  Ought  she  to  do  it?  No,  no!  Not  a  man  can  leave  her 
borders  upon  such  an  errand  who  has  not  made  up  his  mind  to 
war  upon  his  own  home  and  all  that  he  holds  dear  in  that  home. 
For  ourselves,  we  are  Southern  men  and  North  Carolinians,  and 
at  war  with  those  who  are  at  war  with  the  South  and  North 
Carolina.  With  such  feelings  we  attended  the  large  and  almost 
impromptu  meeting  of  Tuesday  last,  and  one  of  us  was  unex- 
pectedly called  upon  to  take  a  part  in  that  meeting.  Its  calm 
and  dignified  determinations  met  his  full  concurrence,  though  it 
was  the  saddest  public  duty  he  was  ever  called  upon  to  perform. 
The  future  seems  to  us  full  only  of  evil.  A  civil  war,  in  which 
it  will  be  hard  to  say  whether  victor  or  vanquished  is  the  greater 
sufferer.  A  civil  war,  whose  end  no  man  can  see,  but  full  every 
day  of  its  long  and  sad  years  of  woe,  woe,  woe.  The  impover- 
ished, the  down-trodden,  the  widow  and  the  orphan,  will  here- 
after heap  bitter  imprecations  upon  the  bad  men  who  have  brought 
these  terrible  evils  of  desolation  and  death  upon  a  great  and 
prosperous  and  happy  people.  Thank  God!  that  we  can  say  we 
have  labored  for  peace,  and  have  had  no  wish  but  to  avert  the 
dire  calamities  in  a  way  honorable  to  both  sections." 

History — history  which  the  government  is  preserving  in  im- 
perishable records — has  shown  with  what  unequaled  fidelity  the 
people  in  whose  behalf  these  words  were  written  redeemed  their 
new  obligations.  It  was  in  harmony  with  these  noble  character- 
istics that  North  Carolina  should  have  been  (with  exception  of  her 
daughter,  Tennessee)  the  last  State  to  secede  from  the  Union,  and, 
as  the  world  now  knows,  the  foremost,  once  having  taken  the  fate- 
ful step,  in  all  that  was  required  to  make  secession  good — in 
harmony  with  her  conservative  and  peace-loving  disposition, 
once  the  battle  was  joined,  that  she  poured  out  her  blood  and 
treasure  in  greater  volume  than  any  of  her  sisters;  that,  possess- 
ing but  one-tenth  of  the  white  population  of  the  seceded  States, 
she  contributed  one-fifth  of  their  armies;  and  that  she  mustered 
at  Appomattox  a  greater  number  of  arms-bearing  men  than  all 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  73 

others  of  them.  That  she  should  also  have  supplied  the  chief 
portion  "of  the  Confederacy's  troops  engaged  in  the  first  pitched 
battle  of  the  war  may  not  be  attributed  to  accident,  but  rather 
to  the  complete  condition  in  which  she  sent  her  first  troops  across 
the  Virginian  border,  her  First  Regiment  of  Volunteers.  For 
this  reason  they  were  sent  to  Yorktown,  which  was  then  the 
post  of  danger. 

The  hastily  assembled  meeting  referred  to  in  the  editorial 
quoted  was  a  public  meeting  held  on  Tuesday,  the  16th  of  April, 
the  day  on  which  Mr.  Lincoln's  proclamation  was  received  in  the 
most  of  the  towns  of  the  State.  Its  resolutions  called  for  the 
taking  of  "all  proper  steps  to  maintain,  secure  and  defend  the 
rights  of  North  Carolina  as  one  of  the  Southern  States";  request- 
ing the  Governor  to  "forthwith  convene  the  General  Assembly, 
with  a  view  to  legislative  action  in  this  crisis";  and  pledging 
their  support  and  adherence  "  to  the  Governor  and  authorities  of 
the  State  in  such  manner  as  may  be  deemed  necessary  to  be 
taken  to  assert  our  rights  and  defend  our  soil." 

Similar  meetings  were  held  and  similar  resolutions  adopted  in 
all  the  towns  and  counties  as  soon  as  news  of  the  proclamation 
came  to  hand. 

The  remarkable  feature  of  this  movement  was  that  it  was  not 
concerted;  yet  it  was  simultaneous,  and  the  voice  of  the  people 
throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  State  was  as  that  of 
one  man.  With  sublime  confidence  in  themselves,  they  had 
declared  for  peace  in  the  face  of  unprecedented  clamor;  but,  with 
no  less  significance,  they  made  it  known  that,  if  the  time  of 
action  should  come,  they  would  not  be  behind  the  foremost. 
Thus  the  State  which  had  declared  for  the  Union,  two  to  one,  on 
the  28th  of  February,  became  an  armed  camp,  marshaled  for 
■resistence  to  the  Union,  on  the  17th  of  April,  less  than  fifty  days. 


It  was  under  such  circumstances  that  the  troops  which  formed 
the  First  Regiment  volunteered.  They  were  the  cream  of  the 
State's  uniformed  militia,  and  they  included  in  their  ranks,  when 

74  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

filled  and  ready  for  leaving  home,  probably  the  highest  average 
order  of  men  ever  mustered  for  war.* 

Local  industries  in  North  Carolina  at  that  day  were  in  a  com- 
paratively high  state  of  development.  These  companies  were 
completely  equipped  in  an  incredibly  short  time.  More  than 
half  their  members  were  either  new,  or  were  literary  and  profes- 
sional men  who  had  enrolled  themselves  in  them  as  a  matter  of  local 
pride.f  The  State  supplied  arms,  but  all  other  equipments — uni- 
forms, tents,  knapsacks,  haversacks,  canteens,  and  so  forth — were 
required  to  be  supplied  by  the  volunteers  or  their  organizations. 
The  large  harness  and  other  leather  manufactories,  carriage  fac- 
tories and  metal  working  establishments  which  were  a  marked 
feature  of  our  dispersed  industrial  development  before  the  war, 
each  locality  taking  care  of  its  own  volunteers,  supplied  a  much 
more  efficient  means  for  meeting  such  an  emergency  than  the 
present  system  of  concentration  which  the  adverse  result  of  the 
war  introduced.  We  have  recently  witnessed  the  deplorable 
delay  with  which  the  volunteers  in  the  late  Spanish  war  were 
equipped,  notwithstanding  the  unlimited  resources  of  the  reunited 
Republic,  with  its  more  than  doubled  population  and  its  concen- 
trated wealth.  Contrast  with  this  the  record  of  the  North  Caro- 
lina of  1861,  as  follows: 

The  companies  of  the  First  Regiment  volunteered  on  the 
17th  of  April,  1861;  they  were  formed  into  a  regiment  at 
the  State  capital  by  successive  orders  from  the  Adjutant- 
General's  office,  issued  on  April  19th,  May  9th,  May  12th  and 
May  16th;  three  of  them  (the  two  Fayetteville  companies  and 
the  Lincoln  company)  were  in  Richmond  on  the  18th  of  May, 
the  other  seven  arriving  on  the  21st;  and  they  had  fought  and 
won  the  first  battle  of  the  war  by  the  10th  of  June! 

*The  Charlotte  Democrat  of  May  1,  isiil,  aaid:  "This  regiment  is  said  to  be  the  finest 
looking  body  of  men  ever  assembled  in  the  State." 

tTheYorktown  correspondent  of  the  above  paper,  writing  on  May  27th  of  the  extra- 
ordmary  character  of  the  rank  and  file  of  the  First  Regiment,  said  that  among  the  pri- 
vates were  "  two  editors  and  a  number  of  lawyers  and  doctors."  The  chaplain  too  the 
Kev.  Mr.  Yates  (smce  a.  distinguished  Doctor  of  Divinity),  was  taken  from  the  ranks  of 
Company  B,  one  of  the  Charlotte  companies. 

The  Bethel  Eegiment.  75 


Military  men  know  that  this  astonishing  result  could  not  have 
been  accomplished  if  completeness  of  equipment  and  organiza- 
tion had  been  sacrificed  to  celerity  of  movement.  It  is  believed 
that  no  other  regiment,  then  or  afterwards,  was  set  out  in  the 
field  in  such  style  as  the  First  North  Carolina  Volunteers  when 
they  were  mustered  on  the  plain  of  Yorktown  in  the  last  week  of 

Such  was  the  judgment,  also,  of  impartial  critics.  The 
Petersburg  (Virginia)  Express  of  Monday,  May  20,  1861,  con- 
tained the  following : 

"Three  companies  of  the  First  Regiment  of  North  Carolina 
Volunteers — the  Fayetteville  Independent  Infantry,  Captain 
Huske;  the  Fayetteville  Light  Infantry,  Captain  Starr,  both 
from  Fayetteville,  and  the  Southern  Stars,  Captain  Hoke,  from 
Lincoln  county — arrived  in  this  city  by  a .  special  train  from 
Raleigh  at  7  :  30  o'clock  on  Saturday  evening.  Each  company 
had  its  full  complement  of  one  hundred  and  nine  men,  thor- 
oughly armed  and  in  the  best  spirits.  If  we  may  form  an  opin- 
ion of  the  whole  regiment  by  the  material  and  appearance  of  the 
above  three  companies,  we  should  unhesitatingly  pronounce  it  to 
be  one  of  the  finest  in  the  world.  North  Carolina  marshals  her 
bravest  and  her  best  for  the  coming  contest,  and  sends  to  Vir- 
ginia men  who  will  uphold  and  transmit  without  blemish  to 
posterity  the  honorable  and  enviable  glory  and  fame  of  their 
patriotic  sires.  Drilled  to  perfection  and  armed  to  the  full — 
with  brave  hearts  to  lead  and  brave  hearts  to  follow — they  will 
do  their  duty,  and  that  nobly." 

The  same  paper  of  Wednesday,  May  22d,  said : 

"The  remainder  of  the  First  Regiment  of  North  Carolina 
Volunteers,  numbering  seven  companies  and  over  seven  hundred 

76  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

must  say  that  this  is  the  best  equipped  regiment  which  has 
yet  made  its  route  through  our  city.  Everything  seems  to  have 
been  provided  for  them  that  a  soldier  could  desire — arms,  ac- 
coutrements, knapsacks,  haversacks,  canteens — in  fact,  nothing  is 

Said  the  Richmond  Examiner  ot  Thursday,  May  23,  1861:  = 

"  Without  waiting  for  the  form  of  a  legal  secession,  the  State 
of  North  Carolina  commenced  sending  her  gallant  sons  to  join 
those  who  were  already  in  the  tented  field.  On  Wednesday 
morning  the  rest  of  the  regiment  (of  which  the  first  installment 
arrived  on  Sunday*),  amounting  to  seven  hundred,  reached 
this  city  by  the  southern  road  at  one  o'clock.  They  were  soon 
formed  into  line  and  marched  through  the  city,  in  splendid  style, 
to  the  airs  of  a  fine  band.  Those  who  saw  their  close  columns 
and  steady  march  as  they  moved  down  Main  street,  in  perfect 
order,  their  polished  muskets  glistening  in  the  moonlight,  with 
Done  of  the  usual  attendants  of  loafers  and  negroes  crowding 
upon  the  ranks,  describe  the  scene  .as  almost  spectral  in  its  ap- 
pearance, so  regular  and  orderly  were  its  movements." 

The  value  of  these  voluntary  testimonials  from  the  newspapers 
of  the  capital  State  will  be  apparent  when  it  is  remembered  that 
nearly  all  the  troops  which  had  come  to  Virginia  from  the  origi- 
nal Confederate  States  passed  over  the  same  Petersburg  and 
Richmond  highway.  The  fact  that  the  troops  of  those  States 
had  been  organized  and  drilled  for  at  least  six  months,  and  de- 
sired war,  accentuates  the  achievement  of  North  Carolina,  which 
dealt  with  men  who  were  private  citizens  a  month  before,  and 
who,  for  the  most  part,  were  opposed  to  war: 

Nor  was  expert  testimony  lacking  to  the  same  effect.  Dr. 
Battle,  of  the  University,  reports  that  General  Gabriel  J. 
Rains,  when  he  visited  the  First  Regiment  on  the  Yorktown 
Peninsula,  declared  that  it  was  "the  best  regiment  he  had  ever 
seen."     (General  Rains  was  graduated  from  the  United  States 

^Saturday  night. 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  77 

Military  Academy  in  1827,  and  from  that  time  until  the  breaking 
out  of  the  war  served  with  distinction  in  the  regular  aripy.  At 
the  time  of  his  visit  he  was  a  general  officer  of  the  Confederacy 
and  in  command  of  the  First  Division  of  Magruder's  Peninsula 


By  reference  to  the  Adjutant-General's  orders  in  the  appen- 
dix to  this  article  it  will  be  seen  that  several  changes  were  made 
in  the  companies  assigned  to  the  First  Regiment.  When  com- 
plete and  ready  for  departure  for  Virginia  its  organization  was 
as  follows: 

Daniel  H.  Hill,  Colonel. 

Charles  C.  Lee,  Lieutenant-Colonel. 

James  H.  Lane,  Major. 

J.  M.  POTEAT,  Adjutant. 

John  Henry  Wayt,  Commissary. 

Dr.  Peter  E.  Hines,  Surgeon. 

Dr.  Joseph  H.  Baker,  Assistant  Surgeon. 

Dr.  John  G.  Hardy,  Assistant  Surgeon. 

Rev.  Edwin  A.  Yates,  Chaplain. 

Company  A — Edgecombe  Guards — Captain,  John  L.  Bridg- 
ers;  First  Lieutenant,  Whitmel  P.  Lloyd;  Second  Lieutenant, 
William  S.  Long;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  W.  G.  Lewis. 

Company  B — Hornet's  Nest  Rifles — Captain,  Lewis  S.  Wil- 
liams; First  Lieutenant,  William  A.  Owens;  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, William  P.  Hill;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  Thomas  D. 

Company  C — Charlotte  Grays — Captain,  E.  A.  Ross;  First 
Lieutenant,  E.  B.  Cohen ;  Second  Lieutenant,  Thomas  B.  Trot- 
ter; Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  C.  W.  Alexander. 

Company  D — Orange  Light  Infantry — Captain,  Richard  J. 
Ashe;  First  Lieutenant,  James  R.  Jennings;  Second  Lieutenant, 
Richard  B.  Saunders;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  Richardson 

Company  E — Buncombe  Miflemen — Captain,  William  Wallis 

78  NoETH  Carolina  Teoops,  1861-65. 

McDowell;  First  Lieutenant,  Washington  Morrison  Hardy; 
Second  Lieutenant,  George  Henry  Gregory;  Junior  Second  Lieu- 
tenant, James  Alfred  Patton. 

Company  F — LaFayette  Light  Infantry — Captain,  Joseph  B. 
Starr;  First  Lieutenant,  Frank  N.  Koberts;  Second  Lieutenant, 
John  A.  Pemberton;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  George  Sloan. 

Company  G — Bu7'ke  Rifles — Captain,  Clark  Moulton  Avery; 
First  Lieutenant,  Calvin  S.  Brown;  Second  Lieutenant,  John 
A.  Dickson;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  James  C.  S.  McDowell. 

Company  H — Fayetteville  Indepmident  Light  Infantry — Cap- 
tain, Wright  Huske;  First  Lieutenant,  Benjamin  Robinson 
Huske;  Second  Lieutenant,  Charles  BettsCook;  Junior  Second 
Lieutenant,  Hector  McKethan. 

Company  I — Enfield  Blues — Captain,  D.  B.  Bell;  First  Lieu- 
tenant, M.  T.  Whitaker;  Second  Lieutenant,  F.  M.  Parker; 
Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  Cary  W.  Whitaker. 

Company  K — Southern  Stars — Captain,  William  J.  Hoke; 
First  Lieutenant,  Wallace  M.  Reinhardt;  Second  Lieutenant, 
Robert  F.  Hoke;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  Ed.  E.  Sumner. 

The  field  officers  were  the  three  ranking  officers  of  the  North 
Carolina  Military  Institute  at  Charlotte,  Colonel  Hill,  known 
by  his  old  army  title  of  Major,  being  the  commandant.  They 
were  all  men  of  distinction  in  their  profession. 

Hill  had  been  graduated  from  West  Point  in  1842;  had  par- 
ticipated in  nearly  every  important  engagement  in  the  Mexican 
war;  and  had  won  the  brevet  of  captain  at  Contreras  and  Cheru- 
busco,  and  of  major  at  Chapultepec.  He  resigned  from  the 
army  in  1849  to  become  Professor  of  Mathematics  at  Washing- 
ton College,  Virginia.  In  1854  he  became  a  professor  in  David- 
son College,  and,  in  1859,  commandant  and  manager  of  the 
Military  Institute  at  Charlotte.  At  the  outbreak  of  the  war  he 
was  made  commandant  of  the  camp  of  instruction  at  Raleigh. 

Lee  was  graduated  high  in  his  class  at  West  Point  in  1856; 
became  Second  Lieutenant  of  Ordnance  in  the  army;  resigned 
his  commission  in  1859,  and  became  a  professor  at  the  Charlotte 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  79 

Military  Institute.    He  was  made  major  and  second  in  command 
at  the  camp  of  instruction  at  Raleigh. 

Lane  was  one  of  the  two  "star  graduates"  of  his  class  at  the 
Virginia  Military  Institute,  and  a  graduate  of  the  University  of 
Virginia.  He  became  Assistant  Professor  of  Mathematics  and 
Tactics  at  the  Virginia  Military  Institute;  later,  professor  of 
those  departments  at  the  Florida  State  Seminary;  and  then  Pro- 
fessor of  Natural  Philosophy  in  the  Charlotte  Military  Institute. 
He  was  made  drill-master  and  adjutant  of  the  camp  of  instruc- 
tion at  Raleigh. 


The  regiment  was  immediately  sent  to  the  front,  and,  as  we 
have  seen,  reached  Richmond  in  two  detachments — the  first, 
composed  of  the  two  Fayetteville  companies  and  the  Lincoln 
company,  under  Colonel  Hill,  arriving  there  on  Saturday  night, 
the  18th  of  May;  and  the  second,  composed  of  the  remainder  of 
the  regiment,  Under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lee,  arriving  on  Tues- 
day night,  the  21st.  Thus,  as  the  Richmond  Examiner  said. 
North  Carolina  had  patriotically  anticipated  the  legal  act  of 
secession,  and  she  had  actually  put  nearly  four  hundred  of  her 
troops  on  Virginia  soil  before  its  occurrence.  No  other  State,  it 
is  believed,  did  as  much. 

The  regiment  went  into  camp  at  Howard's  Grove,  and  remained 
at  Richmond  until  the  Friday  following.  May  24th. 

As  North  Carolina  was  still  technically  in  the  Union,  and 
Virginia,  whose  ordinance  of  secession  was  passed  on  the  17th 
of  May,  did  not  transfer  her  military  establishment  to  the  Con- 
federacy until  June  7th,  our  North  Carolina  troops  on  Virginia 
soil  were  for  some  days  in  the  position  of  allies  of  Virginia.  As 
such  they  were  under  the  supreme  command  of  General  Robert 
E.  Lee,  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Virginia  forces.  General 
Lee  had  but  three  weeks  before  (April  20th)  resigned  his  posi- 
tion in  the  United  States  Army  as  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  Albert 
Sidney  Johnston's  Second  Regiment  of  Cavalry.  His  appear- 
ance at  this  time  was  strikingly  different  from  that  in  which  he 

80  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

subsequently  became  familiar  to  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia. 
His  hair  was  close  cropped,  his  complexion  fresh  and  ruddy,  his 
face  smooth-shaven,  except  for  a  black,  military-looking  mus- 
tache. His  movement  was  quicker;  his  figure — graceful,  as  can- 
not be  forgotten,  and  erect  to  the  last — more  lithe.  He  was, 
altogether,  a  phenomenally  handsome  man,  the  model  of  a  sol- 
dier.  'In  a  year's  time  he  looked  ten  years  older. 


Of  the  four  lines*  by  which  General  Scott  had  planned  the 
invasion  of  Virginia — from  Washington;  from  Fortress  Mon- 
roe; by  the  Cumberland  Valley;  and  from  Ohio,  by  the  Kana- 
wha, into  Western  Virginia — that  from  Fortress  Monroe  became 
the  natural  one,  with  the  transfer  of  the  Capital  of  the  Confed- 
eracy from  Montgomery  to  Richmond.  Except  that  the  first 
mentioned  served  the  double  purpose  of  protecting  the  Federal 
Capital,  the  Fortress  Monroe  line  would  undoubtedly  have  claimed 
his  chief  attention.  The  splendid  base  which  that  great  military 
work,  one  of  the  largest  in  the  world,  supplied,  and  the  ideal 
route  which  the  Yorktown  Peninsula  presented  for  his  marching 
troops,  with  the  broad  waters  of  the  James  and  the  York  Rivei's 
open  to  his  navy  on  either  flank,  were  considerations  which  must 
otherwise  have  fixed  his  choice.  It  is  probable  that  the  situation 
at  the  moment  of  the  First  Regiment's  arrival  in  Richmond 
would  have  destined  them  to  Northern  Virginia;  but  circumstances 
were  rapidly  shifting  the  theatre  of  operations. 

After  the  evacuation  of  the  Gosport  Navy  Yard  by  the  Fed- 
eral authorities  on  the  21st  of  April,  Richmond  was  thrown  into 
alarm  by  the  reports  of  the  approach  of  the  Federal  gun-boat 
"Pawnee''  up  the  James.  On  the  6th  of  May  Federal  vessels 
chased  steamers  to  within  twelve  miles  of  Gloucester  Point,  on 
the  York  River,  opposite  Yorktown,  and  fired  upon  them.  On 
May  7th  the  special  agent  of  the  Confederate  Government 
reported  to  the  Secretary  of  War  (L.  P.  Walker),  from  Rich- 
mond, that   intelligent   and    distinguished    men    in    Richmond 

*Major  Jed  Hotchkiss,  in  Confederate  Military  History,  Vol.  Ill,  page  43. 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  81 

"  believe  Virginia  on  the  very  brink  of  being  carried  back,  and 
say  no  man  but  President  Davis  can  save  her.  *  *  *  There 
is  disappointment  that  he  does  not  assume  entire  direction  of 
affairs  here.  *  *  *  General  Lee  has  ordered  Louisiana 
troops  to  Harper's  Ferry.  *  *  *  "phe  South  Carolina  troops 
refuse  to  move  unless  under  orders  from  Montgomery."*  On  the 
11th  of  May,  Rev.  Dr.  W.  N.  Pendleton  (afterwards  brigadier- 
general  of  artillery),  who  had  been  a  classmate  of  President 
Davis  at  West  Point,  wrote  to  the  President  at  Montgomery  as 
follows:  "As  you  value  our  great  cause,  hasten  on  to  Rich- 
mond. Lincoln  and  Scott  are,  if  I  mistake  not,  covering  by 
other  demonstrations  the  great  movement  upon  Richmond.  Sup- 
pose they  should  send  suddenly  up  the  York  River,  as  they  can, 
an  army  of  thirty  thousand  or  more;  there  are  no  means  at  hand 
to  repel  them,  and  if  their  policy  shown  in  Maryland  gets  footing 
here,  it  will  be  a  severe,  if  not  a  fatal,  blow.  Hasten,  I  pray  you, 
to  avert  it.  -  The  very  fact  of  yonr  presence  will  almost  answer. 
Hasten,  then,  I  entreat  you;  don't  lose  a  day."  On  the  18th  of 
May  (the  day  after  Virginia's  secession)  the  United  States  ship 
"Monticello"  fired  on  the  Virginia  battery  at  Seweli's  Point, 
and  again  on  the  21st.  On  the  22d,  Majpr-General  Benjamin  F. 
Butler,  United  States  Army,  was  transferred  from  the  Depart- 
ment of  Annapolis  and  assigned  to' the  command  of  the  Depart- 
of  Virginia,  with  headquarters  at  Fortress  Monroe;  a^nd  nine 
additional  infantry  regiments  were  sent  there.  On  the  23d,  a 
Federal  regiment  made  a  demonstration  against  Hampton,  three 
miles  from  Fortress  Monroe.  At  Hampton  and  other  points  in 
the  Peninsula  country  there  was  considerable  disaffection  to  the 

It  was  under  these  circumstances  that  the  destination  of  the 
First  North  Carolina  Volunteers,  the  crack  regiment  of  the  day, 
was  decided.  They  were  ordered  to  Yorktown,  the  "  post  of 
danger  and  of  honor,"t  as  the  papers  of  the  day  described  it. 
Breaking  camp  at  Richmond  on  the  24th  of  May,  they  proceeded 

♦Confederate  Military  History,  Vol.  Ill,  page  128. 
tFayetteville  Observer,  May  27, 1861. 


82  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

by  rail  to  West  Point,  ou  the  York  River,  and  by^steam-boat 
(tlie  "  Logan ")  the  rest  of  the  way,  landing  at  Yorktown  the 
same  afternoon.  Upon  the  boat  was  Colonel  John  B.  Magruder, 
of  the  Provisional  Army  of  Virginia,  lately  a  distinguished  artil- 
lery major  of  the  United  States  Army,  who  had  just  been 
assigned  (May  21st)  to  the  command  of  the  Department  of  the 
Peninsula,  including  the  York  and  James  Rivers. 

Between  the  time  of  the  regiment's  arrival  at  Yorktown  and 
the  6th  of  June  it  was  kept  incessantly  at  work,  drilling  and  in- 
trenching. While  engaged  in  the  latter  it  was  interesting  to 
these  new  disciples  of  Mars  to  trace  the  outline  of  Cornwallis's 
works  erected  in  defense  against 'their  forefathers  four  score  years 
before.  Sometimes  their  spades  and  picks  would  renew,  some- 
times demolish,  those  ancient  war  marks,  and  occasionally  they 
would  unearth  a  souvenir  of  battle. 

A  company  of  mounted  men,  called  the  Old  Dominion  Dra- 
goons, appeared  shortly  after  the  regiment's  arrival,  having  their 
rendezvous  at  Yorktown;  though  doing  picket  duty  between 
Yorktown  and  the  enemy's  posts  at  Hampton  (three  miles  from 
Fortress  Monroe)  and  Newport  News,  some  twenty-one  miles 
away.  At  Newport  News,  General  Butler  had  caused  a  very 
strong  intrenched  camp  to  be  established,  garrisoning  it  with 
several  regiments,  among  them  the  Seventh  New  York,  the  First 
Vermopt  and  the  Fourth  Massachusetts,  together  with  a  portion 
of  the  Second  United  States  Artillery.  On  the  28th  of  May  two 
more  companies  of  Virginia  cavalry  were  ordered  to  Yorktown, 
and  Cabell's  Battery  of  light  artillery  was  transferred  thither 
from  Gloucester  Point.  On  the  10th  of  June  the  Louisiana 
Zouaves  (the  First  Louisiana  Battalion),  under  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Coppens,  were  ordered  from  Richmond  to  Yorktown. 
At  the  same  time  a  number  of  companies  of  Alabama  troops 
were  concentrated  at  Yorktown  from  Gloucester  Point  and  Rich- 
mond and  organized  into  a  regiment  under  Colonel  John  A. 
Winston.  Major  George  W.  Randolph  (the  successor,  shortly 
after,  of  Mr.  Walker  as  Secretary  of  War)  had  a  small  battalion 
of  artillery  at  Yorktown;  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  William  D. 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  83 

Stuart,  of  .the  Third  Virginia  Regiment,  and  Major  E.  B.  Mon- 
tague, were  sufficiently  near  to  reach  Bethel  Church,  each  with 
three  companies,  on  the  morning  of  the  lOtb,  the  day  of  the 

Such  was  the  military  situation — so  far  as  the  troops  with 
which  we  had  to  confront  General  Butler  were  concerned — for 
several  days  before  and  after  the  battle  of  Bethel.  About  two 
weeks  before,  a  party  of  some  three  hundred  Federal  troops  had 
come  up  from  Hampton  and  occupied  Bethel  Church.  They 
remained  a  day  or  two,  and  left  a  number  of  incriptions  on  the 
walls  of  the  church — "Death  to  the  Traitors!"  "Down  with 
the  Rebels!"  and  the  like — which  were  read  with  interest  by  our 
men  upon  arrival.  Colonel  Magruder  determined  to  put  a  stop 
to  these  bold  incursions,  and  made  his  dispositions  accordingly. 

the  battle  of  bethel.* 

On  Thursday,  the  6th  of  June,  Colonel  Hill,  under  orders 
from  Colonel  Magruder,  proceeded  with  the  First  North  Caro- 
lina Regiment  to  Big  Bethel  Church.  This  place  is  situated  on 
the  Hampton  road  about  thirteen  miles  from  Yorktown-,  some 
eight  miles  from  Hampton,  and  about  the  same  distance  from 
Newport  News.  Major  Randolph,  with  four  pieces  of  artillery, 
accompanied  the  expedition. 

The  march  from  Yorktown  was  accomplished  by  about  dusk. 
It  was  a  trying  one,  as  it  was  made  in  heavy  marching  order, 
with  knapsacks,  haversacks,  canteens,  loaded  cartridge-boxes, 
often  a  Bible  in  the  knapsack,  and  with  a  tin  cup  and  an  extra 
pair  of  shoes  dangling  from  either  corner  of  this  rather  boxey 
affair.  The  light  marching  order  of  Jackson's  foot-cavalry  was 
as  yet  a  sealed  chapter  of  the  regulations.  A  drizzling  mist  had 
set  in  before  dark,  and  it  was  the  regiment's  first  experience  at 
cooking  with  ramrods  and  bivouacking  without  tents. 

•There  is  no  detailed  account  of  the  battle  of  Bethel  in  the  offlcial  records.  Indeed, 
General  Butler  ("  War  of  the  Eebellion,"  Vol.  II,  page  82)  declares  that  it  would  serve  no 
useful  purpose,  liowever  interesting  such  an  account  would  be,  to  attempt  to  make  it  in 
the  abseuce  of  a  "  map  of  the  ground  and  details."  Endeavor  has  been  made,  therefore, 
in  this  article,  to  construct  such  an  account  by  a  comparison  of  the  various  official  reports 
of  both  sides  which  have  been  published. 

84  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

There  was  not  even  a  hamlet  about  the  church  at  that  time^ 
and  no  doubt  it  is  the  same  to-day — simply  a  grove  beside  and 
on  the  west  side- of  the  road,  with  a  large,  unpainted  woodeu 
country  meeting-house  standing  in  the  midst  of  the  grove  and 
facing  the  road.  The  regiment  had  traversed  a  sandy  level  up  to 
this  point,  but  here  the  land  falls  oif  to  the  southward  and  to 
the  right  and  left  of  the  road,  the  depression  on  the  right,  back 
of  the  church,  being  somewhat  precipitous.  A  creek  which  forms 
the  headwaters  of  the  northwest  branch  of  Back  River  flows  in 
this  depression,  a  branch  of  the  creek  coming  through  the  ravine 
back  of  the  church.  A  flat  wooden  bridge  carried  the  road  over 
'the  creek,  a  hundred  yards  or  so  southeast  of  the  church. 

Some  three  miles  beyond  Big  Bethel  was  Little  Bethel  Churchy 
where  our  mounted  pickets  had  an  outpost. 

The  two  maps*  herewith  illustrate  the  country  adjacent  to  the 
battlefield  and  the  battlefield  itself. 

On  the  morning  of  the  7th,  Colonel  Hill  made  a  reconnais- 
sance of  the  ground  with  a  view  to  fortifying  it.  He  gives  the 
result  in  his  official  report  as  follows: 

"  I  found  a  branch  of  Back  River  on  our  front,  and  encircling 
our  right  flank.  On  our  left  was  a  dense  and  almost  impassable 
wood,  except  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  yards  of  old  field. 
The  breadth  of  the  road,  a  thick  wood,  and  narrow  cultivated 
field  covered  our  rear.  The  nature  of  the  ground  determined  me  to 
make  an  inclosed  work,  and  I  had  the  invaluable  aid  of  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Lee  of  my  regiment  in  its  plan  and  construction.  Our  posi- 
tion had  the  inherent  defect  of  being  commanded  by  an  immense 
field  immediately  in  front  of  it,t  upon  which  the  masses  of  the 
enemy  might  be  readily  deployed.  Presuming  that  an  attempt 
would  be  made  to  carry  the  bridge  across  the  stream,  a  battery 

*Upon  map  No.  1,  of  Plate  No.  XVIIl,  of  the  atlases  accompanying  the  Government's 
publication,  "  War  of  the  Rebellion,"  as  a  basis,  an  outline  map  has  been  prepared  of  so 
much  of  the  York  Peninsula  as  may  be  useful  for  the  present  purpose.  A  map  of  the 
battlefield  of  Bethel  has  also  been  prepared  from  a  tracing  of  the  original  map  made  by 
General  Lewis  (then  Second  Lieutenant  of  Company  A)  a  few  days  after  the  battle.  The 
positions  of  the  Federal  troops  have  been  located  by  a  study  of  their  oflJicial  reports. 
Those  of  tho  Confederates  are  as  given  in  Lieutenant  Lewis's  map,  and  are  those'  held 
just  before  the  opening  of  the  battle.  There  were  some  important  changes  afterwards^ 
and  these  are  noted  in  detail  further  on. 

t  Across  the  stream. 

1.  Ship  Point, 

2.  Camp  Payetteville  (Cockletown). 
8.    Camp  Eains. 

The  Bethel  Eeg.iment.  85 

was  made  for  its  especial  protection,  and  Major  Randolph 
placed  his  guns  so  as  to  sweep  all  the  approaches  to  it.  The 
O(?cupation  of  two  commanding  eminences  beyond  the  creek  and 
on  our  right  would  have  greatly  strengthened  our  position,  but 
our  force  was  too  weak  to  admit  of  the  occupation  of  more  than 
one  of  them.  A  battery  was  laid  out  on  it  for  one  of  Ran- 
dolph's howitzers." 

There  were  but  twenty-five  spades,  six  axes  and  three  picks  in 
possession  of  the  command,  but  these  were  plied  so  vigorously 
all  day  and  night  of  the  7th  and  all  day  on  the  8th  that  the  work 
began  to  show  the  outlines  of  a  fortified  camp. 

On  the  afternoon  of  the  8th,  Colonel  Hill  learned  that  a  ma- 
rauding party  of  the  enemy  was  within  a  few  miles  of  the  camp, 
and  called  for  a  detachment  to  drive  them  back.  Lieutenant 
Frank  N.  Roberts,  of  Company  F,  "promptly  responded,"  says 
Colonel  Hill  in  his  report,  "and  in  five  minutes  his  command 
was  en  route." 

Colonel  Hill  detached  Major  Randolph,  with  one  howitzer,  to 
join  them,  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lee  (of  the  First  Regiment) 
volunteered  to  take  command  of  the  whole.  They  came  upon 
the  marauders,  five  miles  off,  "busy  over  the  spoils  of  a  plun- 
dered house."  A  shell  from  the  howitzer  put  them  to  flight. 
Soon  after  information  came  that  seventy-five  marauders  were 
on  the  Back  River  road.  Colonel  Hill  called  upon  Captain 
McDowell's  company.  Company  E,  "and  in  three  minutes  it  was 
in  hot  pursuit."  A  howitzer  was  detached  to  join  them,  and 
Major  James  H.  Lane  (of  the  First  Regiment)  volunteered  to 
command  the  whole.  The  marauders  were  encountered,  after  a 
long  march,  near  New  -Market  Bridge.  Within  sight  of  the 
flags,  at  Hampton  and  hearing  of  the  drums  calling  to  arms. 
Lane  opened  fire  and  drove  the  enemy  across  the  bridge,  wound- 
ing a  large  number  of  the  marauders  and  capturing  one.  Col- 
onel Hill  afterwards  declared  that  the  boldness  of  this  attack, 
made  under  the  very  guns  of  the  enemy's  chief  camp,  brought 
on  the  battle  of  Bethel.     As  a  result  of  this  expedition,  so  the 

86  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

citizens  reported,  two  cart  loads  and  one  buggy  load  of  dead 
and  wounded  were  taken  into  Hampton.  None  were  hurt  on 
our  side. 

Colonel  Magruder  carue  up  the  same  evening  and  assumed 
command.  On  the  uext  day  (Sunday)  a  fresh  supply  of  intrench- 
ing tools  enabled  the  men  to  make  further  progress  on  the  works. 

Colonel  Hill  says  in  his  report :  "  We  were  aroused  at  3  o'clock 
on  Monday  morning*  for  a  general  advance  upon  the  enemy, 
and  marched  three  and  a  half  miles,  when  we  learnedf  that 
the  foe,  in  large  force,  was  within  a  few  hundred  yards  of  us. 
We  fell  back  hastily  upon  our  intrenchments,  and  awaited  the 
arrival  of  the  invaders." 

Meanwhile,  information  of  the  activity  of  our  troops  had 
reached  General  Butler  at  Fortress  Monroe.  He  organized  a 
force  consisting  of  nearly  all  of  seven  infantry  regiments  and  of 
artillery  sufficient  for  serving  four  gutis,  which  were  carried  with 
the  expedition.  In  his  report  to  Lieutenant-General  Scott  he 
says  that  his  instructions  to  this  force  were  "to  drive  them  (the 
rebels)  back  and  destroy  their  camp"  at  Little  Bethel.  This 
being  accomplished,  a  couple  of  regiments  were  "to  follow  im- 
mediately upon  the  heels  of  the  fugitives,  if  they  were  enabled 
to  get  off,  and  attack  the  battery  on  the  road  to  Big  Bethel  while 
covered  by  the  fugitives." 

General  Butler's  confidence  was  destined  to  receive  a  rude 
shock.  He  had  but  recently  left  the  Annapolis  department, 
where  he  would  have  become  familiar  with  the  circumstances  of 
the  evacuation  of  Alexandria  on  May  6th, J  and  of  the  Confed- 
erate disaster  at  Philippi,  in  Western  Virginia,  on  June  3d.§ 
Prestige,  so  far,  was  decidedly  against  us,  and  General  Butler's 
expectation  of  the  surprise  and  rout  of  our  forces  was  not  un- 
natural. Prestige  counts  for  much  in  war  as  in  other  human 
affairs,  and  it  was  a  matter  of  vast  consequence  upon  which  side 

*June  loth. 

■fA  purse  of  S225  was  made  up  by  the  officers  of  the  regiment  after  the  battle  and  pre- 
sented to  the  old  lady  who  brought  the  information. 

t"  War  of  the  Rebellion,"  Vol.  II,  pages  23-27. 

llbid.,  pages  G9-74, 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  87 

it  should  remain  after  the  first  serious  shock  of  arms.  Great  as 
was  the  responsibility,  therefore,  which  fate  and  their  own  state 
of  preparedness  had  thrust  upon  our  North  Carolinians,  they 
were  presently  to  exhibit  a  signal  proof  of  their  ability  to 
meet  it. 

General  Butler  laid  his  plans  carefully.*  Instructions  were 
given  Brigadier-General  Pierce,  commanding  at  Hampton,  to 
send  forward  Colonel  Duryea's  Fifth  New  York  Regiment 
(Zouaves)  at  one  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  10th,  by  way  of 
New  Market  Bridge,  and  thence  by  a  by-road  to  a  point  between 
Little  Bethel  and  Big  Bethel,  with  the  object  of  taking  our  out- 
post there  in  the  rear.  Colonel  Townsend's  Third  New  York 
Regiment,  with  a  couple  of  mountain  howitzers,  was  instructed 
to  support  Duryea,  marching  about  an  hour  later.  At  the  same 
time  Colonel  Phelps,  commanding  at  Newport  News,  was  directed 
to  send  out  a  battalion  under  command  of  Lieutenaut-Colonel 
Washburn  in  time  to  make  a  demonstration  upon  Little  Bethel 
in  front,  and  to  have  him  supported  by  Colonel  Bendix's  Sev- 
enth New  York  Regiment  with  two  field-pieces. 

Washburn's  Battalion  was  made  up  of  three  hundred  men 
from  the  First  Vermont  and  three  hundred  men  from  Wash- 
burn's own  regiment,  the  Fourth  Massachusetts.  The  two  field- 
pieces  were  of  the  Second  United  States  Artillery  (regulajs), 
under  command  of  Lieutenant  Greble.  The  two  mountain  how- 
itzers with  Townsend  were  manned  by  a  detachment  from  Col- 
onel Carr's  Second  New  York  Regiment,  "  under  the  direction 
of  a  non-commissioned  officer  and  four  privates  of  the  United 
States  Army."  The  two  supporting  regiments,  Townsend's  and 
Bendix's,  were  expected  to  effect  a  junction  at  the  fork  of  the 
road  leading  from  Hampton  to  Newport  News,  about  midway 
between  New  Market  Bridge  and  Little  Bethel.  The  movement 
was  so  timed  that  the  attack  on  Little  Bethel  should  be  made  at 
daybreak.  In  case  of  failure  .to  surprise  the  outpost  at  Little 
Bethel,  General  Pierce,  if  he  thought  it  expedient,  was  directed 
to  attack  the  work  at  Big  Bethel. 

•"  War  of  the  RebelliOD,"  page  77  et  seq. 

88  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

In  General  Butler's  "plan  of  operations"  were  instructions  to 
"Burn  up  both  the  Bethels.  Blow  up,  if  brick."  Artillerists 
to  "handle  the  captured  guns,"  and  "spikes  to  spike  them," 
were  also  to  be  provided. 

Everything  went  according  to  the  plan,  up  to  a  certain  point. 
Duryea  and  Washburn  had  arrived  at  the  places  assigned  thena, 
and  Bendix's  supporting  regiment  had  arrived  at  the  fork  of  the 
road  where  the  junction  was  to  be  made  with  Townsend.  As 
day  dawned  Townseud's  Regiment,  with  General  Pierce  and  his 
aide-de-camp  in  advance,  were  within  a  hundred  yards  of  Bendix's 
position,  when  suddenly  the  latter  opened  upon  Townsend's  col- 
umn with  both  artillery  and  musketry,  killing  two  and  wound- 
ing nineteen,  four  of  the  latter  being  officers.  General  Pierce 
says  that  he  was  on  the  point  of  ordering  a  charge  upon  the  sup- 
posed enemy  when  the  mistake  was  discovered.  Duryea  and 
Washburn,  hearing  the  firing  in  their  rear,  "reversed  their  march," 
to  use  General  Butler's  expression,  and  joined  their  belligerent 
reserves.  Pierce  held  a  council  of  war,  decided  to  attack  Bethel, 
and  sent  to  Butler  for  re-in forcemeats,  who  dispatched  to  him 
Colonel  Allen's  First  and  Colonel  Carr's  Second  New  York 

The  enemy's  forces,  therefore,  which  were  engaged  against  us 
at  i^ethel,  may  be  summed  up  as  follows: 

First  New  York,  Colonel  Allen,*-  .         .  750 

Second  New  York,  Colonel  Carr,*         .  .  750 

(A  detachment  acting  as  artillerists). 
Third  New  York,  Colonel  Townsend,    .  .         650 

Fifth  New  York,  Colonel  Duryea,         .         .  850 

Seventh  New  York,  Colonel  Bendix,*    .         .         750 

First  Vermont,! 300 

Fourth  Massachusetts,!        ....  300 

(Both  under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Washburn). 
Second  U.  S:  Artillery,  Greble's  Detachment,  say,       50 
Total, 4,400 

*Thi8  is  the  average  of  the  known  strength  of  Duryea's  and  Townsend's  Regiments 
IS  given  in  Pierce's  report,  "War  of  the  Rebellion,"  Vol.  II,  page  83.  ' 

fBendix's  report,  Ibid.^  page  88. 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  89 

General,  staff  and  couriers,  and  four  guns. 

General  Pierce's  General  Order  No.  12,  given  in  his  report, 
also  mentions  Colonel  McChesney's  command  as  one  of  those 
designated  to  be  held  in  readiness  along  with  Allen's  and  Carr's. 
If  also  sent  forward,  that  would  swell  the  total  to  some  5,200. 

While  these  proceedings  were  taking  place  with  the  enemy,  the 
First  North  Carolina  Volunteers  were  hurrying  forward,  over 
Lee's  and  Lane's  familiar  course,  towards  New  Market  Bridge. 
It  is  certain  that  neither  of  the  marching  columns  was  aware  of 
the  action  of  the  other — the  North  Carolinians  starting  out  from 
Big  Bethel  at  three  o'clock  in  the  morning,  and  Butler's  army 
from  Hampton  and  Newport  News  at  one  o'clock  and  two 
o'clock.  Except  for  Bendix's  daybreak  fight  and  the  consequent 
delay,  we  should  probably  have  come  upon  Duryea's  and  Wash- 
burn's troops  a  little  to  the  Yorktown  side  of  Little  Bethel. 

Our  forces  as  assembled  for  battle  may  be  thus  summarized: 

First  North  Carolina  Regiment,  Colonel  Hill,    .    800 

Three  companies  of  the  Third  Virginia  Regi- 
ment, Lieutenant-Colonel  Stuart,*  .         .    208 

Three  companies  of  Virginia  troops.  Major 
Montague  (estimated),  .  .         .         .150 

Battalion  of  Virginia  Artillery,  Major  Randolph 
(estimated),  .  .         .  .         .         .150 

Douthatt's,  Phillips's  and  Jones's  companies  of 
Virginia  Cavalry  (estimated),         .         .         .     100 

Total,  1,408 

Randolph  reports  one  rifled  (iron)  Parrott  gun,  three  how- 
itzers, and  one  rifled  howitzer  on  the  ground.  He  sent,  besides, 
one  howitzer  to  the  "Half- Way  House,"  some  three  miles  away, 
and  one  howitzer  had  previously  been  posted  "in  the  rear  of  the 
road  leading  from  the  Half- Way  House." 

At  nine  o'clock  the  head  of  the  enemy's  column  (Bendix's 
Seventh  New  York)  appeared  in  the  road,  half  a  mile  away,  and 

♦Stuart's  report,  "  War  of  the  Rebellion,"  Vol.  II,  page  97. 

90  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

soon  they  seemed  to  fill  it.  Who  will  forget  that  tremendous 
moment,  ushering  in  the  war!  A  few  minutes  after  nine  o'clock 
a  shot  from  Eandolph's  Parrot  gun,  aimed  by  himself,  screamed 
away  at  them.  It  hit  the  earth  just  in  their  front  and  ricocheted.* 
They  fell  away  from  the  road  like  a  mist  before  the  sun,  their 
artillery  at  once  replied,  and  the  battle  began. 

The  positions  of  the  several  companies  of  the  First  North 
Carolina  Regiment  at  the  opening  of  the  battle,  and  their  changes 
of  position  during  its  progress,  were  as  follows: 

Company  A,  Captain  Bridgers,  was  posted  in  the  dense  wood, 
or  swamp,  beyond  the  works,  beyond  the  creek,  and  to  the  left 
of  the  road.  They  were  deployed  as  skirmishers.  When  Brown's 
howitzer  was  spiked  and  abandoned.  Company  A  was  transferred 
to  the  right,  where  they  attacked  the  enemy  and  recovered  the 

Company  B,  Lieutenant  Owens,  on  the  south  face  of  the 
works.  From  this  position  the  company  took  part  in  the  repulse 
of  the  enemy^'s  first  attempt  on  our  right  and  in  the  repulse  of 
Winthrop's  attack. 

Company  C,  Captain  Ross,  on  the  left  of  Company  B,  and 
occupying  the  adjacent  part  of  the  east  face  of  the  works.  After 
the  temporary  capture  by  the  enemy  of  Brown's  abandoned  how- 
itzer, Company  C  was  ordered  (with  Company  A)  to  recapture 
it.  When  this  was  done  they  were  returned  to  their  original  posi- 
tion, where  they  took  part  in  the  repulse  of  Winthrop's  attack. 

Company  D,  Captain  Ashe,  at  the  northeast  angle  of  the 

Company  E,  Captain  McDowell,  on  the  north  and  northwest 
faces  of  the  works. 

Company  F,  Captain  Starr,  in  the  woods  to  the  north  and  left 
of  Company  D's  position,  with  exception  of  a  detachment  under 
Lieutenant  Roberts,  stationed  at  a  ford  a  mile  below  the  bridge. 

Company  G,  Captain  Avery,  was  thrown  beyond  the  stream, 
to  the  right  of  the  road,  near  an  old  mill-dam,  where  they  took 
part  in  the  repulse   of  the  enemy's  first  advance  on  our  right. 

*Bendix  says  in  his  report:  "Before  we  had  got  ready  for  action  the  enemy  opened 
their  Are  upon  us,  striking  one  man  down  at  my  side  at  the  first  shot." 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  91 

Subsequently  they  were  mover!  forward  to  the  support  of  the 
howitzer  which  had  replaced  the  spiked  and  abandoned  one. 

Company  H,  Captain  Huske,  on  the  west  face  of  the  works, 
on  the  right  (north)  of  Montague's  Battalion.  Shortly  after  the 
fight  began  Company  H  was  moved  forward  to  the  support  of 
the  main  battery  (Randolph's),  southeast  of  the  church.  When 
Winthrop  made  his  attack  upon  the  southeast  angle,  half  of  the 
company,  under  Lieutenants  Cook  and  McKethan,  were  sent 
thither  by  Colonel  Magruder,  where  they  took  part  in  the 
repulse  of  Winthrop. 

Company  I,  Lieutenant  Parker,  on  the  right  (north)  of  Com- 
pany H's  first  position,  and  extending  to  the  northwest  angle  of 
the  works.  During  the  progress  of  the  battle  Company  I  was 
deployed  in  front  of  its  position  in  the  works  and  remained  thus 
until  it  was  over. 

Company  K,  Captain  Hoke,  in  the  woods  on  the  left  (north) 
of  Company  F.  During  the  battle  Company  K  was  deployed 
one  hundred  and  fifty  yards  in  front  of  its  position,  in  anticipa- 
tion of  Winthrop's  skirmishers  striking  there.  Upon  their  fail- 
ure to  do  this,  it  was  withdrawn  to  its  original  position.  At 
the  close  of  the  battle  Company  K  was  sent  forward,  as  described 
further  on. 

Lieutenant- Colonel  Stuart's  three  companies  were  stationed  on 
the  hill  to  the  extreme  right,  beyond  the  creek,  where  he  com- 
pleted the  slight  breastwork  erected  to  protect  his  command. 

Major  Montague's  three  companies  were  stationed  on  the  west 
face  of  the  works,  back  and  northwest  of  the  church.  Upon 
Stuart's  retirement  to  this  point,  shortly  after  the  action  began, 
Montague's  command  was  ordered  to  a  point  a  mile  and  a  quarter 
to  the  left.  The  enemy  making  no  demonstration  in  that  quar- 
ter, they  took  no  other  part  in  the  action. 

Randolph's  artillery  was  posted  as  follows:  The  Parrott  gun 
and  one  howitzer  in  the  main  battery  on  the  right  of  the  road, 
near  the  front  of  the  church;  a  howitzer  under  Captain  Brown 
in  the  battery  erected  on  the  right,  beyond  the  ravine;  a  howitzer 
near  the  bridge,  on  the  right  of  the  road;  the  rifled  howitzer  on 

92  North  Carolina  Troops,  18  61-'65. 

the  left  of  the  road,  behind  the  right  of  the  redoubt  erected 

The  three  coQipanies  of  cavalry  (dismounted)  were  posted  in 
rear  of  the  whole.f 

A  detachment  of  fifteen  cadets  from  the  North  Carolina  Mili- 
tary Institute  was  posted  beside  the  last  mentioned  howitzer. 

How  these  dispositions  for  defense  appeared  to  the  attack- 
ing party  is  revealed  by  their  reports  of  the  battle. 

Captain  Judson  Kilpatrick,  of  Duryea's  Fifth  New  York 
(afterwards  the  cavalry  general  who  had  the  interesting  experi- 
ence with  Wheeler's  Cavalry  near  Fayetteville  in  1865),  with  two 
companies  of  his  regiment,  acted  as  the  enemy's  advance  guard. 

He  says  that  he  drove  in  our  pickets  at  eight  o'clock,  and 
then  made  an  "armed  reaonnaissance"  of  our  position  and  forces. 
He  was  much  impressed  with  what  he  saw.  He  "found  the 
enemy  with  about- from  three  to  five  thousand  men  posted  in  a 
stroug  position  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  bridge,  three  earth- 
works and  a  masked  "battery  on  the  right  and  left;  in  advance  of 
the  stream  thirty  pieces  of  artillery  and  a  large  force  of  cavalry."  J 
General  Butler's  view,  from  Fortress  Monroe,  was  different.  He 
reiterated  in  his  report  his  conviction  that  we  had  not  more  than 
a  regiment  during  the  battle,  and  that  if  his  orders  "  to  go  ahead 
with  the  bayonet,"  after  the  first  volley,  had  been  obeyed,  the 
"battery"  would  have  been  captured. 

When  within  a  mile  of  our  position,  General  Pierce  halted  his 

*The  following  is  a  summary  of  such  portions  of  Major  Randolph's  i-eport  as  are  useful 
to  the  present  purpose;  The  howitzer  on  the  right  (under  Captain  Brown)  was  spiked 
early  in  the  action  by  the  breaking  of  a  priming-wire,  and  was  withdrawn.  It  was  re- 
placed near  the  close  by  Moseley's  howitzer,  brought  up  from  the  Half- Way  House.  The 
ford  on  the  left  being  threatened,  the  howitzer  at  the  bridge  was  withdrawn  and  sent  to 
that  point.  The  rifled  howitzer  was  withdrawn  from  the  left  of  the  road  and  sent  to  the 
rear  when  tliat  was  supposed  to  be  threatened.  The  same  disposition  was  subsequently 
made  of  the  howitzer  in  the  main  battery  near  the  church,  leaving  only  the  Parrott  gun 
there.  Randolph  says  in  his  report:  "The  fire  was  maintained  on  our  side  for  sometime 
by  the  five  pieces  posted  in  front";  but  one  of  them  being  spilled  and  another  sent  to  the 
ford  early  in  the' action,  "the  fire  was  continued  with  three  pieces,  and  at  no  time  did 
we  afterwards  have  more  than  three  pieces  playing  upon  the  enemy."  He  reports  ninety- 
eight  shot  altogether  fired  by  his  artillery.  As  his  first  shot  was  shortly  after  nine  o'clock 
and  his  last  at  half  past  one  o'clock,  that  would  be  an  average  of  one  in  three  minutes. 
The  three  wounded  in  his  battalion  received  their  injury,  in  the  words  of  his  report, 
"from  the  fire  of  musketry  on  Our  left  flank,  the  ground  on  that  side  between  us  and  the 
enemy  sinking  down  so  as  to  expose  us  over  the  top  of  the  breastwork  erected  by  the 
North  Carolina  regiment."  (The  fire  of  musketry  alluded  to  was  from  Winthrop's  attaclt- 
ing  force). 

fMagruder's  report,  "  War  of  the  Rebellion,"  Vol.  II,  page  91. 
JKilpatrick's  report,  "  War  of  the  Rebellion,"  Vol.  II,  page  89. 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  93 

column,  and  thea,  witliiu  eight  hundred  yards  of  our  works, 
formed  his  troops  in  line  of  battle.  Duryea's  Fifth  New  York 
was  placed  od  the  right  (our  left)  of  the  road.  Washburn's 
Vermonters  and  Massachusetts  men,  after  some  preliminary 
movements,  were  also  sent  to  the  right  and  placed  in  extension 
of  Duryea's  line.  Townsend's  Third  New  York  was  formed  on 
the  left  (our  right)  of  the  road.  Bendix's  Seventh  New  York, 
which  had  brought  up  the  rear  in  the  march  from  the  scene  of 
his  daybreak  fusillade,  was  now  ordered  to  the  front.*  The 
head  of  his  column  was  dispersed,  as  we  have  seen,  by  Randolph's 
opening  shot,  after  which,  as  Beudix  reports,  he  did  the  best  he 
could  "as  skirmishers  in  the  woods"  (on  our  left),  finally  taking 
position  with  Washburn's  command.  Bendix  had  one  piece  of 
artillery  with  him  when  he  first  moved  to  the  front.  This  seems 
to  have  been  joined  by  the  three  other  pieces,  when  all  were 
served,  under  Greble's  command,  in  or  near  the  orchard  to  the 
left  (our  right)  of  the  road. 

The  first  movement  upon  our  lines  was  made  by  two  com- 
panies of  Townsend's  Regiment,  advancing  as  skirmishers  against 
our  right.  They  were  promptly  driven  back  by  our  artillery, 
one  of  Stuart's  companies,  and  companies  B  and  G  of  the  First 
North  Carolina. 

Meanwhile,  Duryea's  and  Washburn's  troops,  advancing  against 
our  left,  made  several  attempts  to  charge  our  works,  but,  were 
prevented  by  the  creek. f  During  these  attempts  they  approached 
the  old  ford  below  the  bridge,  where  Colonel  Hill  had  posted  a 
picket  of  some  forty  men  under  Lieutenant  Roberts.  This  led 
Colonel  Magruder  to  re-inforce  the  latter  with  Werth's  company 
of  Montague's  Battalion  and  the  howitzer  at  the  bridge,  which 
latter  drove  back  the  enemy  with  one  shot. J 

Townsend  now  moved  forward  his  whole  regiment  in  line  of 
battle  against  our  right,  with  one  hundred  of  Duryea's  Fifth 
Regiment  (Zouaves)  as  skirmishers  on  his  right.    In  this  forward 

*Bendix's  report,  "War  of  the  Rebellion,"  page  88. 
tPieree's  report.  Ibid.,  Vol.  II,  page  85. 
tWerth's  report  Ibid.,  page  103. 

94  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

movement,  TowDseDd  reports  that  one  of  his  companies  (presum- 
ably the  one  on  his  left  flank)  got  separated  from  the  rest  of  the 
regiment  by  a  "thickly- hedged  ditch"  (probably  the  ravine 
mentioned  in  Stuart's  report),  but  continued  to  march  forward  in 
line  with  it.  Captain  Brown's  gun  having  been  disabled  and 
withdrawn  some  time  before,  Colonel  Stuart  reported  to  Colonel 
Magruder  the  advance  of  this  heavy  force  (which  he  estimated 
at  fifteen  hundred,  accompanied  by  artillery),  and  the  advance, 
also,  of  "  a  line  of  skirmishers  down  the  ravine  on  my  right," 
obscured  from  his  own  view  but  discovered  by  his  scouts.  He 
was  accordingly  directed  by  Colonel  Magruder  to  fall  back  to 
the  works  occupied  by  Montague,  back  of  the  church,  and  the 
whole  of  our  advanced  troops  (that  is,  those  across  the  creek,  on 
the  right  of  the  road)  were  withdrawn. 

At  this  critical  moment  Colonel  Hill  called  Captain  Bridgers, 
with  his  Company  A,  of  the  First  North  Carolina,  out  of  the 
swamp  (on  the  left)  and  directed  him  to  occupy  the  nearest  ad- 
vanced work  (on  the  right  of  the  road).  He  also  ordered  Cap- 
tain Eoss,  with  his  Company  C,  of  the  First  North  Carolina,  to 
the  support  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Stuart.  "These  two  captains, 
with  their  companies,"  says  Hill,  "crossed  over  to  Randolph's 
battery,  under  a  most  heavy  fire,  in  a  most  gallant  manner.  As 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Stuart  had  withdrawn.  Captain  Ross  was 
detained  at  the  church,  near  Randolph's  battery.  Captain 
Bridgers,  however,  crossed  over  and  drove  the  Zouaves  out  of 
the  advanced  howitzer  battery,  and  re-occupied  it.  It  is  impos- 
sible to  overestimate  this  service.  It  decided  the  action  in  our 

Of  this  decisive  movement  Colonel  Magruder  says  in  his 
hasty  report,  made  the  same  day: 

"Whilst  it  might  appear  invidious  to  speak  particularly  of 
any  regiment  or  corpsj  whefe  all  behaved  so  well,  I  am  compelled 
to  express  my  great  appreciation  of  the  skill  and  gallantry  of 
Major  Randolph  and  his  howitzer  battalion  and  Colonel  Hill,  the 
officers  and  men  of  the  North  Carolina  regiment.    As  an  instance 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  95 

of  the  latter,  I  will  merely  mention  that  a  gun  under  the  gallant 
Captain  Brf)wn  of  the  howitzer  battery  having  been  rendered 
unfit  for  service  by  the  breaking  of  a  priming-wire  in  the  vent, 
Captain  Brown  threw  it  over  a  precipice,  and  the  work  was  occu- 
pied for  a  moment  by  the  enemy.  Captain  Bridgers,  of  the 
North  Carolina  regiment,  in  the  most  gallant  manner,  retook  it 
and  held  it  until  Captain  Brown  had  replaced  and  put  in  posi- 
tion another  piece,  and  defended  it  with  his  infantry  in  the  most 
gallant  manner.  Colonel  Hill's  judicious  and  determined  action 
was  worthy  of  his  ancient  glory." 

In  Colonel  Magruder's  second  report,  dated  June  12th,  he 
again  refers  to  the  subject,  saying: 

"I  cannot  omit  to  again  bring  to  the  notice  of  the  General 
Commanding-in-Chief  the  valuable  services  and  gallant  conduct 
of  the  First  North  Carolina  Regiment  and  Major  Randolph  of 
the  howitzer  batteries.  These  officers  were  not  only  prompt  and 
daring  in  the  execution  of  their  duties,  but  most  industrious  and 
energetic  in  the  preparations  for  the  conflict.  The  firing  of  the 
howitzer  batteries  was  as  perfect  as  the  bearing  of  the  men,  which 
was  entirely  what  it  ought  to  have  been.  Captain  Bridgers,  of 
the  North  Carolina  regiment,  re-took  in  the  most  daring  manner, 
and  at  a  critical  period  of  the  fight,  the  work  from  which 
Captain  Brown  of  the  artillery  had  withdrawn  a  disabled  gun 
to  prevent  its  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  and  which 
work  had  been  subsequently  occupied  by  the  enemy.  Captain 
Bridgers  deserves  the  highest  praise  for  this  timely  act  of  gal- 

Stuart  was  now  sent  back  to  his  original  position;  he  and 
Captain  Avery,  with  his  Company  G,  of  the  First  North  Caro- 
lina, drove  off  some  skirmishers  advancing  through  the  orchard ; 
and  the  enemy's  operations  ceased  on  that  side  of  the  road. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  same  company  of  Townsend's 
men  who  were  separated  from  the  rest  of  their  regiment,  and 
were  supposed  by  Stuart  to  be  moving  to  outflank  him,  were 

96  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

mistaken  by  Townsend  for  a  flanking  party  from  our  side. 
Townsend  says,  referring  to  this  company  of  his  regiment:  "Upon 
seeing  among  the  breaks  in  the  hedge  the  glistening  bayonets  in 
the  adjoining  field,  I  immediately  concluded  that  the  enemy  were 
outflanking  us,  and  conceived  it  to  be  my  duty  immediately  to 
retire  and  repel  that  advance.  I  resumed,  therefore,  my  original 
position  on  the  left  of  Colonel  Duryea.  Shortly  after  all  the 
forces  were  directed  to  retire,  the  design  of  the  reconnaissance 
having  been  accomplished." 

A  very  potent  body  of  men  that  separated  company  proved 
to  be. 

We  were  now  as  secure,  says  Colonel  Hill,  as  at  the  beginning 
of  the  fight,  and  as  yet  had  no  man  killed.  Foiled  on  our  right 
flank,  the  enemy  now  made  his  final  efibrt  upon  our  left.  A 
column  consisting  of  Washburn's  command  of  Vermont  and 
Massachusetts  troops,  led  by  Major  Theodore  Winthrop,  of  Gen- 
eral Butler's  staff^,  crossed  over  the  creek  and  appeared  at  the 
angle  on  our  left.  They  came  on  with  a  cheer,  no  doubt  think- 
ing that  our  work  was  open  at  the  gorge  and  that  they  could 
enter  by  a  sudden  rush.  "Companies  B  and  C,  however,"  says 
Colonel  Hill,  "dispelled  the  illusion  by  a  cool,  deliberate  and 
well  directed  fire.  Colonel  Magruder  sent  over  portions  of  com- 
panies G,  C  and  H  of  my  regiment  to  our  support,  and  now 
began  as  cool  firing  on  our  side  as  was  ever  witnessed.  The 
three  field  officers  of  the  regiment  were  present,  and  but  few 
shots  were  fired  without  their  permission.  *  *  *  They  (the 
men)  were  all  in  high  glee,  and  seemed  to  enjoy  it.  *  *  * 
Captain  Winthrop,  while  most  gallantly  urging  on  his  men,  was 
shot  through  the  heart,*  when  all  rushed  back  with  the  utmost 

Major  Theodore  Winthrop,  the  officer  referred  to,  was  Gen- 
eral Butler's  acting  military  secretary,  who  represented  General 
Butler  upon  General  Pierce's  staff.     He  was  of  the  old  Massa- 

*Private  G.  W.  Buhman  aad  private  Steve  Kussell,  of  Company  H  (Fayettevillel  pri- 
vate Molver,  of  Company  0  (Charlotte),  and  Captain  Ashe,  Company  D  (Chapel  Hill)  for 
his  negro  servant,  claimed  the  firing  of  the  fatal  shot. 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  97 

chusetts  family  of  Winthrop,  but  the  son  of  Francis  Bayard 
Winthrop,  of  New  Haven,  Connecticut. 

The  fight  at  the  angle  lasted  but  twenty  minutes.  It  seemed 
to  completely  discourage  the  enemy,  and  he  made  no  further 
effort  at  assault.  It  is  no  doubt  to  this  period  that  Colonel  Ma- 
gruder  refers  in  his  report  when  he  sets  the  ending  of  the  battle 
at  half  past  twelve  o'clock,  whereas  Major  Randolph  says  the 
last  shot  was  fired  at  half  past  one  o'clock. 

Meanwhile,  Colonel  Allen's  First  New  York  and  Colonel 
Carr's  Second  New  York  had  come  up.  General  Pierce  threw 
Allen's  Regiment  into  the  lane  on  his  left  which  Townsend's 
Third  Regiment  had  occupied  at  the  beginning  of  its  advance, 
and  from  which  it  had  now  retired ;  and  he  placed  Carr's  Regi- 
ment in  the  position  which  had  been  occupied  by  Duryea's  Fifth 
Regiment,  now  withdrawn.  Under  protection  of  this  new  line 
the  dead  and  wounded  were  ordered  to  be  collected  and  carried 
off.  The  retreat  then  began,  Allen's  and  Carr's  Regiments  cov- 
ering the  rear. 

The  following  extract  from  Major  Randolph's  report  gives  us 
a  glimpse  of  Alien's  and  Carr's  Regiments  as  they  arrived  on  the 

"After  some  intermission  of  the  assault  in  front,  a  heavy  col- 
umn, apparently  a  re-inforcement,  or  reserve,  made  its  appear- 
ance on  the  Hampton  road  and  pressed  forward  towards  the 
bridge,  carrying  the  United  States  flag  near  the  head  of  the 
column.  As  the  road  had  been  clear  for  some  time,  and  our 
flanks  and  rear  had  been  threatened,  the  howitzer  in  the  main 
battery*  had  been  sent  to  the  rear,  and  our  fire  did  not  at  first 
check  them.  I  hurried  a  howitzer  forward  from  the  rear,  loaded 
it  with  canister  and  prepared  to  sweep  the  approach  to  the 
bridge,  but  the  fire  of  the  Parrott  gun  again  drove  them  back. 
The  howitzer  brought  from  the  Half- Way  House  by  Lieutenant 
Moseley  arriving  most  opportunely,  I  carried  it  to  the  battery 
on  the  right  to  replace  the  disabled  piece.     On  getting  there,  I 

*By  the  "main  battery"  Major  Randolph  means  the  one  near  the  church, containing 
the  Parrott  gan  and  a  howitzer. 


98  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

learned  from  the  infantry  that  a  small  house  in  front  was  occu- 
pied by  sharp-shooters,  and  saw  the  body  of  a  Carolinian  lying 
thirty  yards  in  front  of  the  battery,  who  had  been  killed  in  a 
most  gallant  attempt  to  burn  the  house.  I  opened  upon  the 
house  with  shell  for  the  purpose  of  burning  it,  and  the  battery 
of  the  enemy  in  the  Hampton  road  being  on  the  line  with  it, 
and  supposing  probably  that  the  fire  was  at  them,  immediately 
returned  it  with  solid  shot.  This  disclosed  their  position,  and 
enabled  me  to  fire  at  the  house  and  at  their  battery  at  the  same 
time.  After  an  exchange  of  five  or  six  shots  a  shell  entered  a 
window  of  the  house,  increased  the  fire  already  kindled,  until  it 
soon  broke  out  into  a  light  blaze,  and,  as  I  have  reason  to  be- 
lieve, disabled  one  of  the  enemy's  pieces.  This  was  the  last  shot 
fired.*    They  soon  after  retreated,  and  we  saw  no  more  of  them." 

Lieutenant  John  T.  Greble,  of  the  Second  United  States  Ar- 
tillery (regulars),  was  killed  "by  a  cannon  shot,"  says  General 
Butler,  and  General  Pierce  tells  us  that  this  occurred  "just  at 
the  close  of  the  action."  He  was  in  command  of  the  enemy's 
artillery,  and  was  regarded  as  an  able  as  well  as  a  gallant  officer. 

Captain  Hoke,  with  his  Company  K,  of  the  First  North  Caro- 
lina, now  advanced  and  explored  the  woods  in  front.  Upon  his 
ascertaining  that  the  road  was  clear,  some  one  hundred  dragoons, 
under  Captain  Douthatt,  pursued  the  enemy  as  far  as  New  Mar- 
ket Bridge,  which  the  latter  tore  up  behind  hipi.  "The  enemy 
in  his  haste,"  says  Colonel  Hill,  "threw  away  hundreds  of  can- 
teens, haversacks,  overcoats,  etc.;  even  the  dead  were  thrown  out 
of  the  wagons,"  and  "the  pursuit  soon  became  a  chase." 


It  will  be  seen  that  there  were  two  crises  in  the  battle;  one 
when  Bridgers  made  his  brilliant  charge  and  recaptured  the 
redoubt  from  which  our  troops  had  withdrawn  upon  the  advance 
of  Townsend's  Regiment  and  a  portion  of  Duryea's;  the  other 

*Elsewhere  ia  his  report,  "  War  of  the  Rebellion,"  Vol.  II,  page  99,  Major  Randolph 
fixes  the  hour  at  which  the  cannonading  ceased  at  half  past  one. 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  99 

when  Company  B,  re-inforced  by  portions  of  Companies  C,  G 
and  H,  repulsed  "Winthrop's  bold  attack.  It  is  probable  that 
the  failure  of  either  of  these  splendid  efforts  of  the  North  Caro- 
linians would  have  given  victory  to  the  enemy.  The  ordeal 
which  those  companies  underwent  in  running  the  gauntlet  of  the 
enemy's  concentrated  fire,  in  passing  in  the  open  from  the  left  to 
the  right  and  from  the  right  to  the  left,  was  a  trying  one  for 
unseasoned  troops,  but  from  which  not  a  man  flinched. 


Summing  up  the  achievements  of  his  command,  Colonel  Hill 
says:  "There  were  not  quite  eight  hundred  of  my  regiment 
engaged  in  the  fight,  and  not  one-half  of  these  drew  trigger 
during  the  day.  All  remained  manfully  at  the  posts  assigned 
them,  and  not  a  man  in  the  regiment  behaved-  badly.  The  com- 
panies not  engaged  were  as  much  exposed  and  rendered  ecjual 
service  with  those  participating  in  the  fight.  They  deserve 
equally  the  thanks  of  the  country.  In  fact,  it  is  the  most  try- 
ing ordeal  to  which  soldiers  can  be  subjected,  to  receive  a  fire 
which  their  orders  forbid  them  to  return.  Had  a  single  com- 
pany left  its  post  our  works  would  have  been  exposed ;  and  the 
constancy  and  discipline  of  the  unengaged  companies  cannot  be 
too  highly  commended.  *  *  *  j  cannot  speak  in  too  high 
terms  of  my  two  field  officers,  Lieutenant- Colonel  Lee  and  Ma- 
jor Lane.  Their  services  have  been  of  the  highest  importance 
since  taking  the  field  to  the  present  moment."  In  another  part 
of  his  report.  Colonel  Hill  says:  ''We  had  never  more  than 
three  hundred  actively  engaged  at  any  one  time" — meaning 
troops  of  all  arms. 

For  Colonel  Hill's  acknowledgments  to  his  staff  and  to  his 
company  officers  and  others  in  detail,  the  reader  is  referred  to  the 
extract  from  his  report  given  in  the  appendix  to  this  article. 

After  the  battle  was  over  and  the  enemy  had  retreated,  the 
Louisiana  regiment  arrived,  after  a  forced  march  from  York- 
town.  On  the  other  hand,  as  a  set-off  against  this  ex  post  facto 
re-inforcement,  it  is  worth  recording  that  an  associated  press  dis- 

100  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65 

patch,  dated  at  Fortress  Monroe,  June  10th,  stated  that  Colonel 
McChesney's  Regiment  formed  a  reserve  for  General  Pierce's 
army,  and  also  that  Colonel  Hawkins's  Regiment  had  "moved 
from  Newport  News"  during  the  day. 

Yorktown  being  exposed,  the  battlefield  was  occupied  by 
cavalry,  and  the  i-emainder  of  the  troops,  including  the  Louisiana 
regiment,  were  marched  back  to  the  former  place  the  same  night. 


The  body  of  the  Carolinian  whom  Major  Randolph  saw  lying 
thirty  yards  in  front  of  the  recovered  battery  was  that  of  private 
Wyatt,  of  Captain  Bridgers's  Company  A  (Edgecombe  Guards), 
of  the  First  North  Carolina  Regiment.  When  Bridgers  recap- 
tured the  battery  he  found  in  his  front  the  house  mentioned  by 
Major  Randolph,  used  as  a  shelter  for  the  enemy's  sharp-shooters^ 
as  described.  At  Colonel  Hill's  suggestion,  Captain  Bridgers 
called  for  five  volunteers  to  burn  it.  Corporal  George  Williams 
and  privates  Henry  L.  Wyatt,  Thomas  Fallon,  John  H.  Thorpe 
and  R.  H.  Bradley  responded.  At  once  they  leaped  the  works 
and  went  on  their  dangerous  mission.  "They  behaved  with 
great  gallantry,"  says  Colonel  Hill  in  his  reporb.  On  the  way 
Wyatt  was  killed,  and  the  others  were  recalled. 

Of  Wyatt,  Colonel  Magruder's  report  says :  "  Too  much  praise 
cannot  be  bestowed  upon  the  heroic  soldier  whom  we  lost.  He 
was  one  of  four  who  volunteered  to  set  fire  to  a  house  in  our  front 
which  was  thought  to  afford  protection  to  our  enemy,  and  advanc- 
ing between  the  two  fires,  he  fell  midway,  pierced  in  the  fore- 
head by  a  musket  ball.  Henry  L.  Wyatt  is  the  name  of  this 
brave  soldier  and  devoted  patriot.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
brave  and  gallant  First  North  Carolina  Regiment." 

In  the  Virginia  volume  of  the  "Confederate  Military  History," 
Major  Jed  Hotchkiss,  its  author,  says:  "It  is  generally  admitted 
that  young  Wyatt  was  the  first  Confederate  soldier  killed  in  action 
in  Virginia  daring  the  civil  war."  As  that  was  also  the  first 
battle  of  the  war,  it  may  be  recorded  that  Wyatt  was  the  first 
Confederate  soldier  killed  in  battle  in  that  war. 


1.    George  Williams,  Corporal,  Co.  A.  3.    R.  H.  Bradley,  Private,  Co.  A. 

8.    Henry  L.  Wyatt,  Private,  Co.  A.    (The     4.    Jolin  H.  Tllorpe,  Private,  Co.  A. 
first  Confederate  soldier  slain  in  bat- 
tle, June  10,  1861,  at  Bethel.) 

The  Bethel  Ebgiment.  101 

Private  John  H.  Thorpe,  an  honor  graduate  of  the  University 
of  North  Carolina,  one  of  the  four  companions  of  Wyatt,  after- 
wards a  captain  in  the  Forty-seventh  Rgiment,  thus  describes  the 
death  of  Wyatt : 

"  When  we  got  there  [the  redoubt]  I  saw  a  Zouave  regiment 
of  the  enemy  in  line  of  battle  about  three  hundred  yards  away. 
Our  boys  popped  away  at  them,  but  the  fire  was  not  returned. 
Then,  in  good  order,  they  marched  away  down  the  New  Market 
road.  Probably  the  order  to  retreat  had  been  given  the  whole 
Federal  army.  A  few  minutes  later  Colonel  Hill,  passing  from 
our  right  through  the  company,  said:  'Captain  Bridgers,  can't 
you  have  that  house  burned?'  and  immediately  went  on.  Cap- 
tain Bridgers  asked  if  five  of  the  company  would  volunteer  to 
burn  it,  suggesting  that  one  of  the  number  should  be  an  officer. 
Corporal  George  T.  Williams  said  he  would  be  the  officer  and 
four  others  said  they  would  go.  Matches  and  a  hatchet  were 
provided  at  once,  and  a  minute  later  the  little  party  scrambled 
over  the  breastworks  in  the  following  order:  George  T.  Wil- 
liams, Thomas  Fallon,  John  H.  Thorpe,  Henry  L.  Wyatt  and 
R.  H.  Bradley.  A  volley  was  fired  at  us  as  if  by  a  company, 
not  from  the  house,  but  from  the  road  to  our  left.  As  we  were 
well  drilled  in  skirmishing,  all  of  us  instantly  dropped  to  the 
ground,  Wyatt  mortally  wounded.  He  never  uttered  a  word  or 
a  groan,  but  lay  limp  on  his  back,  his  arms  extended,  one  knee 
up  and  a  clot  of  blood  on  his  forehead  as  large  as  a  man's  fist. 
He  was  lying  within  four  feet  of  me,  and  this  is  the  way  I  saw 
him.  *  *  *  To  look  at  Wyatt  one  would  take  him  to  be 
tenacious  of  life;  low,  but  robust  in  build,  guileless,  open,  frank, 

Wyatt's  body  was  soon  taken  off  the  field  by  his  comrades, 
who  carried  him  to  Yorktown  the  same  night,  where  he  died. 
He  had  apparently  not  recovered  consciousness  from  the  time 
he  was  struck.  His  body  was  carried  to  Richmond  the  next 
dav,  where  he  was  buried  with  military  honors  from  the  Rev- 
erend Mr.  Duncan's  church. 

102  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Camps  were  named  for  Wyatt  during  the  war;  his  portrait 
has  been  placed  in  the  State  Library  at  Raleigh;  and  his  memory, 
as  well  as  that  of  the  First  Regiment,  is  perpetuated  in  the  in- 
scription: "First  at  Bethel;  last  at  Appomattox!"  cut  upon  the 
Confederate  Monument  in  front  of  the  Capitol. 

Henry  Lawson  Wyatt  was  a  son  of  Isham  and  Lucinda  Wyatt, 
of  Tarboro.  He  was  twenty  years  of  age  at  his  death.  His 
parents  had  moved  to  Tarboro  in  1856  from  Pitt  county,  though 
he  was  born  during  their  early  residence  in  Richmond,  Va. 


The  battle  of  Bethel  was  but  a  small  afikir  in  itself,  if  we 
compare  it  with  the  sanguinary  conflicts  between  vast  bodies  of 
men  of  which  it  was  the  precursor.  But  it  made  a  profound 
impression  upon  the  country,  raising  the  enthusiasm  of  the  South 
to  the  highest  pitch,*  repressing  disaffection  there,  and  at  the 
same  time  chilling  the  ardor  of  their  adversaries  at  the  North. 
It  was  the  cause  of  crimination  and  recrimination  between  the 
Federal  officers  engaged  and  responsible  for  it,  and  their  several 
adherents.  Loud  calls  were  made  in  the  Northern  press  for  the 
removal  of  General  Butler,  notwithstanding  the  placatory  assur- 
ances, in  anticipation,  which  his  official  reports  contained.  Among 
the  latter  were  the  declarations  that  "  we  have  gained  much  more 
than  we  have  lost,"  and  that  "while  the  advance  upon  the  bat- 
tery and  the  capture  of  it  might  have  added  eclat  to  the  occasion, 
it  would  not  have  added  to  its  substantial  results."  The  chief 
of  these  appears  to  have  been  that  "our  troops  have  learned  to 
have  confidence  in  themselves  under  fire."  The  New  York 
Tribune  declared  that  the  President  would  do  well  to  make  peace 
with  the  Confederacy  at  once,  if  he  was  not  willing  to  send  gen- 
erals into  Virginia  who  were  "  up  to  their  work."    The  Herald, 

*An  illustration  is  presented  by  the  experienoeof  Lieutenant  W.E.  Kyle  (commander 
of  sharp-shooters  in  General  iVToRae's  Brigade),  who  was  a  private  in  Company  H.  After 
the  battle  of  Bethel  he  wrote  of  the  victory  to  his  relatives  in  Christiansburg  Va.  his 
native  place.  The  fact  that  this  native  of  Virginia  had  been  able  to  take  part  in  winning 
a  victory  over  the  invaders  of  Virginia,  because  he  had  become  a  citizen  of  North  Carolina 
and  a  member  of  a  North  Carolina  regiment,  excited  the  emulation  of  the  youth  of  his 
old  home  to  such  an  extent  that  great  numbers,  who  had  held  back,  hastened  to  enter 
the  service. 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  103 

which  sustained  General  Butler  as  "evidently  the  right  man  in 
the  right  place,"  said  that  the  Confederates  had  at  Bethel  "six 
batteries  of  rifled  cannon  and  sixty-eight  twelve-pound  howit- 
zers," and  enough  men  to  admit  of  the  capture  (there  or  there- 
abouts) of  "  twelve  thousand  prisoners."  The  Charleston  (S.  C.) 
Courier  of  June  17th  contained  this:  "By  a  letter  received  in 
this  city  yesterday,  we  learn  that  a  great  reaction  has  taken  place 
among  the  moneyed  men  of  New  York  and  Boston,  and  that 
petitions  are  now  circulating  to  be  laid  before  Congress,  asking 
the  peaceful  recognition  of  the  Southern  Confederacy  and  the 
establishment  of  amicable  relations  by  friendly  treaties.  The 
petitions  set  forth  that  unless  the  war  is  brought  to  a  close  very 
speedily  New  York  and  Boston  are  ruined  cities." 

In  the  South,  on  the  other  hand,  the  result  was  hailed  as  an 
augury  of  the  early  triumph  of  the  Confederacy,  which  had  thus 
demonstrated  its  ability  to  overcome  four  times  its  numerical 
strength  on  the  battlefield — a  disproportion  almost  exactly  repre- 
senting the  relative  populations  of  the  two  sections. 

In  the  Virginia  Convention,  on  the  17th  of  June,  Mr.  Tyler 
(ex-President  of  the  United  States)  submitted  a  series  of  reso- 
lutions, which  were  unanimously  adopted,  eulogizing  Magruder, 
Hill  and  their  officers  and  men  for  the  recent  brilliant  victory  at 
Bethel  Church.  Mr.  Tyler  followed  the  reading  of  his  resolu- 
tions in  a  speech  of  great  eloquence  and  force.  There  was,  he 
said,  but  one  instance  on  the  whole  page  of  history  that  could 
be  cited  as  a  parallel  to  the  victory  at  Bethel  Church — that  was 
the  battle  and  the  victory  of  Buena  Vista,  "where  the, gallant 
Davis,  now  our  President,  with  his  Mississippi  regiment,  and 
the  invincible  Bragg,  with  his  grape  and  canister,  turned  the 
fortunes  of  the  day  and  routed  an  enemy  of  about  five  to  one." 

The  Richmond  Dispatch  said:  "It  is  one  of  the  most  extraor- 
dinary victories  in  the  annals  of  war.  Four  thousand  thoroughly 
drilled  and  equipped  troops  routed  and  driven  from  the  field  by 
only  eleven  hundred  men.  Two  hundred  of  the  enemy  killed, 
and  on  our  side  but  one  life  lost.  Does  not  the  hand  of  God 
seem  manifest  in  this  thing?     *     *     *     The  courage  and  con- 

104  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

duct  of  the  noble  sons  of  the  South  engaged  in  this  battle  are 
beyond  all  praise.  They  have  crowned  the  name  of  their  country 
with  imperishable  lustre  and  made  their  own  names  immortal. 
With  odds  of  four  to  one  against  them,  they  have  achieved  a 
complete  victory,  putting  their  enemy  to  inglorious  flight,  and 
giving  to  the  world  a  brilliant  pledge  of  the  manner  in  which 
the  South  can  defend  its  firesides  and  altars." 

The  Richmond  Whig  said:  "The  rush,  the  dash,  the  elan  of 
our  boys  was,  however,  the  great  and  distinguishing  feature  of 
the  affair.  Cool  and  determined  as  Bonaparte's  veterans,  they 
pitched  into  the  fight  with  the  gaiety  of  school-boys  into  a  game 
of  ball.  They  have  taken  the  step  which  is  the  augury  and 
earnest  of  victory.  Their  dashing  bearing,  in  the  face  of  four 
times  their  number,  will  inspire  a  spirit  of  emulation  among  all 
our  forces,  and  lead  to  the  rout  of  the  invaders  wherever  they 
show  themselves." 

Nor  was  there  any  disposition  to  withhold  credit  from  North 
Carolina  as  the  chief  actor  in  the  great  achievement.  The  press 
of  the  capital  Slate  was"  lavish  in  its  praise  of  our  regiment. 
Said  the  Petersburg  Express:  "All  hail  to  the  brave  sons  of  the 
Old  North  State,  whom  Providence  seems  to  have  thrust  forward 
in  the  first  pitched  battle  on  Virginia  soil  in  behalf  of  Southern 
rights  and  independence." 

Said  the  Richmond  Whig:  "The  North  Carolina  regiment 
covered  itself  with  glory  at  the  battle  of  Bethel." 

Said  the  Richmond  Examiner,  the  leading  paper  of  the  Con- 
federacy: "Honor  those  to  whom  honor  is  due.  All  our  troops 
appear  to  have  behaved  nobly  at  Bethel,  but  the  honors  of  the 
day  are  clearly  due  to  the  splendid  regiment  of  North  Carolina, 
whose  charge  of  bayonets  decided  it,  and  presaged  their  conduct 
on  many  a  more  important  field.  Virginia's  solemn  sister  is 
justly  jealous  of  glory;  her  simple,  honest,  courageous  popula- 
tion are  weary  of  the  grand  silence  of  their  forests  of  pine ;  they 
have  come  out  to  fight  with  a  deep  determination  to  make  their 
mark,  which  both  friends  and  foes  have  yet  to  fathom.  Of  this 
occasion  North  Carolina  may  be  content.     No  forced  praise  and 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  105 

empty  compliments  are  necessary  now ;  for  every  statement  of 
the  facts,  made  no  matter  by  whom,  or  how,  brings  out  the  steady 
valor  and  decisive  action  of  her  sons  and  representatives  in  a  light 
too  clear  to  leave  any  place  for  error,  or  cause  for  regret,  except 
that  the  foe  neither  would  nor  could  await  their  advancing  line 
of  steel." 

In  our  own  State,  Governor  Ellis  promptly  recommended  to 
the  Convention  that  Colonel  Hill,  the  commander  of  the  North 
Carolina  Troops,  be  promoted  to  the  rank  of  Brigadier,  and  that 
a  full  brigade  be  formed  and  placed  under  his  command. 

In  the  Convention,  on  June  15th,  Mr.  Venable  offered  a  reso- 
lution, which  was  unanimously  passed,  as  follows  : 

"Resolved,  That  this  Convention,  appreciating  the  valor  and 
good  conduct  of  the  ofiScers  and  men  of  the  First  Regiment  North 
Carolina  Volunteers,  do,  as  a  testimony  of  the  same,  authorize 
the  said  regiment  to  inscribe  the  word  '  Bethel '  upon  their 


There  appears  to  have  been  no  regular  return  made  by  Colonel 
Magruder  of  th'C  losses  sustained  on  our  side.  The  following  is 
a  summary  compiled  from  the  reports  of  the  commanders  of  the 
several  bodies  of  Confederate  troops  engaged  or  on  the  ground : 

Command.  Killed.       Wounded.      Total. 

Hill's  First  North  Carolina  Regiment,        16  7 

Randolph's  (Virginia)  Howitzer  Bat- 
talion,      3  3 

Stuart's  three  companies  of  the  Third 
Virginia  Regiment,       

Montague's  three  companies,     

The  three  companies  of  Virginia 

Grand  total, 1  9  10 


North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

The  names  of  these  ten  are  as  follows  : 

First  North  Carolina. — Henry  L.  Wyatt,  private,  Company 
A,  mortally  wounded;  Lieutenant  J.  W.  Ratchford,  aide-de-camp 
to  Colonel  Hill,  wounded;  Council  Rodgers,  private,  Company  A, 
severely  wounded;  Charles  AVilliams,  private,  Company  A, 
severely  wounded;  S.  Patterson,  private.  Company  D,  slightly 
wounded;  William  AVhite,  private.  Company  K,  wounded  ;  Peter 
Poteat,  private.  Company  G,  slightly  wounded. 

Randolph! s  Howitzers. — Lieutenant  Hudnall  (commanding  the 
howitzer  in  Hill's  lines  on  the  left  of  the  road),  wounded;  H.  C. 
Shook,  private  under  Hudnall,  wounded ;  Johu  Worth,  private 
under  Hudnall,  wounded. 

The  tabulated  report  of  the  Federal  losses  which  General  But- 
ler gave  in  his  report  to  Lieutenant-General  Scott,  dated  June 
16th  (that  being  the  only  one  which  appears  printed  in  any  of 
the  Federal  reports),  is  as  follows : 

BETHEL,    JUNE    10,  1861. 








..  ■ 

.  •• 



Fourth  Massachusetts, 



First  New  York,     .     .     . 




Second  New  York, 




Third  New  York,    .     .     . 





Fifth  New  York,     .     . 




Seventh  New  York,      .     . 





First  Vermont,  .     .     . 





Second  United  States  Ar- 




Total,      .... 





*The  staff  officer  killed  was  Major  Theodore  Winthrop.    Lieutenant  John  T.  Greble 
(Second  United  States  Artillery)  was  also  among  the  slain. 

■j-Colonel  Magruder's  report  gives  three  as  the  number  of  pri3oners  taken  by  us. 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  107 

In  Colonel  Magruder's  second  report  (June  12th)  occurs  this: 
"I  have  now  to  report  that  eighteen  [Federal]  dead  were  found 
on  the  field,  and  I  learn  from  reliable  citizens  living  6n  the  road 
that  many  dead,  as  well  as  a  great  many  wounded,  were  carried 
in  wagons  to  Harapton.  I  think  I  can  safely  report  their  loss 
at  from  twenty-five  to  thirty  killed  and  one  hundred  and  fifty 
wounded.  I  understand  the  enemy  acknowledge  one  hundred 
and  seventy-five  killed  and  wounded." 

Colonel  Hill's  report  says:  "The  enemy  must  have  lost  some 
three  hundred.  I  could  not,  without  great  disparagement  of 
their  courage,  place  their  loss  at  a  lower  figure.  It  is  inconceiv- 
able that  five  thousand  men  should  make  so  precipitate  a  retreat 
without  having  sustained  at  least  that  much  of  a  reverse." 

General  Pierce,  commanding  the  Federal  troops,  says  in  his 
report*  of  June  12th  to  General  Butler:  "For  killed,  wounded 
and  missing,  please  refer  to  my  former  report." 

The  "  War  of  the  Rebellion"  records,  from  which  the  reports 
quoted  in  this  article  are  derived,  contain  but  one  report  from 
General  Pierce,  that  of  June  12th. 

General  Butler's  first  report,  dated  June  10th,  says:  "I  am 
informed  by  him  [Geiieral  Pierce]  that  the  dead  and  wounded 
had  all  been  brought  off."  He  adds:  "Our  loss  is  very  consid- 
erable, amounting,  perhaps,  to  forty  or  fifty,  a  quarter  part  of 
which,  you  will  see,  was  from  the  unfortunate  mistake,  to  call 
it  by  no  worse  name,  of  Colonel  Bendix." 

General  Butler's  second  report,  dated  June  16th,  says:  "It  is 
a  pleasure  to  be  able  to  announce  that  our  loss  was  much  less 
even  than  was  reported  iu  my  former  dispatch,  and  appears  by 
the  official  report  furnished  herewith."*  He  adds:  "I  have  been 
very  careful  to  procure  an  accurate  account  of  the  dead,  wounded 
and  missing,  in  order  that  I  may  assure  those  friends  who  are 
anxious  for  the  safety  of  our  soldiers  and  an  exact  account  may 
be  given  of  all  those  injured.  There  is  nothing  to  be  gained  by 
any  concealment  in  this  regard.     The  exact  truth,  which  is  to 

»The  inclosure  is  the  tabulated  return  given  above,  showing  eighteen  killed,  fifty- 
three  wounded  and  five  missing. 

108  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

be  stated  at  all  times,  if  anything  is  stated,  is  especially  neces- 
sary on  such  occasions."  No  reason  is  given  by  General  Butler 
for  inchiding  in  his  report  this  protest  against  concealment  of 
the  truth.* 

As  will  be  observed,  the  reports  are  contradictory.  Colo- 
nel Magruder,  after  duly  ascertaining  the  number  of  their 
dead  left  by  the  enemy  and  found  by  our  men  upon  the  field, 
stated  that  there  were  eighteen.  General  Pierce  informed  Gen- 
eral Butler  that  "  the  dead  and  wounded  had  all  been  brought 
off."  Again:  General  Butler's  first  report  set  the  losses'  at, 
"perhaps,  forty  or  fifty."  His  second  report  announced  that 
the  loss  (given  therein  at. seventy-six)  was  much  less  than  in  the 
former  dispatch — that  is,  less  than  forty  or  fifty.  Taking  the 
statements  quoted  altogether,  it  would  seem  that  Colonel  Hill's 
chivalric  method  of  estimating  the  enemy's  losses  for  him»is  the 
more  satisfactory. 

ARMS    IN    USE    AT    BETHEL. 

In  studying  the  battle  of  Bethel,  the  fact  must  not  be  lost  sight 
of  that  the  weapons  used  were  different  from  those  of  the  pres- 
ent day.  Otherwise  we  should  be  unable  to  comprehend  the 
statement  in  General  Pierce's  report  that  he  formed  his  line  of 
battle,  apparently  with  a  sense  of  security,  at  only  eight  hundred 
paces  from  our  works,  or  the  statement  in  Major  Randolph's 
report  that  the  advance  guard  of  the  enemy  remained  for  ten  or 
fifteen  minutes  at  a  distance  of  "about  six  hundred  yards  in  front 
of  our  main  battery"  before  fire  was  opened  upon  them. 

Although  that  was  less  than  forty  years  ago,  it  is  a  fact  that 
the  theory  of  the  instantaneous  explosion  of  gunpowder  still 
prevailed ;  Armstrong  had  not  invented  his  gun-jackets  of 
wrought  iron  coils;  and  the  rifled  Parrott  which  played  such  an 

*The  associated  press  accounts  of  Jane  loth,  published  in  the  Northern  papers,  said : 
"This  has  been  an  exciting  and  sorrowful  day  at  Old  Point  Comfort."  The  same  papers 
contained  a  letter  dated  the  same  evening  from  Old  Point,  which  said:  "It  has  been 
ascertained  that  there  were  one  hundred  killed  and  two  hundred  wounded.  And  even 
now  it  is  thought  from  the  scenes  witnessed  at  Portress  Monroe  that  the  battle  was  far 
more  sanguinary  in  its  effects  than  the  latter  version  would  indicate.  They  are  still 
bringing  in  the  killed  and  wounded  by  boats  and  other  conveyances,  as  I  close  this  let- 
ter." The  Baltimore  Sun  learned  from  a  passenger  on  the  boat  from  Old  Point  that  "the 
number  of  killed  and  wounded  was  estimated  at  Fortress  iVIonroe  at  one  thousand  at  least. 
The  fire  of  the  Confederates  was  extraordinarily  fatal." 

The  Bethel  Eegiment.  109 

important  part  in  the  artillery  fire  at  Bethel  was  merely  cast-iron. 
The  small  arms  which  were  used  with  such  deadly  effect  by 
Companies  A,  B,  C,  G  and  H,  of  the  North  Carolina'  regiment, 
were  either  smooth-bore  Springfield  muskets,  carrying  a  round 
ball  weighing  an  ounce,  or  "  buck  and  ball,"  or  they  were  rifles 
that  carried  a  round  bullet  quite  as  innocent  as  the  musket  ball 
of  pointed  tips  and  hollow-coned  bases.  It  is  tVue  that  French 
chasseurs  were  armed  with  a  rifle  throwing  an  elongated  ball 
with  a  hollow-coned  base  as  far  back  as  1840,  or  thereabouts, 
and  that  Captain  Minie  had  improved  this  by  adding  an  iron 
cup  to  fit  into  the  cone,  and  that  the  English  had  substituted  a 
wooden  plug  for  Minie's  cup  in  their  Enfield  rifle  of  1855.  But 
we  are  not  a  military  people,  and,  in  peace,  have  rarely,  if  ever, 
as  a  government,  kept  abreast  of  the  other  civilized  nations  in 
improved  arms,  though  teaching  them  many  lessons  during  war. 
There  is  no  reason  to  believe  that  at  the  outbreak  of  the  war  of 
1861  the  stock  of  arms  owned  by  the  United  States  was  different 
at  any  of  their  arsenals  from  those  found  in  the  Fayetteville 
Arsenal,  which  were  of  the  kind  referred  to  above. 

We  find  Governor  Ellis,  on  the  25th  of  May,  1861,  notifying 
President  Davis  that  thirty-seven  thousand  stand  of  arms  in  the 
Fayetteville  Arsenal  (of  the  kind  referred  to)  were  at  his  dis- 
posal, and  we  find  General  Butler,  on  the  27th  of  May,  in  his 
report  to  General  Scott,*  appealing  to  the  latter  to  send  him  more 
ammunition,  especially  "buck  and  ball,"  suitable  to  the  smooth- 
bore musket,  with  which  "the  major  part  of  my  command  is 
provided."  Again,  in  General  Pierce's  reportf  of  Butler's  "plan 
of  operations"  for  the  Bethel  expedition,  we  find  this  item: 
"Duryea  to  have  the  two  hundred  rifles;  he  will  pick  the  men 
to  whom  they  are  intrusted."  Indeed,  the  papers  of  the  day 
ridiculed  the  talk  about  "improved  arms,"  declaring  that  it  was 
the  men  (the  man  behind  the  gun,  we  call  it  now)  which  was  the 
important  thing. J 

Major  Randolph  reports  that  his  navy  howitzers  were  mounted 

•"  War  of  the  Rebellion,"  Vol.  II,  page  63. 

'flbid.^  page  S3. 

tRiohmond  Dispatch,  June,  1861. 

no  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

upon  the  running-gear  of  ordinary  wagons,  thus  seriously  inter- 
fering with  their  turning  in  the  ordinary  road,  and  that  the  fuses 
for  his  most  effective  piece,  the  rifled  Parrott,  were  already  cut, 
and  for  nothing  less  than  four  seconds,  too  great  an  interval  for 
the  distance  between  the  opposing  forces  at  Bethel.  The  enemy's 
equipment  was  no  doubt  more  complete,  but,  with  the  exception 
of  the  defects  noted  by  Major  Randolph  as  above,  there  is  no 
reason  to  believe  that  either  side  had  the  advantage  in  arms.  All 
the  armies  at  that  period  were  armed  with  muzzle-loaders,  except 
that  of  the  Prussians,  who  had  adopted,  a  couple  of  decades  before, 
a  needle-gun,  then  so  clumsy  and  defective  that  no  other  nation 
followed  her  example.  It  was  1864  before  the  Spencer  maga- 
zine rifle  made  its  appearance  in  our  war  (in  the  hands  of  Sheri- 
dan's command).  It  was  not  until  the  same  year  that  the  gen- 
eral adoption  of  breech-loaders  was  even  so  much  as  recom- 
mended for  the  British  army;  and  Sadowa,  which  humbled 
Austria,  and  made  the  German  empire  possible  because  the 
Prussians  used  their  needle-guns  and  the  Austrians  their  muzzle- 
loaders,  was  not  fought  until  1866.  Indeed,  it  was  nearly  the 
close  of  the  campaign  of  1864  before  our  engineer  officers  began 
to  recognize  the  change  required  in  field  defenses  by  the  use  of 
such  long-range  weapons  as  we  then  possessed.  These  were 
chiefly  the  Enfield  rifle,  which  had  come  into  use  by  us  some 
thirty  months  before. 

After  the  battle  of  Bethel  two  more  companies  were  assigned 
to  the  regiment,  as  follows: 

Company  L— Bertie  county — Captain,  Jesse  C.  Jacocks ;  First 
Lieutenant,  Stark  A.  Sutton;  Second  Lieutenant,  Francis  W. 
Bird;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  J.  J.  Speller. 

Company  M— Chowan  county— Captain,  J.  K.  Marshall; 
First  Lieutenant,  (Dr.)  Llewellen  Warren ;  Second  Lieutenant, 
E.  J.  Small;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  Thomas  Capehart. 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  Ill 


The  history  of  the  First  Regiment  from  this  time  until  the 
date  set  for  its  muster  out  of  service,  November  13th,  was  un- 
eventfuly  It  changed  its  camp  a  number  of  times,  and  it  Sid  a 
great  deal  of  drilling,  digging  and  other  work  on  fortifications — 
uncongenial  labor  for  the  kind  of  men  who  composed  its  ranks, 
but  performed  cheerfully  and  without  murmuring. 

On  the  22d  of  August  the  regiment  was  moved  from  York- 
town  to  Ship  Point,  a  place  some  eight  miles  distant,  uear  the 
.  mouth  of  Poquosin  River,  and  facing  the  Chesapeake.  On  the 
3d  of  September  an  election  was  held  for  a  successor  to  Colonel 
Hill,  who  had  just  been  promoted  (September  1st)  to  be  Briga- 
dier-General. Lieutenant-Colonel  Charles  C.  Lee  was  elected 
Colonel;  Major  James  H.  Lane,  Lieutenant-Colonel;  and  Lieu- 
tenant Robert  F.  Hoke,  of  Company  K,  Major.  "The  new  Ma- 
jor was  Second  Lieutenant  of  his  company,  and  had  been  com- 
mended by  Colonel  Hill,  in  his  report  of  the  battle  of  Bethel, 
for  "great  zeal,  energy  and  judgment  as  an  engineer  officer  on 
various  occasions."  He  was.  a  native  of  Lincolnton,  and  was 
educated  at  the  Kentucky  Military  Institute. 

Hill  was  generally  regarded  as  the  officer  entitled  to  the  chief 
credit  for  the  victory  at  Bethel.  Indeed,  Major  Randolph,  in 
his  admirable  report  to  Colonel  Magruder  of  the  operations  of 
his  artillery,  made  occasion  to  say:  "  I  am  happy  at  having  an 
opportunity  to  render  my  acknowledgments  to  Colonel  Hill,  the 
commandant  of  the  North  Carolina  regiment,  for  the  useful  sug- 
gestions which  his  ^perience  as  an  artillery  officer  enabled  him 
to  make  to  me  during  the  action,  and  to  bear  testimony  to  the 
gallantry  and  discipline  of  that  portion  of  his  command  with 
which  I  was  associated.  The  untiring  industry  of  his  regiment 
in  intrenching  our  position  enabled  us  to  defeat  the  enemy  with 
a  nominal  loss  on  our  side."  An  officer  of  the  regiment*  says, 
as  a  matter  within  his  knowledge,  that  it  was  dne  to  Colonel 

•Lieutenant  J.  A.  Pemberton,  of  Company  F. 

112  The  Bethel  Regiment. 

Hill  that  the  stand  against  Pierce's  advancing  army  was  made 
at  the  strong  position  (which  Hill  had  intrenched)  on  the  York- 
town  side  of  the  creek  instead  of  on  the  Hampton  side.  Never- 
theless, Magruder,  as  the  ranking  officer,  was  made  a  brigadier- 
general  on  the  17th  of  June.  North  Carolina  was  still  the 
Bceotia  which  unfriendly  critics  had  pictured  her  in  the  period 
of  agitation  preceding  the  war;  and  we  find  that  in  January, 
1862,  out  of  a  list*  of  ninety-three  general  officers  of  the  Con- 
federate army,  but  six  (Holmes,  Hill,  Loring,  Gatlin,  Rains  and 
Branch)  were  accredited  to  North  Carolina.  Of  the  five  full 
generals,  none  were  from  that  State;  of  the  fourteen  major- 
generals,  five  were  ahead  of  Holmes,  our  only  one;  and  of  the 
seventy-four  brigadiers,  twenty-one  appear  ahead  of  Hill,  the 
first  North  Carolinian  in  the  list.  Nevertheless,  North  Caro- 
lina had  so  many  more  troops  in  the  field  at  that  time  than 
her  proportion,  as  compared  with  several  other  States,  that  in 
the  call  for  troops  made  by  the  Confederate  Government  in 
February,  1862,  her  quota  was  less  than  half  that  of  the  others.f 
Once  in  the  national  arena.  General  Hill  rose  to  great  distinc- 
tion. He  became  a  major-general  in  the  course  of  a  few  months 
and  lieutenant-general  in  July,  1863. 

On  the  6th  of  September,  after  having  thoroughly  fortified 
Ship  Point,  the  regiment  was  moved  to  Cocklestown,  six  miles 
distant  from  Yorktown  and  nine  miles  from  Bethel.  On  the 
9th  of  September,  Mr.  John  W.  Baker,  Jr.,  presented  a  flag  to 
the  regiment  in  behalf  of  the  ladies  of  Fayetteville,  in  whose 
honor  the  camp  was  then  named  "Camp  Fayetteville."  Upon 
the  flag  the  word  "Bethel"  was  inscribed,  in  accordance  with 
the  resolution  of  the  State  Convention. 

On  the  21st  of  September,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lane  was  elected 
Colonel  of  the  Twenty-eighth  Regiment,  then  being  organized 
at  High  Point.  An  election  for  Lieutenant-Colonel  to  fill  the 
vacancy  resulted  in  the  election  of  Captain  Joseph  B.  Starr,  of 
Company  F.   The  new  Lieutenant-Colonel  was  a  native  of  Fay- 

*Oharlestoa  (S.  C.)  Courier. 
tFayetteville  Observer,  February  24, 18C2. 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  113 

etteville;  educated  at  Middletown  Academy,  Counecticut;  an 
adventurous  visitor  to  California  at  the  age  of  seventeen,  and  a 
prosperous  wholesale  merchant  in  his  native  town  at  the  outbreak 
of  the  war.  He  was  described  at  the  time  as  "a  rigid  disciplin- 
arian, but  loved  and  respected  by  his  company." 

The  field  officers  were  now  as  follows:  Colonel,  Charles  C. 
Lee;  Lieutenant-Colonel,  Joseph  B.  Starr;  Major,  Robert  F. 
Hoke.  In  addition  to  the  staff  officers  named  in  the  first  part 
of  this  article,  J.  B.  F.  Boone  had  become  Quartermaster,  and 
after  him.  Lieutenant  R.  B.  Saunders,  of  Company  D. 

Changes  were  made  in  the  company  officers  as  follows: 

Company  A — After  the  battle  of  Bethel,  Captain  Bridgers 
was  made  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  Heavy  Ai^tiHery  (Tenth  Regi- 
ment North  Carolina  Troops),  though  resigning  shortly  after- 
wards. On  the  ,7th  of  September,  First  Lieutenant  Whitmel 
P.  Lloyd  was  made  Captain;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant  W.  G. 
Lewis  was  made  First  Lieutenant,  and  Kenneth  Thigpen,  Junior 
Second  Lieutenant. 

Company  B — Captain  "Williams  was  appointed  by  the  Sec- 
retary of  the  Treasury  Produce  Loan  Agent  for  North  Carolina, 
and  resigned.  First  Lieutenant  Owens  became  Captain,  the 
other  Lieutenants  went  up  one  grade,  and  Junius  French  became 
Junior  Second  Lieutenant. 

Company  F — An  election  was  held  on  September  30th  to 
supply  the  vacancy  caused  by  the  promotion  of  Captain  Starr. 
The  next  three  officers  went  up  one  grade  each,  and  Orderly 
Sergeant  Benjamin  Rush,  Jr.,  was  elected  Junior  Second  Lieu- 

Company  G — Second  Lieutenant  John  A.  Dickson  died  of 
pneumonia  shortly  before  the  regiment  was  disbanded,  and  Cor- 
poral M.  D.  Arrafield  was  elected  to  succeed  him. 

Company  I — Captain  Bell  resigned  August  31,  1861.  Sec- 
ond Lieutenant  Francis  M.  Parker  was  elected  to  succeed  him 
and  Carr  B.  Corbett  was  elected  Junior  Second  Lieutenant.  On 
the  16th  of  October,  Captain  Parker  was  elected  Colonel  of  the 


114  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Thirtieth  Regiment,  and  First  Lieutenant  M.  T.  Whitaker  be- 
came Captain. 

Company  K — Upon  the  promotion,  on  September  3d,  of  Sec- 
ond Lieutenant  E.  F.  Hoke  to  be  Major,  Orderly  Sergeant  Wil- 
liam R.  Edwards  became  Junior  Second  Lieutenant.  Subse- 
quently Second  Lieutenant  Sumner  appears  to  have  resigned,* 
when  Lieutenant  Edwards  became  Second  Lieutenant,  and  Ser- 
geant Albert  Sidney  Haynes  succeeded  him  as  Junior  Second 

There  were  no  changes  in  the  other  companies. 

While  the  regiment  was  at  Camp  Fayetteville,  in  September, 
a  meeting  of  the  officers  was  held,  of  which  Captain  C.  M.  Avery 
was  chairman  and  Lieutenant  Richardson  Mallett  was  secretary, 
to  protest  against  a  proposition  to  change  the  name  of  the  regi- 
ment. The  proceedings  of  the  meeting  will  be  found  in  the 
appendix  to  this  article. 

On  the  8th  of  October  the  regiment  was  moved  to  Camp  Rains, 
four  miles  distant  from  Camp  Fayetteville ;  on  the  20th  to  Bethel 
Church;  on  the  24th  to  Yorktown;  on  the  25th  back  to  Bethel 
Church;  and  on  the  1st  of  November  to  Yorktown.  On  the  8th, 
9th  and  11th  of  November  detachments  of  four  companies  each 
left  Yorktown  for  Richmond,  where  the  regiment  was  mustered 
out  of  service  on  the  12th,  and  returned  to  North  Carolina  by 
the  13th. 


Moore's  "Roster"  gives  one  thousand  one  hundred  and  thirty- 
six  as  the  total  number  of  officers  and  men  in  the  "Bethel  Regi- 
ment." There  must  have  been  many  more  than  that,  for  there 
were  twelve  companies  in  it,  and  the  newspapers  of  the  day 
reported  the  ranks  as  being  very  full.  The  records  of  the  Fay- 
etteville Independent  Light  Infantry,  which  served  as  Company 
H  of  this  regiment,  show  one  hundred  and  nineteen  as  the  num- 
ber serving  in  that  company,  whereas  the  "Roster"  gives  the  names 
of  but  one  hundred  and  five.    The  same  rate  of  error  in  the  rest 

*Southern  Historical  Society's  Papers,  Vol.  XVIII,  page  64. 

The  Bethel  Eegiment.  115 

of  the  regiment  would  give  a  total  of  one  thousand  two  hundred 
and  eighty-seven. 


The  First  Regiment  has  been  described  as  a  nursery  or  train- 
ing school  for  officers.  Two  circumstances,  the  one  growing  out 
of  the  other,  made  it  so,  viz.:  its  unique  personnel  and  its  short 
term  of  service.  The  companies  composing  it  had  volunteered 
immediately  upon  the  receipt  of  Mr.  Lincoln's  proclamation  and 
for  the  long  term  of  service  prescribed  by  the  existing  State  law. 
But  the  State  authorities  limited  its  service  to  six  months,*  a  pro- 
ceeding due,  it  is  believed,  to  their  recognition  of  the  remark- 
able character  of  its  rank  and  file.  How  far  the  view  described 
was  justified  by  the  result  will  appear  from  the  subjoined  list  of 
members  of  the  First  Regiment  who  became  commissioned  offi- 
cers in  other  commands  of  the  Confederate  service.  As  will  be 
seen,  four  of  them  were  general  officers.  Hill,  as  already  stated, 
reached  that  rank  in  September,  1861;  Lane  attained  it  in  No- 
vember, 1862;  Hoke  in  January,  1863;  and  Lewis  in  the  summer 
of  1864. 

Upon  Colonel  Hill's  promotion.  Major  Lane  received  a  com- 
plimentary vote  for  Colonel  and  almost  a  unanimous  vote  for 
Lieutenant-Colonel.  When  he  was  elected  Colonel  of  the  Twen- 
ty-eighth Regiment,  the  First  Regiment  presented  to  him  a  sword 
of  honor  and  other  valuable  testimonials.  He  was  described  by 
the  press  of  the  day  as  "deservedly  the  most  popular  man,  per- 
haps, in  the  regiment."  He  distinguished  himself  at  Hanover 
Court  House,  in  1862,  in  extricating  his  regiment  when  cut  oiF 
by  the  overwhelming  force  of  Fitz  John  Porter,  and  was  praised 
by  General  Lee  therefor.  Upon  the  death  of  General  Branch 
at  Sharpsburg  he  was  urged  by  Stonewall  Jackson  for  promotion 
to  Brigadier-General.  When  appointed  to  that  rank,  six  weeks 
afterwards,  he  was  but  twenty-seven  years  of  age,  being  then 
the  youngest  general  officer  in  the  service.   His  brigade  of  North 

•Adjutant-General  to  Colonel  Hill,  April  19, 1861. 

116  North  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-'65.     . 

Carolinians  became  one  of  the  most  famous  in  military  history. 
At  Spottsylvania,  when  Hancock  overran  Johnson's  Division 
and  took  the  right  wing  of  Lee's  army  in  rear  and  enfilade. 
Lane's  promptness  and  military  genius  and  the  discipline  and 
courage  of  his  brigade  stayed  the  victorious  host  and  threw  them 
back  upon  their  reserves.  He  was,  in  the  campaigns  of  1864 
and  1865,  the  senior  brigadier  of  the  "Light  Division"  of  the 
Army  of  Northern  Virginia.  Except  for  the  sudden  opening 
of  the  campaign  of  1865  earlier  than  was  expected,  he  would, 
it  was  understood,  have  received  the  rauk,  which  he  had  long 
before  won,  of,  a  division  commander. 

At  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  when  the  junior  officers  were  in 
the  habit  of  drilling  their  squads  in  the  streets  about  the  Capitol 
Square  in  Raleigh,  the  late  Mr.  Badger  took  great  interest  in 
watching  them  from  his  residence.  He  singled  out  young  Hoke,, 
the  Second  Lieutenant  of  the  Lincoln  company,  as  the  likeliest 
of  them  all,  and  often  said  that  he  was  destined  to  high  com- 
mand. He  became  Major  of  the  First  Regiment  in  September, 
as  we  have  seen.  After  the  disbandment  of  the  regiment  he 
was  appointed  Major  of  Colonel  Branch's  Regiment,  which  was 
just  then  being  organized,  and  which  became  the  Thirty-third. 
Upon  Branch's  promotion  in  January,  1862,  he  was  promoted 
to  be  Lieutenant-Colonel.  Colonel  Avery  having  been  captured 
at  New  Bern,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Hoke  commanded  the  regiment 
in  the  battles  about  Richmond  in  1862.  He  was  promoted  to 
be  Colonel,  and  took  part  in  the  Second  Manassas  and  Sharps- 
burg  campaigns.  Upon  Colonel  Avery's  return,  he  was  assigned 
to  the  command  of  the  Twenty-first  Regiment,  of  Trimble's 
Brigade.  This  brigade  he  commanded  in  the  battle  of  Fred- 
ericksburg with  such  notable  skill  that  he  was  appointed  Briga- 
dier-General in  the  succeeding  January  (1863).  On  the  17th 
of  April,  1864,  he  won  fame  by  the  capture  of  the  fortified  town 
of  Plymouth  and  three  thousand  prisoners.  Congress  voted  him- 
a  resolution  of  thanks,  and  he  was  appointed  a  Major-General,. 
with  rank  from  the  date  of  his  victory. 

Upon  the  organization  of  the  First  Regiment,  William  G. 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  117 

Lewis  was  Junior  Second  Lieutenant  of  Company  A.  Upon  its 
disband  ment  he  had  risen  to  First  Lieutenant.  On  the  17th  of 
January,  1862,  he  was  appointed  Major  of  the  Thirty-third  Regi- 
ment; on  the  26th  of  April,  1862,  he  was  promoted  to  be  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of  the  Forty-third  Regiment;  for  his  services  at 
the  siege  of  Plymouth,  1864,  he  was  promoted  to  be  Colonel; 
and  for  his  services  in  Beauregard's  campaign  against  Butler, 
shortly  after,  when  he  commanded  Hoke's  old  brigade,  he  was 
promoted  to  be  Brigadier-General.  He  participated  in  Early's 
victorious  march  down  the  Shenandoah  Valley  to  Washington 
and  in  the  subsequent  battles  with  Sheridan.  In  the  retreat 
from  Petersburg,  in  a  desperate  fight  of  the  rearguard  at  Farm- 
ville,  two  days  before  the  surrender  at  Appomattox,  he  was 
severely  wounded  and  taken  prisoner.  This  gallant  officer  par- 
ticipated in  thirty-seven  battles  and  heavy  skirmishes. 

officers  contributed  to  other  commands  in  the 
confederate  service. 


Daniel  H.  Hill,  Lieutenant-General,  P.  A.  C.  S.;  Robert  F. 
Hoke,  Major-General^  P.  A.  C.  S.;  James  H.  Lane,  Brigadier- 
Oeneral,  P.  A.  C.  S.;  William  Gaston  Lewis,  Brigadier-General, 
P.  A.  C.  S. 


J.  W.  Ratchford,  Major,  A.  A.  General,  P.  A.  C.  S.;  E.  J. 
Hale,  Jr.,  Major,  A.  A.  General,  P.  A.  C.  8.;  J.  C.  MacRae, 
Captain,  General  L.  S.  Baker's  Staff  (also  Major  of  Battalion  in 
Western  North  Carolina);  Charles  W.  Broadfoot,  First  Lieuten- 
ant, A.  D.  C.  to  General  T.  H.  Holmes  (also  Lieutenant-Colonel 
First  Regiment  Junior  Reserves);  Theo.  F.  Davidson,  Lieuten- 
ant, A.  D.  C.  to  General  R.  B.  Vance;  Thomas  J.  Moore,  Lieu- 
tenant, Artillery  Officer  to  (general  D.  H.  Hill. 

Surgeon  Peter  E.  Hines,  a  distinguished  physician,  became 
Medical  Director  of  the  Department  of  Petersburg,  and  then, 
by  authority  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  was  appointed  Medical 
Director  of  the  General  Hospitals  of  North  Carolina. 

118  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 


Colonels — James  H.  Lane,  Twenty-eighth  Regiment;  Fran- 
cis M.  Parker,  Thirtieth;  Charles  C.  Lee,  Thirty-seventh;  Clark 
M.  Avery,  Thirty-third;  William  J.  Hoke,  Thirty-eighth;  James 
K.  Marshall,  Fifty-second;  William  A.  Owens,  Fifty-third; 
Eobert  F.  Hoke,  Twenty-first;  James  C.  S.  McDowell,  Fifty- 
fourth;  Hector  McKethan,  Fifty-first;  Washington  M.  Hardy, 
Sixtieth;  W.  G.  Lewis,  Forty-third;  Robert  L.  Coleman,  Six- 
tieth; John  H.  Anderson,  Second  Junior  Reserves.    Total,  14. 

Lieutenant-Colonels — John  L.  Bridgers,  Tenth  Regi- 
ment; H.  W.  Abernathy,  Thirty- fourth;  Francis  W.  Bird,  Elev- 
enth; John  T.  Jones,  Twenty-sixth;  Joseph  H.  Saunders,  Thirty- 
third;  Eric  Erson,  Fifty-second;  Alfred  H.  Baird,  Sixty-fifth; 
Joseph  B.  Starr,  Fifth  Battalion;  Charles  W.  Broadfoot,  First 
Junior  Reserves;  Whitmel  P.  Lloyd,  Senior  Reserves.  Total,^ 

Majors — Egbert  H.  Ross,  Eleventh  Regiment;  Benjamin  R. 
Huske,  Forty-eighth;  Charles  M.  Stedman,  Forty-fourth;  James 
R.  McDonald,  Fifty-first;  W.  W.  McDowell,  Sixtieth;  James 
C.  MacRae,  Battalion  in  Western  North  Carolina;  F.  J.  Hahr, 
Commandant  Conscript  Camp;  John  N.  Prior,  Senior  Reserves,^ 
Inspector  Eighth  District,  Conscript  Bureau.     Total,  8. 

Adjutants — French  Strange,  Fifth  Regiment;  J.  C.  Mac- 
Rae, Fifth;  Stark  A.  Sutton,  Forty-fourth;  Richardson  Mallett, 
Forty-sixth;  E.  J.  Hale,  Jr.,  Fifty-sixth;  W.  C.  McDaniel, 
Fifty-fourth;  John  H.  Robinson,  Fifty-second;  Spier  Whitaker, 
Jr.,  Thirty-third;  Thomas  J.  Moore,  Fifty-ninth;  E.  M.  Clayton, 
Sixtieth;  John  W.  Mallett,  Sixty-first ;  Junius  French,  Twenty- 
third.     Total,  12. 

Other  Staei'  Officers — William  R.  Edwards,  A.  Q.  M., 
Thirty-eighth  Regiment;  George  W.  Wightman,  A.  C.  S.,  Fifth;. 
J.  T.  Downs,  A.  C.  S.,  Sixty-third;  George  B.  Baker,  A.  Q.  M., 
Conscript  Camp;  John  G.  Hardy  ^of  Burke),  Surgeon,  Sixth 
Regiment;  J.  Geddings  Hardy  (of  Buncombe),  Surgeon,  Sixty- 

«In  the  lists  which  follow  the  colonels,  lieutenant-colonels,  majors  and  adi-utants  of 
the  regiments  of  the  line  are  placed  in  the  order  of  date  of  commission;  the  comnlnv 
ofBcers,  alphabetically.  '  .u^auj 

The  Bethel  Eegiment.  119 

fourth;  D.  McL.  Graham,  Assistant  Surgeon,  Thirty-seventh; 
Charles  G.  Gregory,  Assistant  Surgeon,  Thirtieth;  L.  L.  Warren, 
Surgeon;  Jesse  H.  Page,  Chaplain,  Seventeenth.     Total,  10. 

Non-commissioned  Staff — Charles  Haigh,  Sergeant- Major, 
Sixty-third  Regiment;  E.  P.  Powers,  Sergeant-Major,  Fayette- 
ville  Armory  Guard. 

Captains — S.  B.  Alexander,  Company  K,  Forty-second 
Regiment;  W.  E.  Ardrey,  K,  Thirtieth;  M.  D.  Armfield,  B, 
Eleventh;  George  B.  Atkins,  B,  Fifth  Battalion;  T.  J.  Brooks, 

D,  Forty-first  Regiment;  Calvin  S.  Brown,  D,  Eleventh;  Thomas 
Capehart,  Third  Battalion;  Thomas  W.  Cooper,  C,  Elev- 
enth Regiment;  E.  M.  Clayton,  K,  Sixtieth;  D.  A.  Culbreth, 
C,  Fifty-fourth;  Lawson  A.  Dellinger,  A,  Fifty-second;  Alex- 
ander R.  Carver,  B,  Fifty-sixth;  W.  D.  Elma,  I,  Thirty-seventh; 
J.  F.  Freeland,  G,  Eleventh;  S.  A.  Grier,  D,  Sixty-third;  B.  F. 
Grigg,  F,  Fifty-sixth;  W.  L.  Hand,  A,  Eleventh;  A.  Sidney 
Haynes,  I,  Eleventh;  H.  W.  Home,  C,  Third;  Lemuel  J.  Hoyle, 
I,  Eleventh;  James  R.  Jennings,  G,  Eleventh;  G.  B.  Kibler, 
B,  Fifty-fourth;  W.  J.  Kincaid,  D,  Eleventh;  Jesse  W.  Kyle, 
B,  Fifty-second;  J.  A.  McArthur,  I,  Fifty-first;  Robert  Mc- 
Eachern,  D,  Fifty-first;  John  McKellar,  A,  Sixty-third;  D. 
A.  Monroe,  K,  Thirty-eighth;  James  H.  Morris,  F,  Forty- 
third;  E.  R.  Outlaw,  C,  Eleventh;  Thomas  Parks,  B,  Elev- 
enth; B.  F.  Patton,  B,  Sixtieth;  T.  W.  Patton,  C,  Sixtieth; 
L.  A.  Potts,  C,  Thirty-seventh;  Alexander  Ray,  D,  Fifty- 
third;  K.  J.  Rhodes,  E,  Fifty-sixth;  Frank  N.  Roberts,  B, 
Fifty-sixth;  David  Scott,  D,  Fifty-third;  George  Skirven, 
Mallett's   Battalion;    George   Sloan,   I,   Fifty-first   Regiment; 

E.  J.  Small,  F,  Eleventh;  John  F.  Speck,  G,  Fifty-seventh; 
Edward  W.  Stilt,  I,  Thirty-seventh;  L.  B.  Sutton,  F,  Fifty- 
ninth;  John  M.  Sutton,  C,  Third  Battalion;  Frank  M.  Tay- 
lor, G,  Thirty-second  Regiment;  W.  B.  Taylor,  A,  Eleventh; 
William  T.  Taylor,  B,  Fifty-sixth;  John  H.  Thorpe,  A,  Forty- 
seventh;  Isaac  N.  Tillett,  G,  Fifty-ninth;  M.  C.  Toms,  A,  Six- 
tieth; J.  J.  Watford,  F,  Fifty-ninth;  W.  P.  Wemyss,  D,  Fay- 
etteville  Armory  Guard;  Carey  Whitaker,  D,  Forty-third;  Sol. 

120  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

H.  White,  G,  Thirty-second;  J.  Marshall  Williams,  C,  Fifty- 
fourth;  James  M.  Young,  K,  Eleventh.     Total,  57. 

First  Lieutenants  —  C.  W.  Alexander,  Company  A, 
Eleventh  Eegiment;  W.  R.  Alexander,  I,  Sixtieth;  John  H. 
Anderson,  D,  Forty-eighth;  Thomas  W.  Baker,  T>,  Forty-third; 
K.  J.  Braddy,  C,  Thirty-sixth;  G.  W.  Buhman,  B,  Forty-first; 
John  A.  Burgiu,  K.  Eleventh;  E.  M.  Clayton,  B,  Sixtieth;  W. 

A.  Connelly,  A,  Avery's  Battalion;  David  A.  Coon,  I,  Eleventh 
Regiment;  Thomas  C.  Fuller,  B,  Fifth  Battalion;  David  P. 
Glass,  K,  Thirty-fifth  Regiment;  Charles  Carroll  Goldston,  H, 
Forty-sixth;  Joseph  L.  Hayes,  F,  Fifth;  A.  J.  Hauser,  D,  First; 
H.  R.  Home,  A,  Fifth  Battalion;  W.  E.  Kyle,  B,  Fifty-second 
Regiment;  H.  C.  Lowrance,  D,  Sixtieth;  Jarvis  B.  Lutterloh, 
E.  Fifty-sixth;  M.  S.  Marler,  B,  Fifty-fourth;  James  McKee, 

C,  Seventh;  J.  P.  McLean,  H,  Fiftieth;  J.  H.  Myrover,  B, 
Fifth  Battalion;  O.  P.  Pittman,  B,  Sixty-third  Regiment;  D.  H. 
Ray,  A,  Fifth;  Thomas  RufSn,  D,  Fifty-ninth;  Angus  Shaw,  K, 
Thirty-eighth;  Thomas  G.  Skinner,  Fifth  Battalion;  J.  J.  Speller, 
Commandant  Conscript  Camp  Guard;  Ed.  E.  Sumner,  D,  First 
Regiment;  R.  W.  Thornton,  B,  Fifty-sixth;  G.  W.  Westray,  A, 
Forty-seventh;  J.  S.  Wliitaker,  D.  Forty-third;  T.  L.  Whitaker, 

D,  Twenty-fourth;  John  Whitmore,  B,  Fifth  Battalion;  B. 
Franklin  Wilson,  K,  Forty-second  Regiment;  E.  J.  Williams, 
I,  Thirty-first.     Total,  37. 

Second  Lieutenants — Marshall  E.  Alexander,  Company 

B,  Fifty-third  Regiment;  W.  T.  Battley,  E,  Fayetteville  Arm- 
ory Guard;  William  Beavans,  D,  Forty-third  Regiment;  W. 
R.  Boon,  B,  Fifty-first;  O.  J.  .Brittain,  D,  Eleventh;  John  W. 
Burgin,  K,  Eleventh;  Charles  B.  Cook,  A,  Sixty-third;  Au- 
gustus Cotton,  E,  Seventeenth;  G.  A.  Cotton,  E,  Seventeenth; 
S.  W.  Davidson,  C,  Sixtieth;  T.  F.  Davidson,  F,  Sixtieth; 
W.  T.  Dickerson,  K,  Eleventh;  S.  H.  Elliott;  J.  P.  Elms,  I, 
Thirty-seventh;  G.  H.  Gregory,  J.  C.  Grier;  P.  B.  Grier, 
Eleventh;  George  H.  Haigh,  Conscript  ,Bureau;  R.  H.  Hand, 
A,  Eleventh  Regiment;'  M.  M.  Hines,  B,  Twenty-third;  James 
W.  Huske,  B,  Fifty-second;  Isaac  Jessup,  B,  Fifth  Battalion; 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  121 

R.  B.  Kerley,  B,  Fifty-fourth  Regiment;  J.  G.  McCorkle,  E, 
Eleventh;  J.  H.  McDade,  G,  Eleventh;  D.  M.  McDonald, 
B,  Fifty-sixth;  H.  A.  McDonald,  K,  Thirty-eighth;  McMat- 
thews  (of  Mecklenburg);  James  D.  Nott,  A,  Sixty-third;  O. 
A.  Ramseur,  I,  Eleventh;  Benjamin  Rush,  B,  Fifth  Battal- 
ion; J.  M.  Saville,  H,  Eleventh  Regiment;  H.  H.  Smith,  A, 
Fifth;  B.  W.  Thornton,  B,  Fifty-sixth;  J.  H.  Triplett;  J.  L. 
Warlick,  B,  Eleventh;  Portland  A.  Warlick,  B,  Eleventh; 
R.  M.  Warlick,  K,  Forty-ninth;  Jones  M.  Watson,  G,  Elev- 
enth; James  W.  Williams,  G,  Eleventh;  G.  W.  Wills,  D,  Forty- 
third;  Joseph  H.  Wilson,  K,  Forty-second;  G.  W.  Worjey,  K, 
Eleventh.     Total,  43. 

A  recapitulation  of  the   foregoing  gives:    Four  general  offi- 
cers,  seven  officers  of  the  general  staff,  fourteen  colonels,  ten 
lieutenant-colonels,  eight  majors,  twelve  adjutants,  ten  other  staff 
officers,  fifty-seven  captains,   thirty-seven  first  lieutenants  and 
forty-three  second  lieutenants;  total,  two  hundred  and  two.  From 
this  must  be  deducted  the  number  of  names  which  appear  more 
than  once.     Three  of  the  general  officers  appear  also  iu  the  list  of 
colonels;    five   of  the  officers  of  the  general    staff  appear  also 
in   the   regimental   and*   battalion  field    and   staff,   and    one  of 
them  twice;  an  adjutant  appears  also  in  the  list  of  line  captains; 
and  a  lieutenant  of  a  regiment  of  the  line  appears  in  another 
list.     Nearly  all  the  .officers  enumerated  held  more  than   one 
office,  by  promotion;  but  it  was  necessary  to  repeat  only  those 
just  mentioned.     Deducting  these  eleven,  we  have  a  net  total 
of  one    hundred    and    ninety-one   commissioned     officers    con- 
tributed by  the  First  Regiment  to  other  commands  in  the  Con- 
federate service — being  more  than  the  full  complement  required 
for  four  regiments.     Of  these  officers,  the  commands  of  more 
than  two-thirds  of  them  formed  part  of  the  regular  establish- 
ment of  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia:  that  is  to  say,  the 
division  of  D.  H.  Hill  and  the  brigades  of  D.  H.  Hill,  Lane, 
Hoke  and  Lewis  were  of  that  army — as  were  also  the  commands 
of  three  of  the  officers  of  the  general  staff  above  mentioned;  of 
ten  of  the  colonels;  of  five  of  the  lieutenant-colonels;  of  three  of 

122  North  Cakolina  Teoops,  1861-65. 

the  majors;  of  ten  of  the  adjutants;  of  six  of  the  other  regimental 
staff;  of  forty-five  of  the  captains;  of  twenty-five  of  the  first  lieu- 
tenants; and  of  twenty-nine  of  the  second  lieutenants.  Deduct- 
ing from  this  total  of  one  hundred  and  fo%,  five  names 
which  have  been  counted  twice  therein,  we  have  a  net  total  of 
one  hundred  and  thirty-five  commissioned  officers  contributed 
by  the  Bethel  Regiment  to  that  immortal  army. 


The  list  of  members  of  the  First  Regiment  who  were  present 
at  the  battle  of  Bethel  and  who  also  surrendered  at  Appomattox 
must,  in  the  nature  of  things,  be  short,  for  death  and  disabling 
wounds  and  other  of  the  adverse  chances  of  war  would  leave  but  few 
survivors  of  those  who  found  their  way  into  the  Army  of  Northern 
Virginia.  For  example,  to  go  no  further  than  the  grade  of  colonel, 
it  will  be  found  that  of  the  fourteen  officers  of  that  i-ank  con- 
tributed by  the  First  Regiment  to  other  commands,  five  (Lee, 
Avery,  Marshall,  Owens  and  McDowell)  were  killed  or  mor- 
tally wounded  in  battle,  while  two  others  (Parker  and  W.  J. 
Hoke)  were  disabled  by  wounds  and  retired,  and  another  (Lewis, 
who  had  reached  the  grade  of  general)  was,  as  described  above, 
wounded  and  captured  two  days  before  the  surrender.  Again, 
there  are  no  doubt  omissions  in  the  list  which  has  been  obtained, 
though  every  effort  has  been  made  to  secure  the  names  of  all. 
Subjoined  is  a  list  of  those  who  have  been  reported  by  the  com- 
pany historians.  The  names  (including  General  Lane's)  are  ar- 
ranged alphabetically,  and  the  company  or  command  in  which 
each  served  at  Bethel  and  at  the  surrender  are  set  opposite: 

John  Beavans,  private  Company  I — Seargeant  Company  D, 
Forty- third. 

D.  McL.  Graham,  private  Company  H — Assistant  Surgeon 

E.  J.  Hale,  Jr.,  private  Company  H — Major,  A.  A.  G. 
(Lane's  staff). 

W.  E.  Kyle,  private  Company  H — First  Lieutenant  Com- 
pany B,  Fifty-second. 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  123 

James  H.  Lane,  Major  and  Lieutenant-Colonel — Brigadier- 

J.  A.  McKay,  private  Company  H  —  private  Williams's 

John  H.  E-obinson,  Sergeant  Company  H — Adjutant  Fifty- 

Charles  M.  Stedman,  private  Company  H — Major  Forty-third. 

W.  B.  Taylor,  Corporal  Company  C — Captain  Company  A, 

J.  S.  Whitaker,  private  Company  I — First  Lieutenant  Com- 
pany D,  Forty-third. 

Spier  Whitaker,  Jr.,  private  Company  D — Adjutant  Thirty- 

J.  Marshall  Williams,  private  Company  H — Captain  Com- 
pany C,  Fifty-fourth. 


The  facts  collated  in  this  history  of  the  First  North  Carolina 
Regiment  exhibit  its  remarkable  character.  They  show  that  it 
was  the  natural  outgrowth  of  the  conditions  from  which  it  sprung; 
that  it  expressed  the  peculiarities  of  the  people  whom  it  repre- 
sented, their  gentleness^  in  manner,  their  resoluteness  in  deed; 
that  the  celerity  and  completeness  with  which  it  was  organized 
and  equiped  have  no  parallel  in  our  history;  that  it  spilled  the  first 
blood  in  battle  in  defense  of  the  cause  which  its  State  was  almost 
the  last  to  embrace;  that,  while  it  had  never  before  heard  a  hos- 
tile bullet,  it  exhibited  the  discipline  and  behaved  with  the  steadi- 
ness of  veterans  at  Bethel  Church;  that  its  victory  there  was 
won  against  odds  which  represented  the  numerical  superiority  of 
the  North  over  the  South;  that  in  this,  and  in  other  respects,  its 
triumph  in  that  initial  battle  produced  consequences  of  the  most 
far-reaching  kind,  possibly  holding  Virginia  in  the  Confederacy, 
and  certainly  reshifting  the  theatre  of  war;  that  it  raised  the 
hopes  of  the  South  to  the  highest  pitch  and  correspondingly  de- 
pressed those  of  the  North;  that  its  contributions  of  trained  sol- 
diers to  the  rest  of  the  army  constitute  a  unique  feature  of  mili- 
tary history;  and  that  in  this,  and  in  all  other  respects,  it  deserved 
the  place  assigned  it  by  the  authorities  of  the  State  as  Fugleman 
of  the  regiments. 

124  North  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-65. 


Adjutant-General's  Orders  Organizing  the 
First  Regiment. 

Reference  has  been  made  to  orders  from  the  Adjutant- Gen- 
€ral's  office  issued  on  April  19th,  May  9th,  May  12th,  May 
15th   and  May  16th,  organizing  the  regiment.     They  were  as 

follows : 

Adjutant- General's  Office, 

Raleigh,  April  19,  1861. 

Colonel:— You  are  hereby  commanded  to  organize  the  Orange  Light 
Infantry,  Captain  Ashe;  Warrenton  Guards,  Captain  Wade;  Hornet 
Nest  Eifles,  Captain  Williams;  Enfield  Bluea,  Captain  Bell;  Lumberton 
Guards,  Captain  Norment;  Duplin  Rifles,  Captain  Kenan;  Charlotte 
Grays,  Captain  Ross;  Thomasville  Rifles,  Captain  Miller;  Granville 
Grays,  Captain  Wortham;  Columbus  Guards,  Captain  Ellis,  into  a  regi- 
ment to  be  designated  the  "First  Regiment  of  North  Carolina  Volun- 

The  cadets  of  the  North  Carolina  Military  Institute  can  be  attached  to 
this  regiment  with  the  consent  of  their  parents  and  guardians.  The 
seat  of  war  is  the  destination  of  the  regiment,,  and  Virginia,  in  all  prob- 
ability, will  be  the  first  battle  ground. 

The  service  of  this  regiment  will  not  exceed  six  months,  but  the  men 
should  be  prepared  to  keep  the  field  until  the  war  is  ended.  The  gray 
or  the  blue  blouse  will  be  recognized  as  a  suitable  uniform.  Arms  are 
now  in  Raleigh  for  the  use  of  the  regiment,  and  the  men  will  be  fur- 
nished with  them  promptly.  The  regiment  will  be  moved  into  Virginia 
as  soon  as  possible,  but  will  not  be  led  into  battle  until  the  field  officers 
are  of  the  opinion  that  the  men  are  fit  for  such  duty.  You  will  order  an 
election  for  field  oflBcers  of  the  regiment  on  Friday,  the  third  day  of 

The  cause  of  Virginia  is  the  cause  of  North  Carolina.  In  our  first 
struggle  for  liberty  she  nobly  and  freely  paured  out  her  blood  in  our 
defense.  We  will  stand  by  her  now  in  this  our  last  efibrt  for  independ- 

By  order  of  the  Governor: 

J.  F.  Hoigi:, 

Adjutant-  Oeneral. 
Colonel  D.  H.  Hill, 

Commanding  Camp  of  Instruction, 

Raleigh,  N.  C. 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  125 

Adjot ANT- General's  Office, 

Ealeigh,  May  9,  1861. 
{General  Orders  No.  7).  , 

The  following  companies  of  volunteers  now  stationed  in  this  city  are 
hereby  organized  into  a  regiment,  to  be  mustered  into  the  service  of  the 
State  agreeably  to  such  regulations  as  shall  hereby  be  determined  upon, 

1.  Edgecombe  Guards,  Captain  John  L.  Bridgers. 

2.  Enfield  Blues,  Captain  D.  A.  Bell. 

3.  Hornet  Nest  Rifles,  Captain  Lewis  S.  Williams. 

4.  Burke  Rifles,  Captain  0.  M.  Avery. 

5.  Buncombe  Rifles,  Captain  W.  W.  McDowell. 

6.  Southern  Stars,  Captain  W.  J.  Hoke. 

7.  Randlesburg  Rifles,  Captain  A.  A.  Erwin. 

8.  LaFayette  Light  Infantry,  Captain  W.  G.  Matthews. 

9.  Orange  Light  Infantry,  Captain  Richard  J.  Ashe. 

The  companies  will  be  ari'anged  in  the  regiment  and  the  relative  ranks 
of  the  officers  will  be  fixed  when  the  same  shall  have  been  mustered  into 

The  commanding  oflicer  of  the  camp  of  instruction  will  hold  an  elec- 
tion for  field  ofiicers  of  the  above  regiment  at  10  o'clock  a.  m.  the  11th 

The  companies  not  already  at  the  camp  will  repair  there  at  the  time 

designated,  where  they  will  be  stationed  until  further  orders. 

*         *********** 

All  orders  heretofore  issued  inconsistent  with  the  foregoing  are  hereby 

Arms  will  be  issued  to  the  troops  as  soon  as  they  shall  have  been  or- 
ganized into  regiments. 

By  order  of  the  Governor:  J.  F.  Hoke, 

A  djutant-  General. 

AdjutaNt-Genekal's  Office, 

Raleigh,  May  12,  1861. 
{Special  Orders  No.  S). 

The  following  return  of  the  election  for  field  officers  for  the  regiment 
of  volunteers  organized  at  the  camp  of  instruction  in  this  city,  pursuant 
to  General  Orders  No.  7  frofti  this  oflace,  dated  May  9, 1861,  is  published 
for  the  information  of  all  concerned: 

Camp  op  Instkuction, 

Raleigh,  May  11,  1861. 
To  General  J.  F.  Hoke,  Adjutant- General: 

Sir: — In  accordance  with  instructions,  I  hereby  transmit  the  result  of 
the  election  this  day  held  for  field  ofiicers  of  the  First  North  Carolina 
Regiment : 

126  North  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

For  Colonel— D.  H.  Hill  received  652  votes;  Charles  0.  Lee,  39;  C.  0. 
Tew,  2;  scattering,  3. 

For  Lieutenant-Colonel— Charles  0. -Lee  received  657  votes;  Mr.  Bur- 
gwyn,  29;  D.  H.  Hill,  13;  Major  Stokes,  2;  scattering,  4. 

For  Major — James  H.  Lane  received  610  votes;  Mr.  Lovejoy,  83;  scat- 
tering, 5.  Respectfully  submitted, 

Charles  C.  Leb, 

Major  Camp  of  Instruction,  Acting  Colonel. 

The  officers  elected  as  above  will  enter  upon  their  duties  accordingly, 
and  all  persons  placed  under  their  command  will  respect  and  obey  them 

By  order  of  the  Governor:  J.  F.  Hoke, 

A  djutant-  General. 

Officers  commissioned  as  per  above  date,  the  11th. 

Adjutant-General's  Office, 

Raleigh,  May  15,  1861. 

Sir: — You  are  hereby  detailed  to  muster  in  the  troops  of  the  First 
Regiment  this  afternoon  at  four  o'clock  p.  m. 

A  justice  of  the  peace  will  be  requested  to  be  present  to  administer 
the  necessary  oath. 

J.   F.   HOKB, 

Colonel  C.  C.  Lee, 

Camp  of  Instruction, 

Raleigh,  N.  C. 

Adjutant-General's  Office, 

Raleigh,  May  16,  1861. 
{Special  Orders  No.  5)- 

Colonel: — The  Randlesburg  Rifles,  Captain  Erwin,  not  having  the 
number  of  men  required  by  law,  are  detached  from  the  First  Regiment, 
and  the  Fayetteville  Independent  Light  Infantry,*  Captain  Huske,  are 
ordered  to  supply  their  place,  and  will  take  the  same  position  in  the 
regiment  occupied  by  that  company. 

Major  Lane  is  detached  as  mustering  oflicer  to  muster  into  the  service 
of  the  State  the  Fayetteville  Light  Infantry. 

The  LaFayette  Light  Infantry,  Captain  Starr;  the  Fayetteville  Inde- 
pendent Light  Infantry,  Captain  Huske,  and  the  Southern  Stars,  Cap- 

*This  company  and  the  LaFayette  Light  Infantry  were  detained,  by  orders  at  Fav- 
etteviUe,  for  service  in  the  capture  of  the  United  States  Arsenal  at  that  place  which  was 
.effected  on  the  22d  of  April.  They  were  put  to  guard  duty  over  that  great  property  until 
May  1st,  when  the  LaFayette  left  for  Ealeigh,  and  May  9th,  when  the  Independent  com- 
pany followed.  For  this  reason  they  were  not  included  in  the  earlier  orders  for  organi- 
zation of  the  regiment.  ° 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  127 

tain  Hoke,  will  leave  for  Richmond,  Va.,  on  Saturday  morning,  and 
will  have  two  days'  rations  of  meat  and  bread  for  each  member  of  the 
company.  The  remaining  companies  will  move  for  the  same  point  on 
Monday  or  Tuesday  next,  and  will  have  a  like  supply  of  provisions  pre- 
By  order  of  the  Governor:  J.  F.  Hokb, 

A  djutani-  Oeneral. 


A  detachment  of  fifteen  cadets  from  the  North  Carolina  Mili- 
tary Institute  defended  the  howitzer  under  Lieutenant  Hudnall, 
and  acted  with  great  coolness  and  determination. 

I  cannot  speak  in  too  high  terms  of  my  two  field  officers, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Lee  and  Major  Lane.  Their  services  have 
been  of  the  highest  importance  since  taking  the  field  to  the 
present  moment.  My  thanks,'  too,  are  due,  in  an  especial 
manner,  to  Lieutenant  J.  M,  Poteat,  Adjutant,  and  Lieutenant 
J.  W.  Ratchford,  Aide,  both  of  them  cadets  of  the  North  Caro- 
lina Institute  at  Charlotte.  The  latter  received  a  contusion  in 
the  forehead  from  a  grape-shot,  which  nearly  cost  him  his  life. 
Captain  Bridgers,  Company  A;  Lieutenant  Owens,  commanding 
Company  B ;  Captain  Ross,  Company  C ;  Captain  Ashe,  Com- 
pany D;  Captain  McDowell,  Company  E;  Captain  Starr,  Com- 
pany F;  Captain  Avery,  Company  G;  Captain  Huske,  Company 
H;  Lieutenant  Whitaker,  commanding  Company  I;  Captain 
Hoke,  Company  K,  displayed  great  coolness,  judgment  and 
efficiency.  Lieutenant  Gregory  is  highly  spoken  of  by  Major 
Lane  for  soldierly  bearing  on  the  8th.  Lieutenants  Cook  and 
McKethan,  Company  H,  crossed  over  under  a  heavy  fire  to  the 
assistance  of  the  troops  attacked  on  the  left.  So  did  Lieutenant 
Cohen,  Company  C.  Lieutenant  Hoke  has  shown  great  zeal, 
energy  and  judgment  as  engineer  officer  on  various  occasions. 
Corporal  George  Williams,  privates  Henry  L.  Wyatt,  Thomas 
Fallon  and  John  Thorpe,  Company  A,  volunteered  to  burn  the 
house  which  concealed  the  enemy.  They  behaved  with  great 
gallantry.     Wyatt  was  killed  and  the  other  three  were  recalled. 

128  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Sergeant  Thomas  J.  Stewart  and  private  William  McDowell, 
Company  A,  reconnoitered  the  position  of  the  enemy,  and  went 
far  in  advance  of  our  troops.  Private  J.  W.  Potts,  of  Company 
B,  is  specially  mentioned  by  his  company  commander;  so  are 
Sergeant  William  Elmo,  Company  C;  Sergeants  C.  L.  Watts, 
W.  H.  McDade,  Company  D;  Sergeant  J.  M.  Young,  Corporal 
John  Dingier,  privates  G.  H.  A.  Adams,  R.  V.  Gudger,  G.  W. 
AVerley,  John  C.  Wright,  T.  Y.  Little,  J.  F.  Jenkins,  Company 
E;  E.  W.  Stedman,  M.  E.  Dye,  H.  E.  Benton,  J.  B.  Smith, 
Company  F;  G.  W.  Buhmann,  James  C.  MacRae,  Company  H. 

Casualties — Private  Henry  L.  Wyatt,  Company  K,  mortally 
wounded;  Lieutenant  J.  W.  Ratchford,  contusion;  private  Coun- 
cil Rodgers,  Company  A,  severely  wounded;  private  Charles 
Williams,  Company  A,  severely  wounded;  private  S.  Patterson, 
Company  D,  slightly  wounded;  private  William  White,  Com- 
pany K,  wounded;  private  Pet^r  Poteat,  Company  G,  slightly 

Permit  me,  in  conclusion,  to  pay  a  well-deserved  compliment 
to  the  First  Regiment  North  Carolina  Volunteers.  Their 
patience  under  trial,  perseverance  under  toil  and  courage  under 
fire  have  seldom  been  surpassed  by  veteran  troops.  Often  work- 
ing night  and  day,  sometimes  without  tents  and  cooking  uten- 
sils, a  murmur  has  never  escaped  them  to  my  knowledge.  They 
ha\^e  done  a  large  portion  of  the  work  on  the  intrenchments  at 
Yorktown,  as  well  as  those  at  Bethel. 

Had  all  of  the  regiments  in  the  field  worked  with  the  same 
spirit  there  would  not  be  an  assailable  point  in  Virginia.  After 
the  battle  they  shook  hands  affectionately  with  the  spades,  call- 
ing them  "clever  fellows"  and  "good  friends." 

The  men  are  influenced  by  high  moral  and  religious  senti- 
ments, and  their  conduct  has  furnished  another  example  of  the 
great  truth  that  he  who  fears  God  will  ever  do  his  duty  to  his 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  s  129 

THE    protest  against  CHANGING   THE    REGIMENT'S    NAME. 
IFrom  the  FayeiteviUe  Observer,  October  7,  1861.'] 


At  a  meeting  of  the  ofHcers  of  the  First  Regiment  North 
Carolina  Volunteers,  now  stationed  at  Camp  Fayetteville,  near 
Yorktown,  Va.,  on  motion,  Captain  C.  M.  Avery  was  called  to 
the  chair,  and  Lieutenant  R.  Mallett  appointed  secretary. 

The  chairman  explained  the  object  of  the  meeting  to  be  to 
take  the  sense  of  the  officers  of  this  regiment  relative  to  the 
change  of  our  title.  On  motion  of  Lieutenant  Thigpen,  Cap- 
tains R.  J.  Ashe,  W.  W.  McDowell  and  Lieutenant  B.  R. 
Huske  were  appointed  a  committee  to  draft  resolutions  for  the 
action  of  the  meeting.  The  committee  withdrew  and  in  a  short 
time  returned  and  reported  the  following  preamble  and  resolu- 
tions, which  were  unanimously  adopted,  and  ordered  to  be  for- 
warded to  the  Richmond  Dispatch  and  Examiner,  the  North 
Carolina  State  papers,  and  the  Charleston  Mercury,  for  publi- 
cation : 

"Whereas,  on  the  28th  day  of  September,  A.  D.  1861,  to 
our,  surprise  and  mortification,  an  order  from  Colonel  J.  G. 
Martin,  Adjutant-Generill  of  the  State  of  North  Carolina,  was 
read,  directing  that  this  regiment  should  in  future  be  known  as 
the  Nineteenth  Regiment  of  North  Carolina  Volunteers;  there- 
fore, be  it 

"Resolved,  That  having  been  iha  first  regiment  from  North 
Carolina  to  enter  the  State  of  Virginia;  the  first  regiment  from 
any  State  to  meet  and  repulse  the  invader;  the  first  regiment  to 
receive  the  approbation  of  our  countrymen  by  resolutions  of  their 
national  and  State  couucils;  that  having  been  intrusted  by  the 
people  of  North  Carolina  with  a  flag  upon  whose  folds  is  in- 
scribed 'The  First  Regiment  of  North  Carolina'  by  the  hands 
of  ouf  country-women;  and  that  having  been  exposed  to  the  dan- 
gers of  battle  and  endured  the  hardships  of  camp,  in  this  our 
only  campaign,  as  the  First  Regiment,  we  do  hereby  enter,  in 
behalf  of  those  whose  graves  may  be  seen,  humble  though  th«y 

130  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

be,  in  sight  of  their  trials  and  labors;  in  the  name  of  those  whose" 
enfeebled  health  attests  their  patience  and  fortitude;  and  in  the 
name  of  those  who  yet  live,  proud  of  their  appellation  and  of 
the  associations  of  which  it  reminds  them,  our  most  earnest  pro- 
test against  said  change. 

"Resolved,  That  we  have  shown  by  all  of  our  actions  since  the 
call  for  volunteers  our  earnest  desire  to  promote  the  good  of  the 
cause,  and  that  while  we  are  still  willing  to  make  further  sacri- 
fices for  the  same  plirpose,  we  are  not  willing  to  surrender  our 
name  to  minister  to  the  caprice  of  any  one,  or  to  subserve  the 
convenience  of  a  few  office  clerks,  and  that  we  will  never  submit 
to  such  an  imposition  until  we  have  exhausted  every  means  of 
redress  consistent  with  our  eificiency  and  character." 

C.  M.  Avery, 

R.  Mallett,  Chairman. 


Note. — It  is  probable  that  if  the  action  recorded  in  the  above  proceed- 
ings had  been  Ijnown,  the  Bethel  Regiment  would  have  been  placed  first 
in  Moore's  "Roster,"  in  accordance  with  the  fact  that  it  was  the  first 
regiment  organized  by  the  State.  It  is  placed  in  the  "Roster"  after  the 
Eleventh  Regiment,  which  succeeded  it. 


The  Atlanta  Journal  in  1881  contained  an  article  concerning 
the  "Flag  of  Bethel,"  from  which  the  following  extracts  will  be 

"The  color  company  of  the  First  North  Carolina  Regiment 
was  Company  E,  formerly  the  Buncombe  Riflemen,  of  Asheville. 
The  flag  they  carried  into  Big  Bethel  fight  was  the  first  one  bap- 
tized in  blood  in  a  field  engagement  during  the  war.  This  flag 
was  made  by  Misses  Anna  and  Sallie  Woodfin,  daughters  of 
Colonel  Nicholas  Woodfin;  Misses  Fannie  and  Mary  Patton, 
Miss  Mary  Gaines,  Miss  Kate  Smith,  and  perhaps  other  young 
ladies  of  Asheville,  N.  C,  and  presented  to  the  Buncombe  Rifle- 
men.    The  flag  was  made  of  red,  white  and  blue  silk,  the  mate- 

The  Bethel  Regiment.  131 

rial  contributed  from  the  dresses  of  tiie  young  ladies.  Miss 
Anna  Woodfin  was  chosen,  in  behalf  of  the  young  ladies,  to  pre- 
seiit  the  flag,  her  father  making  the  presentation  speech.  Cap- 
tain W.  W.  McDowell,  in  behalf  of  his  company,  received  it. 
The  Misses  Woodfin  are  cousins  of  the  late  lamented  Henry  W. 
Grady.  This  flag  was  taken  to  Richmond,  and  when  the  Rifle- 
men became  the  color  company  of  the  regiment  it  became  the 
regimental  flag  of  the  first  fight  of  the  war.  On  the  return 
home  Captain  E.  M.  Clayton,  now  of  Clarksville,  who  had  suc- 
ceeded Captain  McDowell  in  the  command  of  Company  E, 
brought  the  flag  with  him,  and  has  sacredly  kept  it  through 
many  vicissitudes  until  the  present  day.  After  it  came  out  of 
service  Miss  Anna  Woodfin  wrought  on  its  white  bar  with  blue 
silk  the  word  'Bethel.'" 

The  flag  which  was  presented  to  the  First  Regiment  by  the 
ladies  of  Fayetteville  on  the  9th  of  September,  1861,  and  upon 
which  the  word  "Bethel"  was  inscribed  in  accordance  with  the 
resolution  of  the  Convention,  is  now  in  possession  of  Mr.  E.  R. 
McKethan,  of  Fayetteville. 


The  Fayetteville  Independent  Light  Infantry,  which  went 
into  the  service  as  Company  H  of  the  First  Regiment,  was  the 
oldest  military  organization  in  the  South.  It  is  the  oldest  in  the 
United  States,  with  the  exception  of  the  Ancient  and  Honorable 
Artillery  Company  of  Boston.  It  was  formed  in  1793  to  assi,st 
President  Washington  against  Citizen  Genet,  of  France,  and  has 
had  an  unbroken  organization  since.  It  served  in  the  war  of 
1812,  at  the  same  time  maintaining  a  company  of  "substitutes" 
in  the  field  at  its  own  expense;  it  was  of  the  escort  of  General 
Lafayette  on  his  visit  to  Fayetteville  in  1825;  it  sent  a  detail  of 
its  members  to  the  Mexican  war ;  it  served  in  the  war  between 
the  States,  as  we  have  seen,  as  Company  H,  First  North  Caro- 
lina Regiment;  and  it  served  in  the  recent  war  with  Spain  as 
Company  A,  Second  North  Carolina  Volunteers. 

132  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

In  1819,  by  special  act  of  the  Legislature,  for  its  long  and 
distinguished  services,  its  commanders,  from  that  time  forward, 
were  endowed  with  the  rank  of  major,  and  its  four  next  officers 
with  that  of  captain,  a  distinction  conferred  upon  no  other  com- 
pany in  the  State.  It  represented  North  Carolina  at  the  Phila- 
delphia Centennial  in  1876,  at  the  Yorktown  Centennial  in 
1881,  and  at  the  Constitutional  Centennial  at  Philadelphia  in 
1887;  and  was  one  of  the  two  organizations  from  North  Caro- 
lina in  the  line  at  the  Dewey  celebration  in  New  York,  Septem- 
.berSO,  1899. 


[Extract  from  Major  J.  C.  MacRae's  Address  on  the  Eighty-first 

The  organization  of  your  company  was  not  lost  after  its  return 
from  Yorktown;  and  on  February  22,  1862,  an  election  of  offi- 
cers was  had,  and  Peter  M.  Hale,  who  had  been  a  private 
through  the  whole  tour  of  service  in  the  field,  was  elected  Major 
Commanding.  This  was  a  just  tribute  to  one  who  had,  in  the 
intimate  association  of  camp-life,  endeared  himself  to  all  his 
comrades.  In  March,  1862,  the  company  again  offered  its  ser- 
vices in  defense  of  our  liberties.  It  was  then  composed  of  about 
forty  men;  but  before  its  services  were  accepted  most  of  the 
members  had  volunteered  in  other  commands  and  gone  to  the 
front.  So  on  the  1st  of  April,  1862,  when  the  Clarendon  Guards 
went  to  Fort  Fisher,  they  carried  in  their  ranks  the  commander 
and  twelve  men  of  your  company — all  that  was  left. 


In  addition  to  the  large  list  of  officers  contributed  by  the  First 
Regiment  to  other  commands  in  the  Confederate  service  it  is 
believed  that  the  majority  of  the  remainder  of  the  regiment  re- 
enlisted,  though  it  has  been  impossible  to  trace  them  all.  Al- 
though the  Eleventh  Regiment  was  officially  known  as  the  suc- 
cessor of  the  First  Regiment,  and  numbers  of  its  officers  came 

The  Bethel  Eegiment.  133 

from  the  latter,  but  a  small  portion  of  its  rank  and  file  was  thus 
derived.  The  authorities  relied  on  for  the  history  of  the  sev- 
eral companies  indicate  that  the  men  of  companies  A,  B,  C,  D,  G, 
H,  I,  K,  L  and  M  were  scattered  in  their  re-enlistments  through 
diiferent  regiments.  Captain  Ross,  of  Company  C,  and  some  of 
his  officers  went  into  the  Eleventh  Regiment  as  Company  A, 
but  Moore's  "Roster"  shows  but  three  privates  common  to  the 
two  companies.  Company  E  (Buncombe)  seems  to  have  gone 
largely  into  the  Sixtieth  Regiment  and  other  commands  in  the 
Army  of  Tennessee.  Company  F  went  largely  into  Starr's  Bat- 
tery, Company  B,  Fifth  (Thirteenth)  Battalion. 

The  first  death  in  the  regiment  was  that  of  private  Julius 
Sadler,  of  Company  B,  who  fell  from  the  platform  of  the  cars 
on  the  way  from  Richmond  to  Yorktown,  May  24th,  1861,  and 
was  instantly  killed.  Private  Hilton,  of  the  same  company,  be- 
came one  of  Hampton's  famous  scouts. 

Of  Company  C  (the  Charlotte  Grays)  not  a  member  was  of  age. 

Lieutenant  David  A.  Coon,  of  Company  K,  was  wounded 
nine  times,  and  still  carries  several  balls  in  his  body.  Private 
James  M.  Abernathy,  of  the  same  company,  became  Assistant 
Surgeon  to  Surgeon  General  Warren  in  the  State  service,  and 
private  J.  F.  Reinhardt  became  a  noted  scout. 

[The  writer  is  indebted  to  General  Lane  for  valuable  documents;  to 
General  W.  G.  Lewis  for  items  concerning  Company  A;  to  Major  J.  G. 
Harris,  Captain  W.  B.  Taylor  and  Lieutenant  J.  H.  Wilson  for  items 
concerning  Companies  B  and  C;  to  Doctor  Kemp  P.  Battle  and  David 
McCauley,  Esq.,  for  those  for  Company  D;  to  Hon.  Theodore  F.  David- 
son and  B.  F.  Patton,  Esq.,  for  Company  E;  to  Colonel  J.  B.  Starr  for 
Company  F;  to  Judge  Avery  for  Company  G;  to  Captain  John  H.  Robin- 
son for  Company  H;  to  Colonel  F.  M.  Parker  for  Company  I;  to  Profes- 
sor Charles  L.  Coon  and  Sheriff  (Lieutenant)  David  A.  Coon  for  Com- 
pany K;  to  Hon.  F.  D.  Winston  and  Captain  L.  B.  Sutton  for  Company 
L,  and  to  W.  M.  Bond,  Esq.,  Mr.  J.  R.  B.  Hathaway  and  Captain  Thomas 
Capehart  for  Company  M.] 

E.  J.  Hale. 

Faybttevillb,  N.  C, 

April  9,  1900. 


1.  H.  A.  Brown,  Colonel.  5.  L.  C.  Latham,  Major. 

S.  M.  S.  Stokes,  Colonel.  0.  John  Benbury,  Captain,  Co.  A. 

3.  J.  N.  Harrell,  Lieut.-Colonel.  7.  T.  D.  Boone,  Captain,  Co.  F. 

4.  T.  L.  Skinner,  Major.  8.  John  A.  Morgan,  1st  Lient.,  Co.  A. 

!).    J.  C.  Scarborough,  Sergeant,  Co.  I. 


By  colonel  HAMILTON  A.  BROWN. 

"While  we  envy  not  others  their  merited  glory,  we  feel  it  to  be  our 
bounden  duty  to  North  Carolina,  to  our  gallant  soldiers,  and  to  our  dead 
heroes,  that  we  should  be  fairly  represented  in  history's  story." — Gen- 
eral Eamsbue. 

This  regiment  was  organized  at  the  race  track  near  Warren- 
ton  in  the  spring  of  1861,  Governor  Ellis  appointing  Mumford 
Sidney  Stokes,  Captain  of  Cpmpany  B,  from  Wilkes  county, 
Colonel;  Matthew  W.  Ransom,  of  Halifax  county,  Lieutenant- 
Colonel,  and  John  A.  McDowell,  of  Bladen  county.  Major. 

Colonel  Stokes  had  been  an  officer  in  the  United  States  Navy 
for  more  than  ten  years.  He  was  also  Major  of  a  North  Caro- 
lina regiment  in  the  Mexican  war,  and  was  presented  with  a 
handsome  sword  by  his  soldiers  after  that  war. 

Colonel  Ransom  was  a  distinguished  statesman  and  lawyer  of 
Weldon,  and  was  promoted  to  Brigadier-General  during  the  war. 

Major  McDowell  was  a  successful  business  man  of  Bladen 

The  other  field  and  stafiF  officers  by  succession  and  appoint- 
ment were  as  follows:  John  A.  McDowell,  Colonel  from  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel; H.  A.  Brown,  Colonel  from  Lieutenant-Colonel; 
John  A.  McDowell,  Lieutenant-Colonel  from  Major;  H.  A. 
Brown,  Lieutenant-Colonel,  promoted  from  Company  B;  J.  N. 
Harrell,  Lieutenant-Colonel,  promoted  from  Company  F;  John 
A.  McDowell,  Major;  T.  L.  Skinner,  Major,  promoted  from 
Company  A;  J.  S.  Hines,  Major,  promoted  from  Company  C; 
J.  N.  Harrell,  Major,  promoted  from  Company  F;  L.  C.  La- 
tham, Major,  promoted  from  Company  G. 

136  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Adjutants — J.  S.  R.  Miller,  Caldwell  county;  French 
Strange,  Cumberland  county;  T.  H.  W.  Mclntire,  New  Han- 
over county;  L.  J.  Curtis,  Wilkes  county;  John  A.  Morgan,  Per- 
quimans county. 

Sergbant-Majors— T.  H.  W.  Mclntire  and  W.  G.  Allen, 
Wm.  H.  Proffett  and  J.  Edward  Purvis. 

Quartermasters — G.  L.  Dudley,  J.  D.  Boone. 

Commissaries — J.  W.  Hackett,  Owen  Fennell,  R.  A.  Spain- 
hour.  " 

Surgeons— H.  I.  Macon,  C.  J.  Gee,  N.  M.  Scales,  L.  C. 

Chaplains — J.  H.  Spainhour,  J.  K.  Howell,W.  R.  Gwaltney. 

COMPANY    officers. 

Company  A — Chowan  County — Captains:  T.  L.  Skinner,  J. 
A.  Benberry,  F.  W.  Bond,  T.  L.  Johnston.  First  Lieutenants: 
J.  A.  Benbury,  J.  L.  Bratten,  L.  C.  Benbury,  T.  L.  Johnston, 
J.  A.  Morgan.  Second  Lieutenants:  L.  C.  Benbury,  T.  L. 
Johnston,  J.  A.  Morgan,  A.  R.  Stamer,  J.  D.  Williams,  W.  H. 

Enlisted  men,  121. 

Company  -B —  Wilkes  County — Captains:  M.  S.  Stokes,  J.  B. 
Gordon,  H.  A.  Brown,  T.  S.  Bouchelle.  First  Lieutenants:  M. 
A.  Parks,  T.  S.  Bouchelle,  J.  A.  Hampton,  W.  W.  Vannoy,  L. 
J.  Curtis.  Second  Lieutenants:  T.  S.  Bouchelle,  J.  A.  Hamp- 
ton, W.  W.  Vannoy,  J.  W.  Peden,  T.  C.  Miller. 

Enlisted  men,  170. 

Company  C — New  Hanover  County — Captains:  J.  S.  Hines, 
H.  L.  Fennell,  W.  H.  Thompson.  First  Lieutenants:  H.  L. 
Fennel,  W.  H.  Thompson,  J.  J.  McMillan,  T.  H.  W.  Mclntire. 
Second  Lieutenants:  Owen  Fennell,  W.  H.  Thompson,  J.  J.  Mc- 
Millan, O.  R.  Scott,  Charles  Marsteller. 

Enlisted  men,  164. 

Company  D — Orange  and  Lincoln  Counties — Captains:  E. 
M.  Scott,  J.  W.  Williamson.    First  Lieutenants:  Edward  Sum- 

First  Regiment.  137 

ner,  A.  P.  Houser.  Second  Lieutenants:  A.  J.  Houser,  Wm. 
Howard,  A.  W.  Cheek,  P.  H.  Grady,  J.  G.  Scott,  D.  E.  Stokes. 

Enlisted  men,  167. 

Company  E — New  Hanover  County — Captains:  J.  A.Wright, 
F.  W.  Moore.  First  Lieutenants:  J.  L.  "Wboster,  J.  G.  Wright. 
Second  Lieutenants:  J.  G.  Wright,  G.  L.  Dudley,  R.  F.  Lang- 

Enlisted  men,  140. 

Company  F — Hertford  and  Northampton  Counties — Captains: 
J.  N.  Harrell, Thomas  D.Boone.  First  Lieutenants:  W.  S.  Shep- 
pard,  J.  P.  Jenkins,  Second  Lieutenants:  C.  F.  Lyop,  J.  P. 
Jenkins,  T.  D.  Boone,  J.  F.  Adkins,  L.  C.  Lawrence. 

Enlisted  men,  156. 

Company  G — Washington  County — Captains:  L.  C.  Latham, 
N.  J.  Whitehurst.  First  Lieutenants:  N.  J.  Whitehurst,  J.  A. 
Latham.  Second  Lieutenants:  J.  A.  Latham,  T.  S.  Holliday, 
T.  N.  Bishop,  J.  M.  Hargett. 

Enlisted  men,  152. 

Company  H — Martin  County — Captains:  R.  W.  Rives,  J.  S. 
R.  Miller,  Alfred  Mizel.  First  Lieutenants:  N.  B.  Fagan,  J. 
R.  Mizel.  Second  Lieutenants:  E.  Burrows,  J.  R.  Mizel,  J.  H. 
Keen,  J.  M.  Guyther. 

Enlisted  men,  152. 

Company  I — Wake  County — Captains:  J.  H.  Foote,  J.  H. 
Fowler.  First  Lieutenants:  H.  J.  Fowler,  W.  D.  Scarborough, 
J.  A.  Harlsfield.  Second  Lieutenants:  H.  J.  Fowler,  J.  H. 
Terrell,  H.  L.  Patterson,  M.  F.  Scarborough,  E.  A.  Carver. 

Enlisted  men,  158. 

Company  K — Halifax  County — Captains:  S.  H.  Gee,  W.  H. 
Day.  First  Lieutenants:  A.  L.  Pierce,  C.  Branch.  Second 
Lieutenants:  W.  R.  Williams,  John  Wynn,  D.  E.  Stokes,  R.  J. 

Enlisted  men,  157. 

In  July,  after  the  organization  was  perfected,  the  regiment 
was  ordered  to  Richmond,  and  was  assigned  to  General  Holmes' 
Brigade,  at  Brooks'  Station,  near  the  mouth  of  Acquia  Creek. 

138  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

While  here  Company  B  was  detached  and  ordered  to  the 
mouth  of  Acquia  Creek  to  man  the  heavy  guns  in  the  batteries 
stationed  there,  and  was  engaged  in  several  skirmishes  with  the 
enemy's  gun-boats.  In  the  spring  of  1862  a  portion  of  the  North 
Carolina  Troops,  iucluding  this  regiment,  was  ordered  to  Golds- 
boro  to  meet  an  advance  of  the  enemy  from  New  Bern.  About 
this  time  Lieutenant-Colonel  Ransom  was  elected  Colonel  of  the 
Thirty-fifth  Regiment,  and  accepted;  Major  McDowell  was  made 
Lieutenant-Colonel;  Captain  Skinner,  of  Company  A,  Major. 
The  regiment  having  been  again  ordered  to  Richmond,  arrived 
on  the  ibattlefield  of  Seven  Pines  just  after  the  battle  had 
been  fought.  Here  it  remained  for  several  weeks,  chiefly  on 
picket  duty,  with  an  occasional  skirmish  with  the  enemy,  and 
lost  several  of  its  men. 

While  here  a  new  brigade  was  formed,  composed  of  the  First 
and  Third  North  Carolina,  the  Fourth  and  Forty-fourth  Geor- 
gia, and  Brigadier-General  R.  S.  Ripley  was  assigned  to  its 
command,  Major-General  D.  H.  Hill  being  in  command  of  the 

SEVEN    days'    battles. 

On  the  26th  of  June,  after  a  circuitous  and  fatiguing  night 
march,  the  regiment  arrived  in  the  vicinity  of  Mechanicsville. 
Here  a  detail  of  one  company  from  each  regiment  was  made,  and 
Major  DeRosset,  of  the  Third,  was  placed  in  command.  The 
object  of  this  select  battalion  was  to  clear  the  way  and  examine 
the  bridge  across  the  Chickahominy.  (A  mine  was  thought  to 
have  been  placed  under  it  by  the  enemy).  In  order  to  under- 
'  stand  their  duties  more  fully,  the  officers  were  sent  to  the  top  of  a 
hill  near  by,  from  which  could  be  seen  the  route  intended,  etc. 
On  this  hill,  and  in  range  of  the  enemy's  guns,  a  group  of  dis- 
tinguished Confederates  were  assembled,  composed  of  President 
Davis,  Mr.  Randolph  (Secretary  of  War),  Generals  Lee,  Long- 
street  and  D.  H.  Hill,  waiting  to  hear  General  Jackson's  guns 
on  the  north  side  of  Mechanicsville  before  ordering  an  advance. 
General  Jackson  being  delayed.  General  Lee  ordered  an  ad- 
vance of  this  portion  of  the  line  after  hearing  the  guns  of  Gen- 

First  Regiment.  139 

eral  A.  P.  Hill  at  Meadow  Bridge.  After  the  battalion  alluded 
to  had  examined  and  crossed  the  bridge,  and  cleared  the  field  of 
skirmishers,  Ripley's  Brigade,  having  been  selected  as  the  assault- 
ing column,  was  ordered  across  the  bridge  and  to  form  line  of 
battle.  It  advanced  to  the  attack  in  front  of  the  splendid  artil- 
lery of  the  enemy  strongly  posted  across  the  pond  at  Elyson's 
Mills.  The  slaughter  was  terrific,  yet  the  regiment  pressed 
forward  in  the  face  of  this  murderous  fire  for  more  than  half  a 
mile,  advancing  steadily  to  what  seemed  inevitable  destruction, 
till  it  reached  the  pond,  when  it  was  ordered  by  the  right  flank 
and  took  shelter  in  a  skirt  of  woods  below.  In  this  assault  Col- 
onel M.  S.  Stokes  was  mortally  wounded,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
McDowell  badly  wounded  and  Major  Skinner  killed.  Captains 
James  A.  Wright,  of  Company  E;  R.  W.  Rives,  of  Com- 
pany H;  four  Lieutenants,  and  more  than  half  of  the  men  of 
the  regiment  were  killed  and  wounded.  On  the  27th,  the 
enemy  having  retreated,  this  regiment,  with  the  army,  pursued 
him  in  the  direction  of  Cold  Harbor  by  way  of  Bethsaida  Church. 
There  being  now  no  field  officers  and  but  few  company  officers 
in  the  regiment.  Major  W.  R.  Cox,  of  the  Second  Norih  Caro- 
lina Regiment,  was  ordered  to  fake  command  in  this  battle. 

In  the  charge  that  followed  through  the  dense  ,undergrowth 
this  regiment  became  separated  from  its  brigade,  and  acted  as  a 
support  to  Garland's  Brigade.  It  lost  several  men,  killed  and 
wounded.  The  following  day  was  spent  in  burying  our  own  and 
the  Federal  dead. 

The  next  day  the  Chickahominy  was  crossed  at  Grape  Vine 
Bridge  and  the  march  continued  in  the  direction  of  White  Oak 
Swamp  via  Savage's  Station.  Here,  after  a  sharp  skirmish,  the 
enemy  was  repulsed.  From  this  point  the  regiment  marched  in 
the  direction  of  Malvern  Hill  by  way  of  Quaker  road,  and  turn- 
ing to  the  right  after  passing  the  church,  was  soon  under  fire 
from  the  enemy's  guns  on  Malvern  Hill. 

The  troops  taking  shelter  under  the  crest  of  the  hill,  formed 
line  of  battle  and  were  ordered  by  General  Hill  to  assault  the 
strong  natural  position  of  the  enemy  on  the  plateau.     Arriving 

140  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

at  the  crest  and  in  full  view  at  close  range  of  the  enemy's  infan- 
try and  artillery,  this  regiment,  together  with  the  third,  went  by 
the  left  flank,  in  perfect  order,  and  took  advantage  of  a  cut  in 
the  road.  At  this  place  that  gallant  soldier,  Colonel  Gaston 
Meares,  of  the  Third,  was  killed  while  bravely  leading  his  regi- 
ment. General  Charles  Winder,  of  the  Stonewall  Brigade,  then 
assumed  command  of  this  and  the  Third  Regiment. 

Night  came  at  last  to  end  this  bloody  and  disastrous  struggle, 
the  enemy  retreating.  The  next  day  the  dead  of  these  two  regi- 
ments (First  and  Third)  were  found  nearer  to  those  of  the  enemy 
than  were  those  of  any  other  troops  on  this  part  of  the  line, 
proving  that  they  approached  nearer  the  enemy's  line  of  battle 
than  any  of  the  regiments  that  fought  on  this  part  of  the  field. 
The  regiment  suffered  heavily  iu  this  engagement.  Among  the 
killed  was  Captain  John  Benbury,  of  Company  A,  beloved  and 
mourned  by  the  entire  regiment.  At  this  battle  Captain  Brown, 
of  Company  B,  was  promoted  to  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Cap- 
tain J.  S.  Hines,  of  Company  C,  Major.  The  regiment  remained 
for  several  days  in  this  locality,  Major-General  D.  H.  Hill's 
Division,  of  which  it  was  a  part,  having  been  left  to  watch 
McClellan's  movements.  While  here,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Brown  and  Major  Hines  were  detailed  to  go  to  Raleigh  to  pro- 
cure the  regiment's  quota  of  conscripts.  They  returned  with 
about  five  hundred.  These  men  proved  to  be  excellent  material 
for  soldiers,  brave  and  willing,  as  was  fully  proven  on  many  a 
bloody  field  afterward.  After  being  assigned  to  their  proper 
companies  and  sufficiently  drilled,  the  regiment,  with  the  divis- 
ion, was  moved  by  rail  to  Orange  Court  House. 

SOUTH    mountain    CAMPAIGN. 

About  the  9th  of  August  the  regiment  moved  in  the  direction 
the  army  had  taken,  passing  the  battlefield  of  Cedar  Mountain, 
and  was  in  reserve  at  Second  Manassas  and  antilly.  After- 
wards it  crossed  the  Potomac  at  Point  of  Rocks  and  camped 
near  Frederick,  Md.,  where  it  remained  for  several  days,  then 
crossed  the  South  Mountain  at  Crampton's  Gap  and  remained 

First  Regiment.  141 

at  Boonesboro  until  the  14th,  when  it  participated  in  the  battle 
at  the  Gap,  its  position  being  on  the  right  of  the  Braddock  road. 
At  one  time  during  this  battle  six  companies  were  hotly  engaged, 
losing  several  men. 


After  dark  the  army  withdrew  and  moved  in  the  direction  of 
Sharpsburg,  where  it  arrived  on  the  morning  of  the  15th,  tak- 
ing position  iu  a  cornfield  on  the  ridge  north  of  the  town.  Here 
we  fared  abundantly  on  green  corn  and  pumpkins,  till  the  firing 
of  the  enemy's  artillery  in  the  afternoon  admonished  us  of  more 
important  matters. 

Oq  the  following  day  this  regiment,  with  the  brigade,  while 
supporting  a  battery,  was  subjected  to  a  heavy  fire  from  the 
enemy's  artillery  across  the  Antietam.  At  daylight  on  the 
17th  the  firing  began  at  close  range.  The  troops  were  soon 
moved  by  the  left  flank,  at  double-quick,  and  occupied  a  posi- 
tion at  a  burning  farm  building.  After  a  hard  battle  of  an 
hour,  General  Ripley  having  been  wounded  in  the  neck,  the  ad- 
vance to  the  front  and  left  was  ordered  by  Colonel  Doles,  of  the 
Fourth  Georgia,  now  in  command.  The  troops  obeyed  with 
alacrity,  manifesting  more  than  their  usual  determination  and 
efficiiency,  crossed  a  formidable  fence  and  moved  through  a  skirt 
of  woods  in  which  General  Mansfield,  commanding  a  corps  of 
the  enemy,  was  killed.  After  an  irresistible  effort  on  our  part, 
the  Federals  were  driven  from,  and  we  gained  possession  of,  the 
celebrated  cornfield.  There  being  now  a  lull  in  the  firing,  three 
distinct  lines  of  the  enemy  could  be  plainly  seen  approaching. 
As  they  advanced  they  were  reviewed  by  a  Federal  officer,  with 
hat  in  hand,  riding  rapidly  in  front  of  each  line.  We  were  near 
enough  to  hear  the  angry  and  determined  cheers  of  his  men. 

On,  on,  this  vast  army  approached  our  thin  ranks.  Word 
was  passed:  "Fix  bayonets,  boys!"  We  nerved  ourselves  for 
the  attack,  which  was  murderous  beyond  description,  con- 
tinuing for  more  than  an  hour  and  a  half.  Ripley's  Brigade, 
after  bearing  the  brunt  of  the  battle,  was  ordered  to  retreat,  the 

142  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

enemy  not  pursuing.  The  manner  of  this. retreat  was  slow  and 
in  order  and  under  General  Hill's  personal  supervision.  Observ- 
ing an  abandoned  caisson,  he,  Hill,  ordered  the  soldiers  to 
remove  it  from  the  field,  remarking:  "We  will  not  leave  the 
enemy  so  much  as  a  wheel."  The  retreat  was  continued  to  the 
Dunkard  Church  on  the  Hagerstown  road,  where,  after  being 
supplied  with  animunition,  our  lines  were  reformed,  the  enemy 
making  no  further  demonstrations  on  that  day.  The  following 
day  the  troops  rested  on  the  field,  in  plain  view  of  the  enemy's 
lines,  and  during  the  night  crossed  the  swollen  Potomac. 

The  loss  of  the  regiment  in  this  battle  was  more  than  fifty 
per  .cent,  of  the  number  engaged,  including  some  of  its  best 
officers  and  men,  among  the  number  Captain  Bouchelle,  of  Com- 
pany B.  After  resting  for  several  weeks  in  the  lower  valley, 
the  army  moved  by  way  of  New  Market  Gap,  passing  Orange 
Court  House  in  the  direction  of  Fredericksburg.  While  in 
bivouac  for  the  night  near  Gordonsville,  General  Hill  issued 
an  order  requiring  company  commanders  to  see  that  the  bare- 
foot men  made  moccasins  for  themselves  of  the  hides 'just  taken 
from  the  beeves.  The  next  morning  on  the  march  General  Hill 
observed  one  of  the  soldiers,  private  Vanhorne,  of  Company 
H,  without  shoes  or  moccasins,  and  immediately  arrested.  Captain 
Miller  of  that  company  for  disobedience  of  orders.  Captain  Mil- 
ler demanded  and  obtained  an  investigation,  which  showed  that  he 
had  until  a  late  hour,  and  after  marching  twenty-one  miles,  as- 
sisted his  men  in  carrying  out  the  General's  order;  that  at  mid- 
night private  Parker,  of  Company  B,  arrived  in  camp  bare- 
foot, cold  and  hungry,  and  was  naturally  attracted  to  the  butch- 
er's-pen  where,  learning  of  the  recent  order  of  Hill,  he  went  to 
work  at  once  to  shoe  himself.  As  he  wore  number  twelve 
shoes,  it  took  so  large  a  portion  of  the  material  that  there  was 
none  left  for  private  Yanhorne.  Upon  this  statement  of  facts 
Captain  Miller  was  released.  Be  it  stated,  however,  to  the 
credit  of  both  Parker  and  Vanhorne,  that  their  shoeless  feet  had 
marked  the  bloody  dust  on  many  a  hard  fought  field. 

The  regiment  and  brigade  continued  its  march  to  Port  Royal 
on  the  Rappahannock,  where  it  remained  for  several  days. 

First  Regiment.  143 

first  battle  of  fredericksburg. 

'On  the  morning  of  the  12th  of  December  the  troops  moved 
back  in  the  direction  of  Fredericksburg,  marching  the  greater 
part  of  the  night  and  reaching  Hamilton's  Crossing  on  the 
morning  of  the  13th.  In  this  battle  this  regiment  was  in  the  sec- 
ond line  until  the  evening  of  the  first  day,  when  it  took  posi- 
tion in  the  first  line.  The  enemy  being  driven  back,  the  Con- 
federates lay  on  the  field,  anticipating  another  furious  battle, 
and  "  bitterly  thought  of  the  morrow."  Before  dawn  the  line 
was  advanced  to  the  railroad,  within  three  hundred  yards  of  the 
enemy,  but  no  blood  was  shed  this  day,  and  but  one  shot  was 
fired.  This  was  from  a  small  cannon  of  the  enemy,  aimed  at 
a  Georgia  Lieutenant  in  the  act  of  robbing  a  dead  Federal  in 
front  of  picket-lines.  He  soon  beat  a  hasty  retreat,  amidst  the 
cheers  and  jeers  of  both  armies.  The  enemy  sent  a  flag  of  truce 
on  the  14th,  asking  permission  of  General  Jackson  to  remove 
their  dead  and  wounded,  who  were  lying  in  heaps  on  that  por- 
tion of  the  railroad  occupied  by  this  regiment.  The  permission 
was  promptly  granted  by  the  General.  The  troops  were  em- 
ployed during  the  dark  and  rainy  night  following  in  tearing 
up  the  railroad — an  extremely  difficult  task — as  orders  were 
giv^n  to  accomplish  this  work  in  silence,  as  well  as  in  the  dark, 
"  without  lights  and  without  noise."  The  enemy  retreated,  and 
thus  ended  the  first  battle  of  Fredericksburg. 

After  this  the  regiment  built  and  occupied  winter  quarters  on 
the  Rappahannock,  near  Skinker's  Neck.  There  the  winter  of 
1862-'63  was  spent  on  picket  duty  along  the  river.  While  sta- 
tioned at  this  point  the  regiment,  which  had  been  in  Major- 
General  D.  H.  Hill's  Division,  was  now  changed  to  Jackson's 
old  division,  commanded  by  Major-General  Trimble,  and  our 
gallant  Georgia  comrades,  the  Fourth  and  Forty-fourth  Regi- 
ments, were  exchanged  for  the  Tenth,  Twenty-third  and  Thirty- 
seventh  Virginia  Regiments.  These  regiments,  with  the  First 
and  Third  North  Carolina,  formed  a  new  brigade,  and  Brigadier- 
General  R.  E.  Colston  was  assigned  to  command  it.  It  will  be 
seen  from  this  statement  that  the  First  and  Third  North  Caro- 

144  .  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

lina  Regiments  had  not  been,  up  to  this  time,  brigaded  with 
other  North  Carolina  troops,  nor  were  they  so  brigaded  during 
the  war.  Without  the  slightest  reflection  on  our  gallant  friends 
and  comrades  in  arms — the  Georgians  and  Virginians — we  do 
assert  that  it  was  both  unfortunate  and  unjust  that  these  regi- 
ments were  not  immediately  associated  with  their  own  State 
troops,  for  these  two  being  the  only  regiments  from  North  Caro- 
lina in  this,  the  Stonewall  Division,  trouble  and  discomforture 
were  necessarily  entailed  by  such  an  arrangement.  Our  mails 
were  miscarried,  we  were  often  neglected,  and  sometimes  forgot- 
ten, in  the  distribution  of  army  stores,  clothes,  provisions,  etc. 
The  field  of  promotion  was  also  narrowed,  and  our  achievements 
on  the  field  frequently  shared  by  others.  Governor  Vance  made 
repeated  efforts  to  effect  a  more  satisfactory  arrangement,  with- 


On  the  29th  of  April  this  regiment  left  its  camp  at  Skinker's 
Neck  and  marched  to  Hamilton's  Crossing,  thence  in  the  direc- 
tion of  Chancellorsville.  On  the  2d  of  May,  Saturday  morning, 
while  waiting  in  the  road  on  the  east  of  Chancellorsville,  the 
members  of  this  regiment  witnessed  an  interview  between  Gen- 
erals Lee  and  Jackson.  These  generals  went  apart  from  their 
staff  ofiBcers  and  sat  down  upon  the  leaves.  General  Lee  un- 
folding a  map  that  he  had  taken  from  his  pocket,  and  pointing 
out  to  General  Jackson  with  a  pencil  on  the  map,  who  nodded 
assent.  In  a  short  while  General  Jackson  arose  and  called 
Major  Pendleton,  his  chief  of  staff,  and  through  him  ordered  the 
troops  to  move  by  the  left  flank.  Then  commenced  that  grand 
strategic  movement  that  has  since  been  the  wonder  and  admira- 
tion of  the  world.  Rapidly  marching  around  the  enemy's  lines 
to  his  right  and  rear,  crossing  the  plank-road  and  arriving  on 
the  old  turnpike  about  4  p.  m.,  two  and  a  .half  miles  west  of 
Chancellorsville,  having  marched  in  all  more  than  fifteen  miles 
in  a  few  hours,  and  about  five  miles  in  a  direct  line  from  the 
starting  point  in  the  morning,  Jackson's  Corps  had  been  de- 
tached from  the  main  body  of  the  army  to  make  this  attack. 

First  Regiment.  145 

On  this  march  regimental  commanders  were  ordered  |o  march 
in  rear  of  their  regiments  with  a  guard  of  strong  men  with  fixed 
bayonets,  to  prevent  straggling.  Immediately  on  arrival  at  the 
stone  road  the  troops  were  formed  in  three  lines  of  battle,  Col- 
ston's Brigade  being  in  the  second  line.  The  order  to  advance 
was  obeyed  with  promptness.  Rushing  on  towards  the  enemy's 
camp,  the  first  scene  that  can  be  recalled  was  the  abundant  sup- 
ply of  slaughtered  beef  and  rations  cooking. 

We  captured  piles  of  fat  knapsacks  and  piles  of  fatter  Dutch- 
men. Private  Alexander  Faw,  of  Company  B,  remarked  that 
the  thick  woods  through  which  we  were  passing  was  like  a  strainer, 
letting  the  lean  and  the  lesser  Dutchmen  escape,  while  we  secured 
the  fat  ones'.  The  Federal  General  Schimmelfennig's  Brigade 
suffered  heavily  as  prisoners.  In  the  language  of  a  North  Caro- 
lina General,  "  Hungry  men  seized  provisions  as  they  passed  the 
camp,  and  rushed  forward  eating,  shouting  and  firing."  The 
whole  affair  was  a  wild  scene  of  triumph  on  our  part.  Thus 
continued  the  pursuit  until  night,  when  the  enemy  made  a  stand 
within  a  mile  of  the  Chancellor  house.  Here  great  confusion 
ensued.  The  two  front  lines  having  become  mingled,  were 
halted  and  reformed.  This  regiment,  being  in  better  allignment 
than  most  of  the  others.  General  Jackson  in  person  ordered  it  to 
advance  as  skirmishers  in  front  of  the  line.  Shortly  after  being 
thus  deployed  it  was  charged  by  a  company  of  Federal  cavalry, 
which  proved  to  be  a  part  of  the  Eighth  Pennsylvania.  The 
greater  portion  of  them  were  unhorsed  and  captured.  This  was 
a  critical  period  in  the  battle,  and  General  Jackson  seemed  un- 
usually anxious.  He  gave  instructions  to  the  Colonel  of  this 
regiment  to  fire  upon  everything  coming  from  the  direction  of 
the  enemy. 

These  instructions  were  turned  over  to  Colonel  Avery,  of  the 
Thirty-third,  who  relieved  this  regiment,  and  obedience  to  them 
resulted  in  that  most  distressing  calamity,  the  wounding  of  Gen- 
eral Jackson  by  his  own  men.  On  being  relieved,  this  regiment 
assembled  on  the  road,  rejoined  its  brigade,  and  protected  itself 
as  well  as  possible  from  the  terrific  cannonading  of  the  enemy 

North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

that  followed.  On  Sunday,  the  3d  instant,  the  regiment  was 
formed  on  the  right  of  the  road,  and,  advancing,  captured  the 
first  line  of  the  enemy's  works — a  barricade  of  huge  logs  with 
abatis  in  front.  The  portion  of  these  works  that  crossed  a  ravine 
and  swamp,  and  which  was  favorable  to  the  occupancy  of  the 
enemy,  was  assaulted  three  times  by  the  Confederates  before  it 
was  finally  held.  This  regiment,  with  the  major  part  of  the 
brigade,  participated  in  the  last  two  of  these  charges.  It  was 
then  that  General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  who  was  in  command  (Gen- 
erals Jackson  and  Hill  having  both  been  wounded  on  the  even- 
ing before)  ordered  the  whole  line  forward.  The  enemy's  earth- 
works in  front  were  carried  by  storm  and  many  pieces  of  artil- 
lery which  occupied  them  were  captured.  We  were  now  in 
full  view  of  the  Chancellor  house,  and  the  captured  guns  were 
turned  on  the  fleeing  enemy.  Soon  the  Chancellor  house  was 
in  flames,  and  a  glorious  victory  perched  upon  our  banners. 

The  Confederate  line  was  again  moved  forward  and  executed 
a  wheel  to  the  left,  bringing  this  regiment  and  brigade  immedi- 
ately to  the  Chancellor  house,  hence  this  brigade,  which  had 
been  commanded  since  early  in  the  day  by  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Brown  (Captain  Latham  being  in  command  of  the  regiment, 
Colonel  McDowell  and  Major  Harrell  having  been  wounded), 
was  the  first  of  the  Confederate  troops  to  reach  the  Chancellor 
house,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Brown  being  the  fifth  brigade  com- 
mander that  day,  as  per  his  report  in  "  War  Records."  During 
one  of  these  assaults  alluded  to  above  this  brigade  became  de- 
tached from  the  division,  and  when  it  arrived  at  the  Chancellor 
house  was  between  two  of  Major-General  Rodes'  brigades.  On 
the  6th  the  brigade  marched  to  U.  S.  Ford  on  the  Rappahannock. 
While  here  the  enemy  was  permitted  by  General  Lee  to  lay  a 
pontoon-bridge  and  send  over  several  hundred  ambulances  to 
the  battlefield  of  Chancellorsville  for  his  wounded.  The  officers 
of  this  regiment  and  brigade  acted  on  the  part  of  the  Confed- 
erates to  carry  on  these  negotiations,  and  General  Sharp,  Deputy 
Provost  Marshal  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  acted  on  the  part 
of  the  enemy.     A  whole  week  was  consumed  in  effecting  this 

First  Regiment.  147 

object,  after  which  the  brigade  was  removed  and  operations 
resumed.  The  troops  now  returned  to  the  viciuity  of  Freder- 

Early  in  June,  soon  after  the  Chancellorsville  battle,  Major- 
General  Edward  Johnson  was  assigned  to  command  the  Stone- 
wall Division,  and  General  George  H.  Stewart  to  command  Cols- 
ton's Brigade.  The  division  was  now  composed  of  Paxton's, 
or  the  First  Brigade,  known  as  the  Stonewall  Brigade,  Jones', 
or  the  Second  Brigade,  and  George  H.  Stewart's,  the  Third 


From  its  bivouac  near  Fredericksburg  the  army  now  marched 
in  the  direction  of  Winchester,  the  Second  Corps  crossing  the 
Blue  Ridge  at  Chester  Gap.  Arriving  at  Winchester,  it  partici- 
pated in  the  battle  of  the  13th  and  14th  of  June,  which  was 
very  disastrous  to  the  Federals  und  Milroy.  After  the  battle  on 
the  evening  of  the  14th,  Johnson's  Division  was  ordered  to  inter- 
cept and  capture  the  routed  enemy,  and  for  this  purpose  the  di- 
vision marched  all  night,  and  by  a  circuitous  route  by  way  of 
Jordan's  Springs,  arrived  at  daybreak  near  Stephenson's  Depot, 
on  the  Valley  pike. 

During  a  sharp  battle  at  this  place,  in  which  the  regiment  was 
sorely  pressed.  Lieutenant  John  A.  Morgan,  with  a  squad  of  men, 
saved  the  day  by  taking  command  of  and  operating  a  Confed- 
erate battery  which  this  regiment  was  supporting,  after  nearly 
all  the  regular  artillerymen  had  been  killed  or  wounded. 

Several  hundred  of  the  enemy  threw  down  their  guns  and 
surrendered.  Portions  of  four  regiments,  with  their  colors,  sur- 
rendered to  this  regiment.  At  this  stage  of  the  battle  the  regiment 
volunteered  to  reconnoiter  the  field  to  the  Carter  house,  a  mile 
distant,  and  succeeded  in  capturing  two  hundred  horses.  It 
was  then  that  General  Johnson  ordered  the  regiment  to  mount 
these  horses  and  pursue  Milroy,  who  had  escaped  in  the 
direction  of  Harper's  Ferry.  It  failed  in  this  object,  how- 
ever, and,  after  a  day's  travel  of  many  miles,  returned  to 
camp  with  no  further  victory  to  boast  or  booty  to  claim;  but, 

148  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

on  the' contrary,  entirely  satisfied  with  its  equestrian  expedi- 
tion, and  realizing  that  there  could  be  better  things  in  a  soldier's 
experience  than  to  "jiue  the  cavalry."  In  this  last  battle  the 
regiment  lost  the  gallant  Captain  Miller,  of  Company  H,  for- 
merly Adjutant  of  the  regiment.  On  the  18th  the  regiment 
crossed  the  Potomac  at  Shepherdstown  and  encamped  near  the 
Dunkard  Church,  on  the  battlefield  of  Sharpsburg.  While  here 
the  Eev.  George  Patterson,  the  Chaplain  of  the  Third  North 
Carolina  Regiment,  having  been  solicited,  read  the  burial  service 
over  the  noble  heroes  of  the  First  and  Third  Regiments  who 
had  fallen  in  this  battle  in  1862  and  were  buried  near  this 
church.  This  solemn  and  touching  scene  will  ever  be  one 
among  the  memorable  incidents  in  the  annals  of  the  war. 


From  this  camp  the  regiment,  with  the  brigade,  marched  via 
Hagerstown  to  Chambersburg,  Greencastle  and  McConnellsburg 
to  the  vicinity  of  Carlisle  and  on  to  Gettysburg,  having  marched 
twenty-five  miles  the  last  day,  but  arrived  too  late  to  participate 
in  the  engagement  of  the  first  day.  The  position  of  the  regiment 
the  next  day  was  about  two  miles  east  of  the  town,  the  regiment 
being  the  left  of  the  brigade  and  extreme  left  of  the  army. 

The  greater  portion  was  deployed  as  sharp-shooters.  In  the 
charge  that  took  place  at  4  p.  M.  this  regiment,  after  crossing 
Rock  Creek,  assembled  on  the  right,  and  with  the  brigade  as- 
saulted and  captured  the  enemy's  works  at  the  southeast  base  of 
Gulp's  Hill.  Lieutenant  Green  Martin,  of  Company  B,  was  the 
first  to  enter  the  works,  where  he  received  a  mortal  wound.  At 
this  juncture  the  officer  in  command  of  this  regiment  sent  a  mes- 
sage to  Major-General  Johnson  to  the  effect  that  with  re-inforce- 
ments  he  could  cut  the  Baltimore  pike.  Smith's  (Extra  Billy) 
Virginia  Brigade  was  sent,  but  arrived  too  late  to  accomplish 
the  desired  end.  On  the  morning  of  the  3d  the  second  line  of 
the  enemy's  works,  strongly  posted  on  Gulp's  Hill,  was  assaulted. 
The  fighting  here  was  desperate,  the  enemy  using  his  artillery  at 
close  range  and  with  great  effect.     The  attack  failed  and  we  fell 

First  Regiment.  149 

back  to  the  works  that  we  had  first  captured  and  at  night  re- 
treated to  the  position  occupied  on  the  first  day,  west  of  the  town, 
leaving  most  of  our  dead,  thirty-eight  in  number,  on  the  field. 
"Victory  deserted  the  Southern  arms  on  the  gory  field  of  Gettys- 
burg. Though  ten  thousand  of  her  heroic  dead  and  wounded 
lay  scattered  from  bloody  Gulp's  Hill  to  stony  Round  Top,  yet 
the  ghastly  sacrifice  did  not  attain  the  end  for  which  it  was 
made.  Standing  amidst  the  wreck  and  carnage  of  that  fatal 
field,  Lee  realized  for  the  first  time  the  loss  of  his  great  captain, 
Jackson,  upon  whose  banners  victory  ever  perched.  This  was 
the  last  offensive  movement  that  the  Gonfederacy  was  able  to 
sustain.  Next  day  we  turned  our  faces  toward  Virginia,  and 
after  several  skirmishes  and  hard  marches,  arrived  at  Williams- 
port,  Md.,  and  forded  the  swollen  Potomac  on  the  15th,  the 
men  having  to  put  their  cartridge-boxes  on  their  bayonets  to  keep 
them  above  the  water.  After  various  marches  via  Front  Royal 
and  Page  Valley,  and  with  some  skirmishing,  we  reached  Orange 
Gourt  House  early  in  August,  participated  in  the  Bristow  cam- 
paign in  October,  by  having  an  occasional  skirmish  with  the 

On  the  27th  of  November  this  regiment  was  engaged  in  a 
short,  sharp  fight  at  Payne's  Farm,  where  the  commanding 
officer  of  the  regiment,  Lieutenant-Golonel  Brown,  was  shot 
through  the  hand,  when  lock-jaw  threatened,  and  the  com- 
mand was  turned  over  to  Gaptain  Latham.  In  this  battle 
the  enemy  was  driven  from  the  field  after  a  loss  of  several 
of  the  regiment's  best  men.  At  Mine  Run  the  regiment  was 
engaged  in  several  skirmishes,  but  in  no  general  battle.  Thus 
ended  the  campaign  of  1863,  and  the  regiment  built  winter 
quarters  near  the  Rapidan,  and  did  picket  duty  along  the 
river  at  Mitchell's  Ford  during  the  winter  of  1863-64. 
Golonel  McDowell  having  now  resigned,  Lieutenant-Golonel 
Brown  was  promoted  to  Golonel,  Major  Harrell  to  Lieutenant- 
Golonel  and  Gaptain  Latham  to  Major.  The  regiment  was  now 
thoroughly  reorganized  and  the  vacancies  filled  with  competent 
company  officers,  carefully  selected,  all  of  them  an  honor  to  their 

150  North  Carolina  Troops,  18  61-65. 

State,  as  subsequent  events  bore  ample  testimony.  The  perfect 
discipline  and  efficiency  attained  by  this  regiment  during  this 
winter,  and  the  high  compliment  afterwards  paid  it  on  the  bat- 
tlefield of  the  Wilderness  by  Lieutenant-General  Ewell  and 
Major-General  Johnson,  were  due  in  a  great  degree  to  tl^p  efficient 
management  and  co-operation  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Harrell  and 
Major  Latham,  not  only  on  the  field,  but  to  their  assistance  in 
training  and  drilling  the  men  in  camp.  Credit  is  also  due  to 
the  faithful  assistance  of  competent  and  willing  company  officers, 
several  of  whom,  among  them  Captains  Boone,  Thompson,  Day^ 
Johnson,  Mizell  and  others,  had  been  promoted  from  the  ranks, 
and  were  veterans  of  many  a  bloody  field  in  previous  campaigns. 
E,ev.  W.  R.  Gwaltney,  Chaplain  of  the  regiment,  wrought  a  good 
work  here  also.  A  large  chapel  was  constructed,  in  which  regu- 
lar services  were  held  for  the  soldiers.  He  also  established  a. 
school  for  them,  which  did  much  to  improve  their  condition  in 
every  way. 


On  the  4th  of  May  camp  was  broken  and  the  regiment,  with 
the  brigade  and  division,  marched  in  the  direction  of  Locust 
Grove  and  met  the  enemy  on  the  evening  of  the  15th  in  the  first 
day's  battle  of  the  Wilderness,  where,  after  a  hard  fight,  a  por- 
tion of  the  regiment  captured  two  pieces  of  artillery  and  more 
than  one  hundred  prisoners  in  an  opening  on  the  old  stone  road. 
The  regiment  had  witnessed  and  had  taken  part  in  the  capture 
of  many  batteries,  but  the  manner  of  this  capture  was  both  novel 
and  thrilling.  The  Colonel  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Forty- 
sixth  New  York,  Jenkins,  whose  regiment  was  opposite  in  the 
enemy's  line,  being  killed,  his  command  gave  way  and  sought 
protection  in  a  gully  in  rear  of  the  battery.  A  portion  of  the 
First  Regiment,  Lieutenant  O.  R.  Scott  being  one  of  the  lead- 
ing spirits,  suddenly  emerged  from  a  thicket  of  pines  and  at- 
tacked the  battery  on  the  flank.  Here  the  fighting  was  desper- 
ate, clubbed-guns  and  bayonets  being  used.  -"Twas  claw  for 
claw,  and  the  devil  for  us  all."  Lieutenant  Shelton,  command- 
ing this  battery  (Battery  D,  New  York  Light  Artillery),  Cap- 

First  Regiment.  151 

taiu  Wlnslow  having  been  wounded,  at  last  surrendered  two 
guns,  the  other  two  escaping.  This  portion  of  our  regiment, 
having  crossed  the  road  and  obliqued  too  far  to  the  right,  was 
now  in  rear  of  the  enemy's  lines  opposed  by  General  Rodes  on 
the  right  of  the  road.  At  length  General  Rodes  succeeded  in 
routing  this  portion  of  the  enemy's  line  and  a  perfect  stampede 
ensued.  We  could  only  avail  ourselves  of  the  above-named 
gully,  from  which  we  had  just  captured  so  many  of  the  enemy, 
while  this  vast  herd  of  fleeing  Federals  came  rushing  through 
and  over  us  without  firing  a  gun  or  speaking  a  word.  While 
we  were  yet  in  this  temporary  concealment,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Lightfoot,  of  the  Sixth  Alabama,  in  pursuit  of  the  routed  foe, 
dashed  up  to  this  battery,  mounted  the  guns  and,  with  flag  in 
hand,  claimed  the  capture.  We  in  turn  rose  up  from  this  now 
famous  gully  and,  to  his  astonishment  and  disappointment, 
proved  to  him  that  the  prize  and  the  honor  were  ours.  The 
remaining  portion  of  the  regiment,  with  the  brigade,  arrived  in 
time  to  assist  in  reclaiming  the  battery  from  Colonel  Lightfoot 
and  the  Sixth  Alabama.  The  ene'my  being  re-inforced,  made 
another  advance,  and  we  were  in  turn  driven  back  to  our  first 
position,  leaving  the  guns  between  the  lines.  We,  however, 
removed  them  from  the  field  on  the  night  of  the  6th,  after  the 
firing  had  ceased. 


On  the  night  of  the  7th  the  movement  was  commenced  by 
the  right  flank  and  the  march  was  continued  throughout  the 
next  day,  the  8th,  through  the  dust,  heat  and  smoke  (the  woods 
being  on  fire),  the  regiment  arriving  in  the  evening  near 
Spottsylvania  Court  House.  The  enemy  was  marching  on  a 
road  nearly  parallel  with  ours,  and  where  the  roads  came 
together,  at  sundown,  a  brisk  engagement  took  place.  While 
going  into  this  action,  on  the  right  by  file  into  line,  color- 
bearer  W.  H.  Lee  was  decapitated  by  a  shell.  Captain 
Thompson  picked  up  the  colors,  and  bore  them  until  the 
regiment   had   finished  the    movement  and  taken-  its   place  in 

152  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

line.  Just  before  advancing  a  volunteer  was  called  for  to  bear 
the  colors  in  the  battle.  A  stripling,  with  gosling  voice,  tat- 
tered jacket,  ragged  trousers  and  powder-burnt  face,  in  the  im- 
mediate presence  of  the  murderous  legions  of  Hancock,  and  bear- 
ing the  thenceforth  honored  name  of  Reams,  stepped  to  the  front 
and  said  :  "I'll  take  the  ilag,  Colonel,"  and  the  flag,  its  folds  still 
dripping  with  the  warm  blood  of  noble  Willie  Lee,  was  deliv- 
ered into  his  hands.  Lieutenant-General  Ewell,  who  had  wit- 
nessed the  tragic  death  of  gallant  Lee,  inquired:  "What  youth 
is  that  who  has  left  his  father's  fold  and  come  here  and  assumed 
the  duties  of  a  veteran?"  On  being  told  that  it  was  John 
Reams,  of  Company  F,  he  said  that  he  would  gladly  approve 
any  recommendation  that  might  be  made  for  his  promotion,  but 
the  12th  came  before  the  promotion,  and  on  that  day  the  regi- 
ment was  captured  by  the  enemy.  Color-bearer  Reams,  deter- 
mined not  to  surrender  the  flag,  tore  it  from  the  staff  and  carried 
it  in  his  bosom  to  a  Northern  prison. 

The  night  of  the  8th  and  the  day  of  the  9th  were  spent  in 
building  works.  On  the  10th,  General  Doles'  works  having 
been  captured  immediately  on  the  left,  this  regiment  and  brigade 
were  sent  to  his  assistance.  After  a  most  sanguinary  battle  of 
two  hours,  in  which  we  lost  some  of  our  bravest  and  best  men. 
Lieutenant  Larkin  Curtis  among  the  number,  the  works  were 
recaptured  and  we  returned  to  our  position  in  line.  The  regi- 
ment rested  on  the  11th.  On  the  morning  of  the  12tb,  dark 
and  rainy,  a  fitting  prelude  to  a  day  that  was  dark  in  the  fullest 
sense  of  the  term,  the  enemy  made  a  desperate  assault  on  the 
salient  angle  occupied  by  Jones'  Brigade,  this  regiment  being 
immediately  on  the  right  of  it.  For  a  short  time  the  fighting 
was  desperate.  The  terrific  onslaught  of  this  vast  multitude 
was  irresistible,  there  being  a  rectangular  mass  of  twenty  thou- 
sand Federal  troops,  not  in  line  of  battle,  but  in  column  of  regi- 
ments doubled  on  the  centre,  supported  by  a  division  on  each 
flank,  in  all  more  than  thirty  thousand  troops  concentrated  against 
this  one  point.  The  portion  of  the  works  assaulted  by  this  for- 
midable colnijin  was  little  more  than  four  hundred  yards  wide. 

First  Regimemt.  153 

The  Confederate  troops  occupying  this  angle  were  Jones'  Brigade 
and  the  First  Regiment,  numbering  about  two  thousand.  The 
clash  of  arms  and  the  murderous  fire  around  this  bloody  angle  are 
indescribable.  Every  one  who  was  present  will  ever  remember 
the  wreck  and  the  anguish  of  that  dark  and  direful  day.  Let 
it  also  be  remembered  that  this  regiment  did  its  whole  duty  here, 
as  on  all  other  occasions;  that  it  did  all  that  mortal  man  could 
do,  and  proved  even  in  defeat  true  to  its  State  and  country.  All 
but  about  thirty  of  the  whole  regiment  were  captured,  the  Col- 
onel wounded  and  captured  and  recaptured  three  times;  the  last 
time  from  the  enemy's  ambulance  corps,  who,  in  turn,  were 
made  prisoners,  and  bore  him  to  the  Confederate  rear  instead 
of  the  Yankee  rear,  as  was  their  intention.  A  hickory  tree, 
said  to  be  sixteen  inches  in  diameter,  was  cut  down  by  min- 
nie  balls  alone  and  fell  near  our  works.  From  this  time  until 
the  close  of  the  war  the  regiment  was  a  mere  company,  but  pre- 
served its  organization,  and  was,  with  the  Third,  transferred  to 
Cox's  Brigade  and  participated  in  all  the  battles  in  which  that 
brigade  was  engaged  between  Spottsylvania  and  Richmond. 

VALLEY   CAMPAIGN    OF  'l864. 

About  this  time  General  Early  .was  assigned  to  command  the 
Second  Corps,  and  was  ordered  to  Lynchburg  to  meet  Hunter's 
raid,  at  which  point  the  corps  arrived  on  the  18th,  and  after 
some  skirmishing  the  enemy  withdrew  during  the  night  and 
was  driven  from  this  portion  of  Virginia,  leaving  his  artillery 
and  a  portion  of  his  train.  General  Early  then  marched  in  the 
direction  of  Staunton,  passing  Lexington;  the  cemetery  in  which 
General  Jackson  had  been  buried  lay  on  the  right  of  the  road 
which  we  traveled.  "We  passed  into  the  cemetery  with  muffled 
drums,  field  officers  dismounting,  bands  playing  funeral  dirges, 
banners  drooped  and  arms  reversed.  A  mound  covered  with 
beautiful  June  flowers,  a  flag-staff  standing  near,  told  the  men 
who  had  followed  him  wherever  he  had  led  that  beneath  that 
unostentatious  pile  of  valley  soil  lay  the  body  of  Stonewall 
Jackson.     A  hush  as  deep  as   midnight  fell  upon  those  men  in 

154  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

their  ragged  gray,  and  the  eagle  eyes  of  the  veterans  grew  moist, 
as  they  thought  of  the  glory  they  had  won  under  the  leadership 
of  the  most  unique  soldier  of  the  age."  From  this  point Jthe 
army  marched  in  the  direction  of  Washington  City  by  way  of 
the  Valley  and  Monocacy  Junction,  near  Frederick,  where  abat- 
tle  took  place,  the  enemy  being  greatly  damaged.  Next  day, 
after  a  long  march  through  the  dust  and  heat,  the  regiment  and 
the  army  reached  Silver  Spring,  in  view  of  the  dome  of  the  Capi- 
tol, where,  after  some  further  skirmishing.  General  Early  find- 
ing himself  confronted  by  an  overwhelming  force  and  his  flank 
threatened,  withdrew  to  the  Valley  by  way  of  Leesburg  and 
Snicker's  Gap.  General  Early  now  organized  a  corps  of  sharp- 
shooters from  the  different  regiments  in  the  Second  Corps,  this 
regiment  furnishing  its  quota,  and  its  Colonel  was  appointed  to 
command  the  corps  of  sharp-shooters  thus  formed. 

After  this  the  sharp-shooters  were  engaged  in  almost  daily 
skirmishes  with  the  enemy,  and  took  part  in  the  battles  of  Win- 
chester, August  17th;  Cliarlestown,  August  21st;  Smithfield, 
August  29th;  Bunker's  Hill,  September  3d,  and  in  the  bloody 
and  disastrous  battle  of  Winchester,  September  19  th,  in  which 
the  veteran  General  Rodes,  who  had  ever  been  equal  to  occasion, 
was  killed,  and  also  some  of  our  bravest  and  best  officers  and 
men,  the  true  and  genial  Captain  Tom  Boone,  of  Company  F, 
being  among  the  wounded  in  this  unfortunate  battle.  In  this 
engagement  the  Confederates,  ten  thousand  in  number,  met  thirty 
thousand  of  the  enemy.  General  Early  retreated  and  took  posi- 
tion at  Fisher's  Hill,  where  he  was  again  overpowered,  and  re- 
treated up  the  Valley  to  Waynesboro.  The  Confederates  being 
re-inforced,  returned  down  the  Valley,  and  marched,  on  the 
night  of  the  18th  of  October,  around  the  end  of  the  Mansanutton 
mountain,  crossed  the  Shenandoah  at  Bowman's  Ford,  and  at- 
tacked the  enemy  at  daylight  in  his  rear,  the  sharp-shooters  cap- 
turing twelve  pieces  of  artillery  before  the  main  body  arrived. 
This  strategy  on  the  part  of  General  Early  was  pronounced  by 
military  critics  to  be  equal,  or  even  superior,  to  that  of  General 
Lee  at  Chancellorsville.     Oa  account  of  overwhelming  odds,  the 

First  Regiment.  155 

Confederates  were  prevented  from  following  up  their  advantages, 
and  our  decided  victory  of  the  morning  was  turned  into  a  signal 
defeat  before  the  day  was  over.  A  portion  of  this  regiment  and 
the  sharp-shooters  were  under  the  immediate  command  of  Gen- 
eral Ramseur,  who,  collecting  his  veterans  behind  a  stone  fence, 
and  fighting  like  a  lion,  in  this  his  last  battle,  was  mortally 
wounded.  Although  this  regiment  had  never  been  in  his  com- 
mand it  had,  as  if  by  accident,  been  thrown  with  him  in  many 
bloody  battles,  and  his  undaunted  courage  and  heroic  conduct 
inspired  many  a  faltering  spirit  to  revive  and  "rush  on  to  victory 
or  to  death."   A  patriot,  a  hero,  a  martyr! 

"Out  of  its  scabbard,  never  hand 
Waved  sword  from  stain  as  free." 

The  army  again  retreated  up  the  Valley,  and  after  the  defeat  of 
Sheridan's  Cavalry  at  Rhode's  Hill,  near  Mt.  Jackson,  the  Val- 
ley campaign  of  1864  ended.  After  this  the  Second  Corps  of 
the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  returned  to  Petersburg  and  took 
up  winter  quarters  within  a  few  miles  of  the  city. 

About  the  middle  of  February,  1865,  the  First,  with  the 
other  troops  of  the  corps,  moved  south  of  Petersburg,  to  near 
Sutherland's  Depot.  Here  the  regiment  remained  until  about 
the  middle  of  March,  when  the  troops  were  ordered  into  the 
trenches  in  front  of  Petersburg,  and  there  it  remained  until  the 
night  of  the  24th  of  March,  when  that  portion  of  the  regiment, 
with  the  sharp-shooters  which  had  been  engaged  in  the  assault 
and  capture  of  Fort  Stedman  before  daylight,  as  a  portion 
of  the  assaulting  column,  including  its  commander,  Colonel 
Brown,  was  captured  by  the  enemy,  under  the  command  of 
General  McLaughlen,  but  was  shortly  afterwards  recaptured, 
and  in  turn  captured  General  McLaughlen  and  his  com- 
mand. General  McLaughlen  asked  permission  to  surrender 
his  sword  to  General  Gordon.  Permission  was  granted,  for 
the  reason  that  it  was  not  certain  that  he  was  a  prisoner,  or 
would  be  long,  as  captures  and  recaptures  were  so  frequent. 
Upon  his  surrendering  his  sword  to  General   Gordon,  he  was 

156  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

moved  back  to  the  Confederate  rear  and  was  safe,  a  prisoner. 
After  this  the  fort  was  stubbornly  held  by  the  Confederates 
against  great  odds  for  more  than  four  hours,  when,  by  a  sudden 
rush  on  the  part  of  the  enemy  on  the  right,  the  lines  were  closed 
and  the  greater  part  of  the  sharp-shooters,  together  with  Colonel 
Brown,  their  commander,  were  cut  off  and  forced  to  surrender.  , 


The  march  from  Petersburg  to  Appomattox  was  but  a  series 
of  engagements  until  the  memorable  day  of  the  9th  of  April.  This 
brigade  was  now  commanded  by  that  veteran  soldier.  General  W. 
R.  Cox,  who,  as  his  men  were  retiring,  ordered  a  halt,  and  the  com- 
mand was  given:  " Right  about,  face! "  It  was  promptly  obeyed, 
and  once  more,  and  for  the  last  time,  these  few  ragged,  foot-sore 
and  half-starved  North  Carolinians  stood  in  the  strength  of  their 
invincible  manhood,  opposed  to  the  men  they  had  met  and  had 
driven  back  on  many  a  bloody  field.  Once  more  the  command  rang 
out  in  the  clear,  firm  voice  of  the  intrepid  Cox:  "Ready,  Aim, 
Fire!"  And  the  last  volley  fired  by  the  Army  of  Northern 
Virginia  was  by  North  Carolina  troops,  this  regiment  among  the 
number.  "Defeated,  but  not  dishonored."  And  so  should  we, 
as  true  sons  of  Carolina,  in  the  education  of  our  children,  teach 
them  to  ever  refuse  that  savage  lesson  that  "  Might  makes  right." 
Teach  them  that 

"Right  lives  in  a  thousand  things; 
Its  cradle  is  its  martyr's  grave, 
Wherein  it  rests  awhile  until 
The  life  that  heroisms  gave 
Revives  again  at  God's  own  will, 
And  rights  the  wrong." 

Note.— This  imperfect  sketch  of  the  First  Regiment  has  been  written 
from  memory  and  such  memoranda  as  could  be  collected.  Much  assist- 
ance has  been  rendered  by  Captain  T.  D.  Boone,  a  member  of  the  regi- 
ment. Also,  acknowledgments  for  suggestions  and  favors  are  due  Judge 
Walter  Clark  and  Colonel  T.  S.  Kenan. 

H.  A.  Brown. 

Columbia,  Tenn., 

April  9,  1900. 


1.  William  E.  Cox,  Colonel.  5.    D.  W.  Hurtt,  Major. 

2.  Charles  C.  Tew,  Colonel.  6.    W.  M.  Norman,  Captain,  Co.  A. 

3.  John  P.  Cobb,  Colonel.  7.    W.  T.  Faircloth,  Captain  and  Assistant 
4:    George  L.  Kirby,  Surgeon,  Q.  M. 


By  MATT.  MANLY,  Captain  Company  D. 

The  Second  Regiment  was  organized  with  the  following  offi- 
cers of  the  field  and  staff: 

Chaeles  C.  Tew,  Colonel. 
William  Pkeston  Bynum,  Lieutenant-Colonel. 
William  R.  Cox,  Major. 
Nicholas  Collin  Hughes,  Adjutant. 
William  T.  Fairgloth,  Quartermaster. 
Louis  Hilliaed,  Commissary. 
W.  H.  CouETS,  Surgeon. 
Geoege  L.  Kieby,  Assistant  Surgeon. 
'  Stewaet  Devane,  Assistant  Surgeon. 
Rev.  Dr.  Alfred  A.  Watson,  Chaplain. 

The  commissions  of  the  field  officers  of  the  Second  Regiment 
were  dated  May  8,  1861,  and  those  of  the  original  company 
officers  May  16,  1861. 

Dr.  Courts  was  soon  succeeded  by  Dr.  James  B.  Hughes,  and 
Dr.  Devane  by  Dr.  L.  H.  Stith. 

Dr.  Hughes,  after  two  years  of  arduous  service  in  attending 
the  men  through  the  dreadful  diseases  of  the  camp,  when  fever 
and  pneumonia  swept  away  so  many,  and  through  the  campaign 
of  the  first  two  years,  was  promoted  to  Surgeon  of  the  brigade. 
The  survivors  of  the  Second  have  a  most  grateful  feeling  toward 
him  and  the  highest  respect  for  his  skill  and  devotion. 

Dr.  George  L.  Kirby  succeeded  Dr.  Hughes,  and  remained 
with  us  until  the  regiment  was  greatly  reduced  in  numbers,  when 
he  was  given  a  more  important  post.  He  gave  most  faithful  atten- 
tion to  every  duty,  and  whether  under  the  fire  of  the  enemy's  guns, 

158  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

ministering  to  the  wounded,  or  soothing  the  last  moments  of  the 
poor  fellow  dying  with  fever,  he  was  the  same  loyal  friend. 

N.  Collin  Hughes  served  as  Adjutant  until  the  death  of  Col- 
onel Tew,  when  he  was  promoted  to  the  staff  of  General  Petti- 
grew,  and  was  killed  at  Gettysburg.  He  was  a  leader  among 
the  high-spirited  gentlemen  of  the  Second.  His  handsome 
presence  and  charming  manners  made  him  a  delightful  compan- 
ion, and  his  superb  courage  a  noble  comrade  in  arms. 

Dr.  Stith  made  a  most  efficient  Surgeon,  notwithstanding  that 
he  had  lost  an  arm.  He  now  lives  at  Suffolk,  and  had  two  sons 
in  the  army  in  Cuba. 

Rev.  Dr.  Watson,  our  Chaplain,  besides  his  attention  to  his 
clerical  duties,  gave  valuable  services  as  a  scout.  His  informa- 
tion of  the  topography  of  the  country  was  of  great  value  to  our 
commanding  officer.  He  had  the  profound  respect  of  every 

Company  A — New  Hanover  Cown^y-r-Captain,  Edward  D. 
Hall.  This  company  was  transferred  to  the  artillery,  and  did 
duty  on  the  Cape  Fear  under  Captain  Calvin  Barnes.  Captain 
Hall  became  Colonel  of  the  Forty-sixth  North  Carolina  Troops. 
His  place  and  designation  was  taken  by  a  company  of  fine  fellows 
from  Surry — Captain,  James  B.  Waugh;  Lieutenants,  W.  .M. 
Norman,  Benjamin  F.  Bray,  W.  O.  T.  Banner. 

Captain  Waugh  was  mortally  wounded  at  Chancellorsville, 
and  died  May  28,  1865.  His  company  was  one  of  the  first  in 
the  charge,  being  well  in  front,  and  his  red-lined  cloak  made 
him  a  conspicuous  mark.  Lieutenants  Norman  and  Banner  took 
their  men  so  far  to  the  front  that  Norman  fell  badly  wounded 
and  Banner  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy.     Officers  and  men,  128. 

Company  B — Wilson  County — Captain,  John  Howard;  Lieu- 
tenants, John  C.  Gorman,  Calvin  Barnes,  Orrin  Williams, 
William  Howard,  Robert  E.  Calder,  Garry  Fulghum,  B.  J. 
Barnes,  L.  B.  Boyette,  W.  G.  Ferrell. 

Captain  Howard  was  mortally  wounded  at  Sharpsburg,  Sep- 
tember 17,  and  died  October  4,  1862. 

Second  Regiment.  159 

Calvin  Barnes  was  appointed  to  the  command  of  Company  A, 
and  transferred  with  the  company. 

John  C.  Gorman  then  became  Captain,  which  rank  he  held 
to  the  end.  He  was  wounded  several  times.  His  last  wound 
was  received  near  Petersburg,  in  April,  1865. 
Orrin  Williams  was  promoted,  and  transferred. 
The  company  was  greatly  indebted  to  Lieutenant  Robert  E. 
Calder  for  its  discipline  and  proficiency  in  drill.  Lieutenant 
Calder  was  a  cadet  of  the  Hillsboro  Military  Academy.  He 
was  a  very  popular  officer,  and  was  painfully  wounded  at  Malvern 
Hill,  losing  an  eye. 

Lieutenants  Bemzan  Barnes  and  Ferrell  were  also  wounded  at 
Malvern  Hill,  while  Garry  Fulghum  and  L.  B.  Boyette  were 
paroled  at  Appomattox. 

Company  C — Carteret  County — Captain  S.  D.  Pool  and  his 
company  were  transferred  to  the  artillery,  and  served  on  the 
coast.  He  became  Colonel  of  the  Tenth  North  Carolina  Troops 
(First  Artillery).  Its  place  was  supplied  by  a  fine  company  from 
Wayne  and  Duplin  counties — Captain,  Gideon  M.  Roberts;  Lieu- 
tenants, W.  T.  Faircloth,  David  Cogwell,  W.  W.  Loftin,  Nathan 
B.  Whitfield,  George  W.  Britt,  Stephen  Williams,  Thomas  W. 
Crow,  Joel  Jones,  Thaddeus  Jones. 
Captain  Roberts  resigned  in  1862. 

Lieutenant  W.  T.  Faircloth  having  been  promoted  to  a  cap- 
taincy, and  made  Quartermaster,  N.  B.  Whitfield  was  given 
command  of  the  company.  He  served  until  May  11,  1864,  and 
was  killed  at  Spottsylvania. 

Captain  Faircloth  (now  Chief  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court) 
was  a  faithful  officer  in  a  most  responsible  position.  W.  W. 
Loftin  died  in  1864. 

Officers  and  men  numbered  133. 

Company  D —  Wilson  and  Wayne  Counties — Captain,  Walter 
S.  Stallings;  Lieutenants,  Isaac  C.  Applewhite,  Matt.  Manly,  W. 
H.  H.  Cobb,  J.  C.  Pierce,  Wyatt  E.  Yelverton,  W.  H.  Apple- 
I.  C.  Applewhite  was  wounded  at  Sharpsburg,  and  resigned. 

160  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Matt.  Manly  was  made  Captain  while  in  a  prison  hospital 
from  wounds  received  at  Chancellorsville. 

In  a  great  number  of  battles  this  company  was  commanded 
by  Lieutenant  Yelverton,  with  W.  H.  Applewhite  the  only 
other  officer.  Both  of  these  officers  were  desperately  wounded 
on  several  occasions.  Applewhite,  although  shot  through  the 
lungs  at  Chancellorsville,  was  again  with  his  comrades  before 
the  next  battle.  Better  soldiers  never  stood  before  the  guns  of 
an  enemy;  true  exponents  of  the  character  of  the  men  they  led. 

Lieutenant  W.  H.  H.  Cobb  was  made  Assistant  Surgeon,  in 
which  position  he  rendered  most  admirable  service.  It  was  after' 
his  baptism  of  fire  on  the  bloody  field  of  Cold  Harbor  that  he 
was  promoted  to  the  medical  staff. 

In  the  medical  corps  of  the  regiment  must  be  mentioned  Hos- 
pital Steward,  Joseph  M.  Caho,  after  the  war  the  venerable 
Sheriff  of  the  new  county  of  Pamlico.  Many  a  man  owed  his 
life  to  his  skillful  treatment  and  cheerful  attention.  His  memory 
is  a  sweet  one  to  us  all. 

Captain  Stallings  became  Major  at  the  death  of  Colonel  Tew, 
and  Lieutenant-Colonel  upon  the  promotion  of  Colonel  Cox,  and 
was  the  ranking  officer  of  the  regiment  when  killed.  He  received 
the  wound  from  which  he  died  at  Castleman's  Ford,  near  Berry- 
ville,  July  18,  1864.  He  was  repeatedly  warned  that  he  was 
exposing  himself  needlessly,  but  he  could  not  be  restrained.  A 
shell  burst  near  him,  severing  an  artery,  from  which  he  bled  to 
death.  If  any  one  could  be  said  to  have  fir,st  place  in  the  hearts  of 
the  men  of  the  Second  Regiment,  it  was  Walter  Stallings.  His 
was  a  rare  spirit,  gifted  with  every  grace,  and  sensitive  to  every 
pulse  of  nature;  a  scholar  of  delightful  wit  and  charming 
vivacity,  and  a  man  of  gentle  manners  and  finest  courage.  Eager 
in  a  charge  and  striking  hard  and  quickly  in  retreat,  beloved 
wherever  he  was  known,  a  noble  and  generous  heart  was  stilled 
when  his  life's  blood  ebbed  away. 

CoMPAN-^  E— 1^5  men  from  Guilford  and  Ifi  from  Samp- 
son County — Captain,  J.  M.  Morehead;  Lieutenants,  Henr^  C. 

Second  Regiment.  161 

Gorrell,  Joseph  M.  Morehead,  James  Turner  Scales,  James  M. 
Hobson,  J.  E.  Fraley,  John  M.  Hobson. 

Captaio  Morehead  was  promoted  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the 
Forty-fifth  Regiment. 

Henry  C.  Gorrell  was  made  Captain,  and  killed  in  Chicka- 
hominy  Swamp,  in  one  of  the  reconnaissances  in  force  in  Mc- 
Clellan's  front  in  June,  1862. 

Lieutenant  Scales  commanded  the  company  until  he  was  pro- 
moted to  Lieutenant-Colonel.  He  was  wounded  at  Spott- 
sylvania,  and  again  near  Petersburg,  and  was  the  senior  officer 
of  the  Second  at  Appomattox. 

James  M,  Hobson,  J.  T.  Fraley  and  John  M.  Hobson  were 
excellent  soldiers.  John  Hobson  received  his  bullet  at  Chancellors- 
ville  with  many  another  good  man. 

James  Hobson  was  captured  at  Spottsylvania  after  a  race  for 
a  stand  of  colors.  One  of  the  color-bearers  of  the  enemy,  some- 
thing bolder  than  his  comrades,  planted  his  staff  well  in  front 
and  stood  by  it  to  meet  our  attack.  Jim  Hobson,  with  his  eye  on 
the  Victoria  Cross,  or  what  was  equivalent  to  it  with  us,  "Well 
done,  old  fellow,"  from  his  companions,  or  hoping  to  get  a  men- 
tion in  general  orders,  if  the  eye  of  the  General  should  be  happily 
on  him,  dashed  forward  to  capture  him.  Hobson  had  no  fire- 
arms, and  could  only  secure  the  colors  by  outrunning  the  man. 
The  race  was  a  fast  one — "nip  and  tuck" — with  Hobson  gaining, 
but  the  course  was  too  short,  and  both  disappeared  in  the  line  of 
the  enemy.  Hobson  caught  his  man,  but  it  was  too  late,  and  he 
kept  on  to  Fort  Delaware,  where  he  saw  enough  of  the  Stars 
and  Stripes.  His  son,  Lieutenant  Richmond  P.  Hobson,  comes 
fairly  by  his  gallant  spirit. 

Company  F — Graven  County — Captain,  Hugh  L.  Cole;  Lieu- 
tenants, N.  N.  Chadwick,  Roderick  Wetherington,  Henry  J.  B. 
Clark,  Furnifold  G.  Heritage,  W.  C.  Brewer,  with  Daniel  Lane 
First  Sergeant. 

Captain  Cole  took  great  interest  in  his  company,  and  brought  it 
up  to  a  high  state  of  efficiency  by  his  attention  to  every  exercise 
during  the  long  months  in  camp  of  instruction.     He  was  pre- 


162  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

vented  by  ill  health  from  leading  his  company  in  the  hard  march- 
ing of  the  campaigns,  and  was  obliged  to  surrender  his  command. 
He  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  Major. 

Lieutenant  Chadwick  became  Captain  upon  the  promotion  of 
Major  Cole. 

Henry  J.  B.  Clark  was  killed  in  a  railway  accident,  a  very 
young,  but  promising  officer. 

Heritage  and  Brewer,  both  fine  soldiers,  were  promoted  from 
the  ranks.  Heritage  was  killed  at  Petersburg.  Brewer  bears  the 
scars  of  many  desperate  wounds.  He  commanded  the  skir- 
mishers of  Cox's  Brigade  in  the  Valley  campaign. 

Corporal  Silas  Fulcher,  of  this  company,  was  the  third  color- 
bearer  shot  May  12th.     He  lost  a  leg. 

Officers  and  men,  146. 

Company  G — Jones  County — Captain,  Harvey  A.  Sawyer; 
Lieutenants,  S.  E.  Koonce,  W.  J.  Dickerson,  Robert  H.  Jones, 
Hiram  A.  Sawyer. 

Captain  Sawyer,  a  very  popular  and  efficient  officer,  was 
wounded  at  Malvern  Hill,  and  died  July  15,  1862. 

Orrin  Williams  was  promoted  from  Company  B,  and  made 
Captain.  He  was  succeeded  by  W.  J.  Dickerson.  After  the 
capture  of  Lieutenant  Dickerson  at  Kelly's  Ford  the  company 
was  commanded  by  Robert  H.  Jones,  whose  never-failing  punct- 
uality and  courage  in  battle  gained  the  admiration  of  all  his 
comrades,  as  his  unselfish  disposition  had  made  him  beloved  by 

Andrew  Sawyer  was  killed  at  Fisher's  Hill. 

Company  H —  Wayne  County — Captain,  James  A.  Washing- 
ton; Lieutenants,  Donald  D.  Munroe,  John  P.  Cobb,  James  W. 
Gulick,  Bryan  W.  Cobb,  N.  B.  Whitfield. 

Captain  Washington  was  promoted  to  the  command  of  the 
Fiftieth  and  John  P.  Cobb  was  made  Captain.  After  the  dis- 
abling of  Lieutenant  James  W.  Gulick  by  a  severe  wound  in  the 
knee  at  Malvern  Hill,  and  the  retirement  of  Lieutenant  Monroe, 
Bryan  W.  Cobb  was  made  Captain.  He  was  from  the  Military 
Academy  at  Hillsboro. 

Second  Eegiment.  163 

Lieutenant  Whitfield  was  killed. 

John  P.  Cobb,  who  commanded  the  company  in  many  bat- 
tles, and  was  subsequently  Colonel  of  the  regiment,  was  wounded 
at  Malvern  Hill,  Chancellorsville  and  Cold  Harbor  in  1864,  and 
lost  a  leg  while  leading  the  regiment  at  Winchester. 

Alexander  Murdock,  of  this  company,  was  Ordnance  Sergeant 
of  the  regiment,  and  Henry  C.  Prempert,  Drum-major.  Prem- 
pert  directed  the  best  drum  corps  in  the  division.  The  day  of 
battle  found  him  and  his  boys  under  the  bursting  shells  in  the 
rear  of  the  line,  too  busy  among  the  wounded  to  think  of  danger. 

Every  officer  in  the  regiment  will  remember  the  hospitable 
tent  of  Jim  Washington  and  John  Cobb,  where  th°  '^°°*  eating 
and  drinking  that  Wayne  county  could  furnish  w  srously 

offered  to  all  who  came,  and  the  merriment  was  accompanied  by 
the  pleasant  voice  and  exquisite  violin  of  Sergeant  Billie  Bryan, 
of  Company  I.  Bryan  died  in  Richmond  from  wounds  and  the 
hardships  of  the  campaign. 

Company  I  (Beauregard  Rifles) — Graven  and  Pamlico 
Counties — Captain,  D.  W.  Hurtt;  Lieutenants,  John  P.  Dilling- 
ham, Edward  K.  Bryan,  Silvester  Taylor,  R.  J.  Gilbert,  JST.  C. 
Hughes,  Israel  B.  Watson,  John  J.  Hall. 

Captain  D.  W.  Hurtt  was  most  distinguished  as  commanding 
officer  of  the  skirmishers  of  the  brigade.  He  was  wounded  at 
Sharpsburg,  and  again,  very  severely,  in  the  head  at  Gettysburg. 

John  P.  Dillingham  was  detailed  as  Quartermaster,  and  in 
1862  was  made  Adjutant.  He  was  a  most  popular  and  faithful 

N.  Collin  Hughes  was  selected  as  Adjutant,  and  was  a  most 
valuable  officer  in  the  organization  of  the  regiment. 

E.  K.  Bryan,  after  the  Sharpsburg  campaign,  was  made  Ad- 
jutant of  the  Thirty-first  Regiment. 

Lieutenant  Watson  was  wounded  and  made  a  prisoner. 

John  J.  Hall  was  reported  missing  at  Spottsylvania,  and  his 
fate  still  remains  clouded  with  uncertainty. 

Sergeant  Isaac  Taylor  Almore  was  killed  in  the  great  battle 
of  May  12,  1864. 

164  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Company  K  (Elm  City  Cadets) — Craven  and  Pamlico 
Counties — Captain,  George  C.  Lewis;  Lieutenants,  Alexander 
Miller,  Richard  D.  Hancock,  Joseph  F.  Hellen,  William  Calder, 
W.  J.  Street. 

Captain  Lewis  was  wounded  near  Richmond  in  1862,  and 

Alexander  Miller  was  made  Captain  in  1862,  which  position 
he  held  until  the  close  of  the  war,  having  been  captured  at  Kel- 
ley's  Ford. 

Richard  D.  Hancock  was  severely  wounded  at  Chancellors- 
ville.  He  commanded  the  company  at  Spottsylvania  and  the 
regiment  at  Fisher's  Hill  and  Cedar  Creek,  taking  part  in  all 
the  painful  marches  of  the  Valley  campaign  of  IS  ding  a 

faithful  service  of  four  years  April  9,  18,65. 

W.  J.  Street,  at  one  time  First  Sergeant,  was  wounded  at  Chan- 
cellorsville,  Sharpsburg  and  Spottsylvania.  The  command  of 
his  company  fell  upon  him  on  many  occasions. 

Lieutenant  Hellen  was  promoted,  and  transferred  to  the  de- 
fenses of  the  Cape  Fear. 

William  Calder,  after  serving  with  distinction  with  the  corps 
of  skirmishers  of  the  brigade  as  originally  formed,  was  promoted 
to  the  First  Battalion. 

W.  A.  Johnson  was  killed  at  Malvern  Hill,  Benjamin  Cook 
at  Chancellorsville  and  James  Hancock  at  Cold  Harbor  in  1864. 

This  company  and  Company  F  each  had  thirteen  men  killed 
at  Chancellorsville. 

The  companies  composing  the  regiment  went  into  camp  of  in- 
struction at  Garysburg,  a  little  beyond  Weldon,  opposite  the 
camp  of  the  Fourth  Regiment,  with  which  for  three  years  we 
were  associated  on  nearly  every  battlefield. 

At  the  time  of  the  battle  of  Manassas  the  Second  Regiment, 
being  ordered  to  Virginia,  went  to  Richmond,  thence  northward 
near  the  Potomac,  where  for  six  months  it  was  engaged  in  severe 
drilling  and  other  camp  exercises  and  in  picket  duty  on  the 
bleak  south  bank  of  the  Potomac. 

Second  Eegiment.  165 

When  Burnside  took  New  Bern  the  Second  from  Virginia 
Tvent  to  Goldsboro,  and  from  there,  in  the'  spring  of  1862,  went 
to  Camp  Wyatt,  near  Fort  Fisher,  where  during  the  day  the 
men  were  drilled  and  threw  up  walls  of  sand  and  at  night 
patrolled  the  beach  and  fought  fleas.  Such  duty  not  being  to 
their  liking,  the  officers  of  the  regiment  asked  to  be  sent  to  the 
front  in  Virginia.  This  was  not  a  "  home  guard  "  regiment.  It 
was  "in  for  the  war,"  and  the  reports  of  the  bloody  but  glorious 
battles  of  Williamsburg,  Seven  Pines  and  others  made  it  wish 
to  share  the  honors  with  the  other  North  Carolina  regiments. 

In  June  the  Second  was  sent  to  Virginia,  and  saw  some  ser- 
vice in  the  repeated  feints  made  daily  upon  McClellan's  front 
before  the  great  campaign  called  the  Seven  Days'  Battles. 
The  conduct  of  the  regiment  in  these  battles  was  that  when 
ordered  forward  it  never  halted  until  directed  by  the  command- 
ing officer  so  to  do. 

At  Mechanicsville,  June  26th,  we  were  the  first  troops  to  cross 
the  bridge  (just  repaired  by  the  pioneers)  leading  up  to  the  town. 
Mr.  Jefferson  Davis  rode  immediately  in  front.  An  officer 
advised  that  it  would  be  safer  for  him  to  go  by  the  ford,  a  sug- 
gestion that  was  courteously  declined.  His  wish  was  to  share 
every  danger.  Is  it  a  wonder  that  we  loved  him?  The  march 
up  the  hill  was  made  under  a  terrific  shelling — the  enemy  had 
had  our  range,  and  the  shells  burst  frequently  among  us. 

At  Cold  Harbor  the  regiment,  after  undergoing  the  difficult 
and  trying  ordeal  of  receiving  several  fatal  volleys  from  our  own 
troops,  sprang  to  the  charge,  and  slackened  pace  only  when  both 
flanks  were  uncovered  and  the  enemy  was  flying. 

At  Malvern  Hill  it  received  orders  directly  from  General  D. 
H.  Hill,  when  the  message  came  from  General  Jackson:  "Press 
forward  on  the  right,  the  enemy  is  retreating."  Going  out  of 
the  woods,  wheeling  to  the  left  across  the  open  field,  thence 
through  the  pines  and  up  into  the  deadly  cornfield  in  the  face  of 
such  volleys  of  grape  and  shrapnel  as  we  had  never  met  before, 
it  fought  until  night  came,  and  the  firing  dwindled  from  rapid 
volleying  to  infrequent  single  shots.     The  fight  was  over,  the 

166  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

wounded  began  crawling  away  to  find    friends  and  the  litter- 
bearer  came  to  give  assistance. 

Preparation  was  soon  made  for  the  Maryland  campaign,  in 
which  the  desperate  situation  on  South  Mountain  was  changed 
to  one  of  security  by  the  determined  courage  of  D.  H.  Hill's 
Division  aud  the  great  battle  of  Sharpsburg  was  to  add  renown 
to  our  arms  throughout  the  world.  The  Second  was  hotly  en- 
gaged on  South  Mountain  and  fought  in  so  many  directions  that 
DO  one  knew  which  was  front.  General  Hill  informed  some  of 
the  men  who  were  getting  excited,  seeing  the  blue  coats  in  the 
rear,  that  the  front  was  where  the  enemy  appeared,  and  the 
maskets  would  carry  as  well  in  one  direction  as  another. 

Hill's  presence  was  always  sufficient  to  give  full  assurance  that 
we  were  in  the  right  place,  and  we  had  only  to  fight  to  win. 
There  was  never  a  better  soldier,  or  a  man  better  qualified  to 
judge  of  the  merits  of  one.  The  clash  of  battle  was  not  a  con- 
fusing din  to  him,  but  an  exciting  scene  that  awakened  his  spirit 
and  his  genius.  The  survivors  of  the  Second  lay  upon  his  hon- 
ored grave  a  chaplet  of  immortelles  in  token  of  esteem  and 

The  battle  of  Sharpsburg  was  fought  September  17,  1862,  on 
the  hills  in  front  of  the  town  of  that  name,  and  so  called.  The 
generals  of  the  United  States  forces  called  the  battle  Antietam, 
the  name  of  a  creek  two  miles  away,  where  McClellan  retired  to 
claim  a  victory. 

The  part  the  Second  Regiment  took  in  this  battle  is  told  best 
in  few  words  on  medallions  of  metal  near  the  crest  of  the  hill  at 
the  end  of  "Bloody  Lane."  On  the  anniversary  of  the  battle,. 
September  17,  1897,  when  the  magnificent  monument  was 
dedicated  to  the  Philadelphia  brigade,  a  party  of  veterans  of  the 
United  States  army  were  looking  over  the  field,  when  one  saidt 
"I  was  standing  near  this  spot  when  Meagher's  Brigade  charged 
over  that  hill.  There  was  never  anything  finer.  The  troops 
that  could  stand  against  that  brigade  were  good  ones.  Let  us  go 
and  see."  They  went  over  to  the  "Bloody  Lane,"  and  along  it 
until  they  came  to  the  inscription :  "  Here  Meagher's  New  York 

Secoxd  RegimeKt.  167 

Brigade  charged,  and,  afier  a  bloody  and  desperate  encounter  at 
thirty  paces,  were  obliged  to  retire,"  etc.  Within  a  few  feet 
stood  the  opposing  inscription:  "  Here  Anderson's  North  Caro- 
lina "Brigade  stood  and  checked  the  advance  of  the  enemy,  driv- 
ing him  back  with  great  slaughter." 

At  thirty  paces !  They  were  gallant  gentlemen  that  could  stand 
and  fight  in  the  open  field  at  thirty  paces,  and  hearts  of  oak  that 
could  drive  back  such  a  foe — "Anderson's  Brigade  of  North 
Carolina"  (the  Second,  the  Fourth,  the  Fourteenth,  the  Thir- 

The  survivors  of  the  Second  North  Carolina  Troops  salute  the' 
honorable  commissioners  who  marked  the  field. 

The  brigade  of  General  Thomas  Francis  Meagher  was  the 
most  distinguished  organization  in  the  Army  of  the  Potomac. 
Its  charge  at  Marye's  Heights  had  never  been  surpassed  for 
desperate  courage.  With  all  their  splendid  organization,  equip- 
ment and 'prestige,  "the  faithful  few,"  as  General  D.  H.  Hill 
addressed  Anderson's  Brigade,  were  able  to  meet  fhem  in  the 
open  field  and  force  them  to  retire. 

During  the  battle  in  this  bloody  lane  Colonel  Charles  Cour- 
tenay  Tew  was  killed,  his  body  falling  into  the  hands  of  the 
enemy.  Colonel  Tew  was  not  immediately  with  his  regiment 
when  he  was  shot,  having  been  called  to  direct  the  movements 
of  the  brigade  upon  the  wounding  of  General  Anderson,  and 
was  on  the  left,  not  in  view  of  his  own  men.  He  was  shot 
through  the  head  and  placed  in  the  sunken  road  near  the  gate- 
way of  the  lane  that  leads  to  the  farm-house,  with  his  back  to 
the  bank  nearer  the  enemy.  Here  he  was  found,  apparently  un- 
conscious, the  blood  streaming  from  a  wound  in  the  head,  with 
his  sword  held  by  both  hands  across  his  knees.  A  Federal  sol- 
dier attempted  to  take  the  sword  from  him,  but  he  drew  it 
toward  his  body  with  the  last  of  his  remaining  strength,  and 
then  his  grasp  relaxed  and  he  fell  forward,  dead. 

This  account  of  Colonel  Tew  was  given  the  writer  by  a  soldier 
of  the  Eighth  Ohio  upon  the  field  of  Sharpsburg  in  the  summer 
of  1897.     The  sword  was  given  by  the  soldier  to  the  colonel  of 

168  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

his  regiment,  who  unfortunately  is  no  longer  living,  and  the 
sword,  having  passed  into  other  hands,  cannot  be  recovered. 

Colonel  Tew  had  a  military  school  at  Hillsboro  when  he  offered 
his  sword  to  the  Governor  of  North  Carolina.  He  had  rnade 
a  tour  of  Europe,  partly  on  foot,  and  had  visited  many  of  the 
great  army  posts,  studying  military  service  and  the  art  of  war, 
and  was  pre-eminent  in  every  accomplishment  of  a  gentleman 
and  a  soldier.  The  nobility  of  his  disposition  and  the  purity  of 
his  life  gained  for  him  the  truest  respect  of  every  man.  When 
knighthood  was  in  flower  he  might  have  worn  the  golden  rose 
of  virtue.  No  word  unworthy  a  maiden  knight  of  old  was  ever 
spoken  by  him  in  the  hearing  of  his  officers  or  men.  His  pres- 
ence was  a  sanctuary.  He  has  followed  those  who,  pure  in  heart, 
sought  the  Holy  Grail,  and  who  now  reflect  its  ineffable  light. 

After  the  battle  of  Sharpsburg,  General  Lee  withdrew  into 
Virginia,  and  the  Second  Regiment  went  into  camp  near  Wiia- 
chester.  Later,  Hill's  Division  moved  near  Front  Royal,  on  the 
Shenandoah;'  where  General  Hill,  much  annoyed  by  the  enemy 
being  reported  at  every  point  of  the  compass,  called  for  volun- 
teers for  "extra  and  dangerous  service,"  the  object  being  to  find 
the  enemy.  Many  volunteered,  among  them  Lieutenant  Wilson 
T.  Jenkins,  of  the  Fourteenth.  Those  selected  were,  for  the  most 
part,  from  the  Second. 

The  regiment  moved  back  into  the  Valley,  but  soon  took  up 
its  long  march  to  the  south  bank  of  the  lower  Rappahannock  to 
meet  Burnside,  who  expected  to  take  the  shortest  road  to  Rich- 
mond by  way  of  Fredericksburg.  It  was  on  this  march,  late 
one  evening,  that  General  Hill  issued  his  memorable  order 
that  threw  consternation  among  the  company  officers.  It  was 
to  the  effect  that  should  any  man  be  seen  on  the  march  next 
day  without  shoes  the  officer  commanding  the  company  should 
be  "placed  in  arrest  and  recommended  to  be  dropped."  It 
was  late  at  night  before,  we  understood  that  the  skins  of 
the  newly-killed  beeves  were  to  be  made  into  moccasins.  All 
night  was  consumed  in  the  work,  as  there  were  nearly  one 
hundred  men  of  the  regiment  without   shoes.     Next   day  the 


1.  W.  H.  H.  Cobb,  Assistant  Surgeon. 

2.  Eichard  D.  Hancock,  Ist  Lieut.,  Co.  K. 

3.  W.  J.  Street,  8ii  Lieut.,  Co.  K. 

4.  E.  K.  Bryan,  ad  Lieut.,  Co.  I. 

6.  E.  J.  Brooks,  Ordnance  Sergeant,  Co.  L 

6.  A.  J.  Casey,  Private,  Co.  H. 

7.  N.  Colin  Hughes,  1st  Lieut,  and  Adjt. 

8.  S.  R.  Street,  Corporal,  Co.  K. 

Second  Regiment.  169 

regiment  appeared  like  a  lot  of  cripples,  the  raw  hide  having 
curled  and  shrunk  in  the  most  uncomfortable  way. 

At  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg,  December  13, 1862,  the  Second 
Regiment  was  on  the  right,  and  not  engaged,  except  in  receiving 
the  enemy's  fire  of  shell.  The  casualties  in  the  regiment  were 
regarded  as  few,  but  were  more  than  the  losses  of  any  regiment 
in  the  great  battles  of  the  present  decade.  Burnside,  not  liking 
the  greeting  he  received  on  the  south  side  of  the  river,  re-crossed, 
and  allowed  us  to  prepare  our  winter  quarters  in  security. 

The  spring  of  1863  found  the  regiment  hard  at  work  getting 
into  shape  again.  All  the  duties  of  camp  were  thoroughly  ob- 
served. The  men  of  the  Second  were  distinguished  for  their 
bearing,  and  when  detailed  for  any  detached  service  their  famil- 
iarity with  every  duty  was  noticeable. 

A  most  valuable  corps  of  sharp-shooters  was  created  for  the 
brigade  by  taking  forty  men  from  each  regiment.  This  corps, 
under  Major  D.  W.  Hurtt,  Friday  before  the  battle  of  Chan- 
cellorsville,  received  the  compliments  of  General  (Stonewall) 
Jackson,  who  was  looking  on  when  it  drove  the  enemy's  line 
across  a  field  and  captured  some  prisoners.  Ramseur  mentions 
Major  Hurtt  and  his  skirmishers  in  his  official  report. 

The  Second  was  doing  picket  duty  on  the  Rappahannock 
when  the  enemy,  under  Hooker,  began  his  movement  by  the 
right  flank. 

Friday  morning  the  regiment,  under  Colonel  W.  R.  Cox,  was 
moved  up  towards  Chancellorsville,  driving  in  the  enemy's  out- 
posts. That  night  it  lay  so  near  the  opposing  line  all  orders  s^ere 
given  in  the  lowest  tones.  The  parole  or  sign  and  countersign 
were  employed — the  first  time  in  our  experience.  "  Liberty"  was 
the  parole  "And  Independence"  the  countersign.  Its  use  was 
dangerous,  except  among  the  most  intelligent  and  .steady  men. 
To  have  lefii  out  the  "and"  that  night  would  have  cost  a  man  his 

Saturday  the  memorable  march  of  Jackson's  Corps  was  made, 
encircling  the  enemy's  right  flank  and  bringing  us  upon  the 
backs  of  Siegel's  men  about  sunset.     In  the  early  morning  the 

170  North  Cakolina  Tkoops,  1861-'65. 

Second  halted  in  the  road  immediately  opposite,  where  a  few 
feet  from  us  sat  General  Lee  and  General  Jackson,  and  we  wit- 
nessed the  ceremonious  salutations  among  officers  of  high  rank 
in  the  field.  What  became  of  Siegel's  Corps  is  a  matter  of  his- 
tory. The  honors  were  with  our  generals  that  day.  The  next 
day  the  men  with  the  guns  were  entitled  to  the  glory. 

General  Grimes,  then  commanding  the  Fourth  Eegiment,  has 
given  an  account  of  why  we  charged,  and  who  should  have 
charged,  mentioning  that  "three  companies  of  the  Second  Regi- 
ment charged"  at  the  same  time  and  with  his  regiment.  Seven 
companies  of  the  Second  charged,  but  they  went  in  echelon,  the 
left  leading  and  going  far  beyond  the  enemy's  breastworks, 
while  the  right  did  not  reach  it.  Our  going  forward  in  this 
order  was  by  General  Ramseur's  command.  Ramseur  had  just 
parted  from  Grimes,  and  given  orders  to  go  forward.  As  he 
approached  our  left  he  said:  "Forward,  Second!"  The  three 
captains  stood  half-faced  to  the  right,  with  eyes  upon  Colonel 
Cox,  who  was  plainly  in  view,  waiting  for  his  command,  as  in 
duty  bound.  The  men  in  the  line  were  stooping  like  athletes 
when  General  Ramseur  said:  "Forward  at  once!"  The  three 
companies  got  the  word  first  and  dashed  forward  at  top  speed, 
encouraged  to  believe  that  the  fastest  charge  is  the  safest. 
Colonel  Cox,  as  soon  as  he  understood  the  movement,  led  all 
forward  except  three  companies  on  the  right,  which  were  neces- 
sary to  protect  our  flank.  We  drove  the  enemy  from  his  works 
and  down  a  hill,  uncovering  his  batteries,  which  then  had  full 
play  on  us  at  two  hundred  yards.  We  silenced  the  guns 
immediately  in  front,  but  the  enfilading  fire  was  most  disastrous. 
The  regiment,  although  successful  in  driving  the  enemy,  lost 
three-fourths  of  those  present  within  about  fifteen  minutes — 
three  hundred  out  of  four  hundred. 

A  short  time  before  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville  the  color- 
guard  of  the  regiment  was  reformed,  consisting  of  a  sergeant  and 
a  corporal  from  each  company.  Kindred  Lewis  was  the  ser- 
geant selected.  Every  member  of  the  regiment  looked  with 
pride  upon  this  splendid  young  soldier  and  his  companions  who 

Second  Regiment.  171 

stood  beside  him.  Tall,  erect,  in  action  like  the  herald  Mer- 
cury, he  bore  high  the  blue  saltier  on  its  field  of  crimson. 
When  the  command  "Charge!"  was  given,  he  rushed  forward 
to  mount  the  wall  of  the  enemy's  defense.  In  that  moment  every 
member  of  the  color-guard  was  shot,  and  Lewis,  who  had  leaped 
upon  the  wall,  fell  forward  on  the  outer  side,  killed  instantly. 
The  regiment  returned  sadly  to  camp. 

The  next  campaign  was  into  the  enemy's  country.  At  Gettys- 
burg, on  the  first  day  of  the  battle  (July  1, 1 863),  the  Second  Regi- 
ment moved  into  the  town,  and  was  in  Rodes'  Division  when  he 
occupied  Oak  Hill,  breaking  the  enemy's  line  and  throwing  him 
into  confusion.  The  skirmishers  of  the  brigade  engaged  a  Penn- 
sylvania regiment  on  the  streets  of  the  town  and  took  its  flag 
from  the  color-bearer.  Major  Hurtt  was  severely  wounded  and 
Ed.  McLacklan  killed.  The  second  day  the  brigade  was  in 
advance  to  the  stonewall  on  Cemetery  Hill.  Ramseur  asked 
to  be  allowed  to  push  forward  and  secure  the  position,  but  there 
were  reasons  why  it  could  not  be  done. 

On  the  retreat  the  corps  halted  at  Hagerstown,  where  General 
Cullen  A.  Battle,  of  Alabama,  who  had  just  won  the  wreath  of 
a  general  officer  by  the  very  highest  service  in  the  field,  was 
requested  to  announce  to  the  troops  that  Pembertou  had  sur- 
rendered Vicksburg  to  Grant.  The  effect  of  the  news  of  the 
disaster  was  to  make  the  troops  wish  to  renew  the  battle  at  once. 
Upon  the  return  to  Virginia  the  Second  was  engaged  at  Mine 
Run  and  at  Kelly's  Ford,  where  we  were  unfortunate  enough 
to  lose  many  of  our  best  men  by  wounds  and  by  capture.  Com- 
panies B,  F  and  K  were  on  picket  duty,  and  not  receiving  timely 
support,  were  the  heaviest  losers. 

Winter  quarters  were  chosen  at  Orange  Court  House. 

Early  in  the  spring  of  1864  Grant  began  his  "On  to  Richmond" 
campaign  by  way  of  Spottsylvania,  and  met  with  such  resistance 
as  the  world  never  saw  in  the  open  field.  The  weakening  of  a  part 
of  the  line  under  General  Edward  Johnson  being  known,  Han- 
cock seized  the  opportunity  and,  under  cover  of  a  fog,  at  dawn 
drove  Johnson  back,  capturing  most  of  his  command.     Then 

172  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

came  the  crowaing  glory  of  the  career  of  Ramseur's  Brigade — 
the  same  faithful  few — the  Second,  the  Fourth,  the  Fourteenth 
and  the  Thirtieth.  Ordered  into  the  breach,  they  drove  the  enemy 
out  of  the  angle  just  taken  and  back  through  every  line  to  his 
formidable  breastworks,  reclaiming  all  our  lost  ground. 

At  Chancellorsville  the  brigade  received  through  General  Lee 
a  message  of  praise  from  the  dying  lips  of  General  Jackson.  On 
the  field  at  Spottsylvania,  General  Lee  directed  Ramseur  to 
thank  his  men,  and  to  say  that  they  had  saved  that  part  of  his 

Ramseur  was  made  Major-General,  and  Cox,  under  whose 
command  we  had  fought  since  South  Mountain,  was  given  a 
brigade.  Happily  for  us,  it  was  the  old  brigade,  and  we  were 
destined  always  to  fight  under  his  direction. 

On  May  22d  we  had  a  sharp  fight  at  Hanover  Junction,  and 
at  Cold  Harbor,  June  2d,  we  were  hotly  engaged  and  lost  severely. 

Soon  after  our  struggle  with  Grant  we  were  ordered  to  Lynch- 
burg to  meet  Hunter,  who  had  come  up  the  Valley  of  Virginia. 
Other  troops  had  preceded  us,  but  we  followed  down  the  Valley 
and  sent  our  skirmishers  into  Harper's  Ferry  on  the  4th  of  July 
to  feast  on  the  dinner  prepared  by  the  United  States  officers  for 
"  the  day  we  celebrate." 

General  Early,  in  whose  corps  we  then  were,  turned  to  the 
eastward,  toward  Washington.  At  the  Monocacy  River  our 
march  was  impeded  for  a  short  time  by  General  Lew  Wallace, 
of  "Ben  Hur"  fame.  He  gave  us  several  hundred  prisoners  before 
flying  behind  the  defenses  of  the  city.  Our  regiment  came  in 
view  of  Washington,  but  it  was  not  to  be  supposed  we  could 
take  a  city  of  such  size  and  so  defended.  After  our  return  to 
Virginia  we  had  a  sharp  and  bloody  engagement  at  Castleman's 
Ford  on  the  Shenandoah,  near  Perryville,  under  General  Cox. 
Here  the  noble-hearted  Stallings  fell.  The  enemy  had  the  ad- 
vantage of  position  after  we  had  driven  him  back,  and  he  could 
not  be  dislodged. 

Winchester,  Fisher's  Hill,  Cedar  Creek — these  were  bloody 
battles,  and  never  did  the  steadfast  courage  of  our  men  show 

Second  Eegiment.  173 

more  conspicuously  than  on  these  fields.  Moving  about  under 
the  dreadful  hail  of  shell  and  shot,  charged  by  the  thundering 
cavalry  of  Sheridan,  their  lines  overlapped,  no  reserves  to  fall 
back  upon,  their  beloved  leaders,  Rodes,  E,araseur,  Stallings, 
dead,  and  Cobb  perhaps  fatally  wounded,  they  never  lost  their 
grim  determination,  but  fought  in  every  direction,  and  kept  to- 
gether, whether  driving  the  enemy  or  retreating  before  over- 
whelming numbers. 

At  Winchester,  under  Rodes,  we  went  to  the  support  of 
Ramseur,  and  drove  the  enemy  across  the  hills  until  so  far  ad- 
vanced we  were  recalled.  In  the  retreat  from  Winchester  the 
brigade,  under  Cox,  held  the  enemy  in  check  and  saved  the 
artillery  corps. 

At  Fisher's  Hill  the  division  was  commanded  by  General  C. 
A.  Battle.  The  men  of  the  Second  remember  him  and  his  mag- 
nificent brigade  with  kindest  feeling  and  admiration,  whether 
fighting  one  another  with  snow  balls  or  by  their  sides  fighting 
the  enemy  of  our  country.  Lieutenant  Richard  D.  Hancock 
commanded  the  regiment.  The  brigade,  under  Cox  (it  was 
known  as  Cox's  Brigade  from  the  battle  of  Spottsylvania,  12th 
May,  1864),  after  fighting  all  day  against  fearful  odds,  withdrew 
intact  at  the  close  of  the  day. 

The  Second  Regiment  suffered  severely  in  this  fight. 

Ramseur  took  command  of  the  division  after  Fisher's  Hill. 
No  general  officer  was  ever  nearer  to  the  hearts  of  his  men  than 
Ramseur.  He  came  to  the  brigade  with  his  arm  hanging  use- 
less at  his  side  from  a  wound  received  in  1862,  and  soon  won 
the  aff^ectionate  regard  of  every  man  in  his  command. 

"He  was  as  full  of  valor  as  of  kindness; 
"Princely  in  both." 

Within  one  month  of  the  battle  of  Winchester,  after  an  all- 
night  march,  we  came,  at  dawn,  upon  Crook's  Corps.  With  a  few 
regiments  fresh  enough  to  meet  with  the  cavalry  and  present  an 
unbroken  front  to  the  enemy,  we  could  have  swept  the  Valley. 
Cox's  Brigade  captured  more  prisoners  than  his  brigade  num- 

174  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

bered,  and  sent  thousands  flying  down  the  Yalley.     But  Rani- 
seur's  Division  could  do  no  more. 

In  the  three  battles  within  a  month  we  were  much  reduced  in 
numbers,  and  in  such  a  charge  as  Cedar  Creek,  where  the  enemy 
was  flying,  and  in  the  subsequent  encounters  of  the  day,  when  the 
field  was  lost,  our  men  were  much  scattered.  New  Market  was 
the  place  appointed  for  rendezvous,  where  all  the  living  came 
together  again. 

The  division  from  this  time  was  commanded  by  General 
Bryan  Grimes,  a  worthy  successor  to  such  commanders  as  Hill, 
Rodes  and  Ramseur,  our  former  division  generals.  It  was  under 
Grimes  and  Cox  and  James  T.  Scales  that  the  regiment  gave 
the  final  proof  of  their  quality.  The  battle  in  the  snow  in  the 
Valley,  November  22d,  was  full  of  hardships.  Pursuing  cavalry 
on  foot,  with  shoes  that  hardly  held  to  their  feet,  was  painful  in 
the  extreme. 

In  December  the  Second  Regiment  came  near  Richmond  and 
took  part  in  the  hard  campaign  before  Petersburg.  Toward  the 
end  of  March  the  division  made  a  briHiant  charge,  driving  the 
enemy  from  his  works  and  capturing  twelve  pieces  of  artillery 
and  a  number  of  prisoners.  The  troops  of  the  division  on  the 
1st  of  April  were  at  their  former  trade,  retaking  the  works  from 
which  others  had  been  driven,  and  restoring  the  line,  and  on  the 
6th  covering  the  retreat  of  the  army  and  keeping  the  enemy  in 
check  by  desperate  fighting  throughout  the  day. 

Grimes  seemed  to  possess  a  charmed  life,  always  to  be  seen  in 
the  most  exposed  positions.  The  bullets  were  apparently  unable  to 
reach  him.  Cox,  equally  reckless  of  personal  danger,  was  not  so 
fortunate.  He  received  five  wounds  at  Chancellorsville  alone,  be- 
sides many  others  at  different  tiaies.  We  always  looked  upon 
General  Cox  as  of  our  regiment  (we  were  never  separated),  and 
his  history  is  the  story  of  the  Second  Regiment.  He  appeared 
to  the  clear  eyes  and  honest  heart  of  Ramseur  as  "the  manly 
and  chivalrous  Cox,  of  the  Second  North  Carolina,  the  accom- 
plished gentleman,  splendid  soldier  and  warm  friend,  who, 
though  wounded  five  times,  remained   with   his  regiment  until 

Second  Regiment.  175 

exhausted."  Such  was  his  character  in  the  eyes  of  the  men  of 
the  Second. 

On  April  7th  a  charge  was  ffiade  for  the  relief  of  Mahone, 
who  was  hard  pressed.  The  enemy  was  driven  back  and  a 
number  of  prisoners  captured.  General  Lee  again  expressed  his 
appreciation  of  the  conduct  of  the  North  Carolinians.  The  Gen- 
eral seemed  to  have  the  gift  of  prophecy^  and  gave  the  North 
Carolinians  on  the  field  the  meed  of  praise  which  was  to  be  long 
withheld  in  the  history  of  their  country. 

The  8th  was  spent  in  marching  towards  Appomattox,  which 
was  passed  during  the  night.  Sunday,  the  9tfa  of  April,  found 
the  regiment  in  front  of  the  town,  where  it  engaged  the  enemy, 
and  were  driving  him  when  withdrawn  and  ordered  to  join  the 
other  divisions  of  Gordon's  Corps. 

Then  the  last  scene  of  the  greatest  drama  of  modern  times — 
the  surrender,  the  cry  of  mortification,  the  curse  of  defiance,  the 
tears  of  sorrow  for  our  friends  slain  in  battle,  and  above  all,  the 
noble  words  of  our  great-hearted  leader:  "Human  fortitude 
should  be  above  human  calamity!" 

The  highest  claim  to  distinction  that  any  man  in  this  country 
can  make  is  that  he  enlisted  for  the  defense  of  his  State  at  the 
first  call  to  arms,  and  fought  with  the  armies  in  the  field  to  the 
last  day  at  Appomattox. 

All  whose  names  are  not  inscribed  on  that  last  immortal  roll 
are  envious  of  the  honor.  The  officers  and  soldiers' of  the  Second 
paroled  at  Appomattox  were: 

Officers — William.  R.  Cox,  James  Turner  Scales,  Robert 
H.  Jones,  Richard  D.  Hancock,  Garry  Fulghum,  Larry  B. 
Boyette,  William  J.  Street,  William  T.  Faircloth,  William  B. 
Bell,  Samuel  P.  Collier. 

Company  A — John  E.  Banner,  James  G.  Burt. 

Company  B— Elliot  Todd,  W.  C.  Batts,  Thomas  Flowers, 
Hodge  Bass,  Raiford  Fulghum,  Charles  Maddry,  Irvin  Boykin, 
Bunyon  Stett,  John  C.  Wells,  Wiley  Statt,  John  Renike,- 
Simeon  Moore. 

176  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-66. 

Company  C — Furney  Herald. 

Company  D — Benjamin  A.  Howard,  J.  T.  Edmundson,  John 
W.  Fort,  Franklin  Webb,  Harris  Lamb,  Leary  B.  Lamb,  Wil- 
liam Mumford,  James  T.  Mitchell,  William  J.  L.  Mears. 

Company  E — L.  R.  Colley,  L.  W.  Hackett,  John  Sills,  John 
T.  Warren. 

Company  F— Daniel  Lane,  David  Johnson,  James  Brinkley, 
Lewis  C.  Taylor,  John  A.  Poteat,  Erasmus  F.  Page,  Robert  J. 

Company  G — John  Saunders,  H.  H.  Young,  Stephen  Alli- 

Company  I — George  W.  Fulghum,  John  Austin,  David 
Powers,  A.  C.  Powell. 

Company  H — Jacob  Williams,  Robert  Williams,  Warren 
Corbett,  William  B.  Pike. 

Every  man  who  came  safely  through  to  that  day  should  be 
entitled  to  wear  a  badge  indicating  the  distinction;  then  on 
every  ninth  of  April  "should  their  names,  familiar  in  our  mouths 
as  household  words,  be  freshly  remembered." 

Matt.  Manly. 

New  Bern,  N.  C, 

April  9,  1900. 


1.  Gaston  Meares,  Colonel.  5.  John  F.  S.  VanBokkclen,  Capt.,Co.  D. 

2.  Wm.  Lord  BeRosset,  Colonel.  C.  John  Cowan,  Captain,  Co.  D. 

3.  E.  H.  Cowan,  Lieut.-Colonel.  7.  James  I.  Metts,  Captain,  Co.  G. 

4.  William  M.  Parsley,  Lieut.-Colonel.  8.  Rev.  Geo.  Patterson,  D.D.,  Chaplain. 

9.    Thomas  F.  Wood,  Assistant  Snrgeon. 


JOHN  COWAN,  Captain  Company  D. 
JAMES  I.  METTS,  Captain  Company  G. 

The  Third  North  Carolina  Infantry,  like  all  of  the  other  regi- 
ments sent  by  North  Carolina  to  the  field  in  the  late  civil  war, 
wrote  for  itself  and  the  people  from  whom  it  came,  upon 
the  field,  retrieving  lost  but  perilous  positions  in  battle,  in  the 
bivouac,  upon  the  march,  as  well  as  in  its  number  of  slain  and 
wounded,  a  history,  which  hitherto  locked  up  in  the  memory  of  its 
members,  remains  as  yet,  a  score  and  a  half  of  years  since  the 
eventful  Appomattox,  to  be  recited. 

A  proud  boast  it  is  of  the  sons  of  the  "  Old  North  State"  that 
they  are  not  trumpeters  of  their  own  achievements,  whether  in 
the  forum,  in  legislative  hall,  or  upon  the  field  of  battle;  and 
who  can  gainsay,  since  the  colonization  of  the  area  which  is 
now  bounded  by  the  State  lines  of  North  Carolina,  that  they 
have  stood  the  peers  of  any  with  whom  they  came  in  contact? 
So  especially  did  the  spirit  of  Christian  charity,  "in  honor  pre- 
ferring one  another,"  inspire  her  soldiers  from  1861  to  1865. 
Fired  by  an  emulative  zeal  to  attain  unto  the  highest  perfection 
of  duty,  they  recognized  the  common  cause  of  all  Confederate 
soldiers.  They  were  so  imbued  with  that  spirit  of  magnanimity, 
that  rather  than  pluck  one  laurel  from  the  crown  which  adorned 
the  brow  of  their  fellow-soldiers,  they  vied  with  each  other  in 
adding  to  that  emblem  of  triumph. 

So,  the  history  of  one  regiment  of  North  Carolina  Troops  is 
the  history  of  another,  save  in  the  details  which  mark  their 
respective  achievements  in  the  different  spheres  in  which  fortune 
called  them  to  move.     If  encomiums  of  commanders,  congrat- 


178  NoETH  Caeolina  Teoops,  1861-'65.     ■ 

ulatory  orders  for  duty  under  the  most  disheartening  and  adverse 
circumstances,  and  the  indisputable  facts  of  deeds  accomplished 
count  for  naught,  then  only  are  the  North  Carolina  soldiers 
without  a  record.  Histories  may  have  been  published,  false  in 
conception  and  untrue  in  statement,  "the  conceits  of  a  warmed 
or  overweening  brain,"  but  the  steadfast  faith,  the  admiring  gaze 
has  been  riveted  upon  the  soldiery  of  North  Carolina  from 
Maryland  to  Texas. 

Yea,  more;  some  who  have  written  from  another  than  our 
stand-point,  who  saw  the  conflict,  its  course  and  operations 
through  different  lenses  than  those  of  the  Southern  side  have, 
in  their  impartial  judgment,  accorded  the  highest  word  of  praise 
to  North  Carolina  Troops.  The  hillocks  of  Virginia,  the 
swamps  of  Georgia,  the  sands  of  the  beach  are  mute  cenotaphs 
of  her  dead.  Unparalleled  in  their  devotion  to  the  Union,  they 
were  devout;  loyal  to  the  cause  of  the  Confederacy,  they  were 

Figures  are  the  most  potent  arguments  in  establishing  the 
truth  or  falsity  of  any  proposition  or  cause. 

This  regiment,  one  of  ten  authorized  by  the  Constitutional 
Convention,  enlisted  for  the  war,  and  was  composed  of  field  offi- 
cers, Gaston  Meares,  Colonel;  Robert  H.  Cowan,  Lieutenant- 
Colonel;  William  L.  DeRosset,  Major,  all  of  Wilmington,  N.  C, 
and  comprised  the  following  companies : 

Company  A  was  raised  in  Greene  county,  and  commanded  by 
Captain  Robert  H.,  Drysdale. 

Company  B  was  raised  in  Duplin,  and  commanded  by  Cap- 
tain Stephen  D.  Thruston,  M.  D. 

Company  C  was  raised  in  Cumberland,  and  commanded  by 
Captain  Peter  Mallett.  , 

Company  D  was  raised  in  Wilmington,  and  commanded  by 
Captain  Edward  Savage. 

Company  E  was  raised  in  Onslow,  and  commanded  by  Cap- 
tain M.  L.  F.  Redd. 

Company  F  was  raised  in  Wilmington,  and  commanded  by 
Captain  William  M.  Parsley. 

Third  Regiment,  179. 

Company  G  was  raised  in  Onslow,  and  commanded  by  Cap- 
tain E.  H.  Rhodes. 

Company  H  was  raised  in  Bladen,  and  commanded  by 
Captain  Theo.  M.  Sikes. 

Company  I  was  raised  in  Beaufort,  and  commanded  by 
Captain  John  R.  Carmer. 

Company  K  was  raised  in  New  Hanover  (now  Pender),  and 
commanded  by  Captain  David  Williams. 

The  several  companies  were  ordered  to  assemble  at  Garys- 
burg;  and  in  the  latter  part  of  May  they  began  to  report  to  the 
officer  in  charge  of  the  camp.  A  portion  of  the  Third  was  or- 
dered to  Richmond  early  in  July,  where  it  was  joined  some 
weeks  later  by  the  remaining  companies.  A  few  days  after  the 
first  battle  of  Manassas  the  regiment  was  ordered  to  report  to 
Major-General  T.  H.  Holmes  at  Acquia  Creek,  and  went  into 
camp  near  Brooks'  Station,  on  the  Richmond,  Fredericksburg 
&  Potomac  Railroad,  later  moving  camp  to  a  point  near  the 
Potomac  River.  As  winter  approached,  having  meantime  built 
substantial  quarters,  they  took  up  their  abode  therein  immedi- 
ately in  rear  of  the  lower  battery  of  those  constructed  for  the  de- 
fense of  Acquia  Creek.  Upon  the  evacuation  of  the  line  of  the 
Potomac,  the  Third  North  Carolina,  with  the  First,  was  ordered 
to  Goldsboro  to  meet  an  expected  advance  of  Burnside  from  New 
Bern,  remaining  thereabouts  until  early  in  June,  1862.  In  May, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Cowan  having  been  promoted  to  the  colon- 
elcy of  the  Eighteenth  North  Carolina  Infantry,  Major  DeRos- 
set  was  made  Lieutenant-Colonel  and  Captain  Savage,  Major. 

It  was  with  sincere  regret  that  the  regiment  parted  with  Col- 
onel Cowan;  the  officers  and  men  of  the  command  loved  him, 
and  he  Was  recognized  as  the  one  as  much  as  any  other  by  whom 
the  regiment  had  been  brought  to  its  efficiency  in  discipline  and 
especially  in  drill.  The  esteem  in  which  he  was  held  was  mani- 
fested by  the  regiment  by  the  presentation  upon  his  departure  ot 
a  magnificent  horse. 

The  First  and  Third  North  Carolina  Troops  were  under  the 

180  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

same  brigade  commanders  from  first  to  last;  but,  unfortunately, 
were  brigaded  with  troops  from  other  States  until  the  capture 
at  Spottsylvania  Court  House,  1864,  of  so  many  of  the  regi- 
ment, and  never  received  proper  meed  for  their  achievements. 
First,  Colonel  John  G.  Walker  was  assigned  to  command  the 
brigade,  then  consisting  of  the  First  and  Third  North  Carolina 
and  the  Thirtieth  Virginia  and  First  Arkansas.  The  regi- 
ment having  been  ordered  to  Richmond,  arrived  on  the  battle- 
field of  Seven  Pines  just  after  the  battle  had  been  fought.  Here 
it  remained  for  several  weeks,  chiefly  on  picket  duty,  with  an 
occasional  skirmish  with  the  enemy,  losing  several  of  its  men. 
While  here  a  new  brigade  was  formed,  composed  of  the  First 
and  Third  North  Carolina,  the  Fourth  and  Forty-fourth  Geor- 
gia, and  Brigadier-General  R.  S.  Ripley  was  assigned  to  its 
command,  Major-General  D.  H.  Hill  being  in  command  of  the 

The  march  from  Richmond  was  most  trying  to  the  raw  troops 
of  the  brigade,  who  had  not  then  received  their  baptism  of  fire. 
Passing  thousands  of  dead  and  wounded  from  the  time  they  left 
the  cars  until  they  arrived  on  the  battlefield,  the  groans  and 
cries  of  the  wounded  were  not  calculated  to  inspire  the  boys  with 
a  martial  spirit. 

During  the  period  from  that  date  to  the  opening  of  the  battles 
around  Richmond  the  command  was  in  camp  about  six  miles 
from  Richmond,  drilling  and  preparing  for  the  summer  cam- 

Late  in  the  evening  of  June  25,  1862,  Colonel  Meares  re- 
ceived orders  to  march,  and  proceeding  early  next  morning  in  a 
northerly  direction,  we  halted  on  the  high  hills  on  the  south  of 
the  Chickahominy  where  it  is  crossed  by  the  Mechanicsville  pike. 

On  the  26th  of  June,  after  a  circuitous  and  fatiguing  night 
march,  the  regiment  arrived  in  the  vicinity  of  Mechanicsville. 
Here  a  detail  of  one  company  from  each  regiment  was  made,  and 
Lieutenant-Colonel  DeRosset,  of  the  Third,  was  placed  in  com- 
mand. The  object  of  this  select  battalion  was  to  clear  the  way 
and  examine  the  bridge  across  the  Chickahominy.    (A  mine  was 

Thibd  .  Regiment.  181 

thought  to  have  been  placed  under  it  by  the  enemy).  In  order 
to  understand  its  duties  more  fully,  its  officers  were  sent  to  the 
top  of  the  hill  near  by,  from  which  could  be  seen  the  route  in-^ 
tended,  etc.  On  this  hill,  and  in  range  of  the  enemy's  guns,  a 
group  of  distinguished  Confederates  were,  assembled,  composed 
of  President  Davis,  Mr.  Randolph  (Secretary  of  War),  Generals 
Lee,  Longstreet  and  D.  H.  Hill,  waiting  to  hear  General  Jack- 
son's guns  on  the  north  side  of  Mechanics ville  before  ordering 
an  advance. 

General  Jackson  being  delayed,  General  Lee  ordered  an  ad- 
vance of  this  portion  of  the  line  after  hearing  the  guns  of  Gen- 
eral'A.  P.  Hill  at  Meadow  Bridge.  After  the  battalion  alluded 
to  had  examined  and  crossed  the  bridge,  and  cleared  the  field  of 
skirmishers,  Ripley's  Brigade  having  been  selected  as  the  as- 
saulting column,  was  ordered  across  the  bridge  and  to  form  a 
line  of  battle.  It  advanced  to  the  attack  in  front  of  the  splen- 
did artillery  of  the  enemy  strongly  posted  across  the  pond  at 
Ellyson's  Mills.  The  regiment  pressed  forward  in  the  face  of 
this  heavy  fire  in  open  field  for  more  than  a  mile,  advancing 
steadily  to  what  seemed  inevitable  destruction,  until  it  reached  the 
top  of  the  hill,  when  a  halt  was  ordered,  bayonets  fixed,  and  a 
charge,  led  by  Colonel  Meares,  was  made  down  the  hill,  which 
was  checked  by  the  canal;  and  after  lying  down  a  short  while,  the 
regiment  was  ordered  to  the  right  and  rear,  and  up  the  hill, 
taking  shelter  in  a  skirt  of  woods,  where  we  remained  until  just 
before  daybreak.  We  were  so  near  the  enemy  that  the  least 
noise,  even  the  snapping  of  a  twig,  provoked  their  fire.  From 
thence,  before  day,  we  marched  to  Mechanicsville  and  were 
placed  in  line  of  battle  under  a  heavy  artillery  fire  in  the  rear  of 
the  Eighteenth  North  Carolina  Infantry,  until  the  enemy  were 
driven  from  their  works  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  creek.  The 
Third  North  Carolina  lost  perhaps  less  than  either  of  the  other 
regiments.  Major  Savage  being  the  only  one  of  the  field  ofiScers 

Joining,  after  the  battle,  the  forces  of  General  Jackson,  the 
command  was  marched  by  a  circuitous  route  to  Cold  Harbor,  or 

182  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Gaines'  Mill,  where  the  battle  took  place  on  the  afternoon  of 
June  27th.  Here  the  regiment,  under  the  command  of  Colonel 
Meares,  with  the  exception  of  a  small  portion  which  had  some- 
how become  detached,  was  exposed  to  a  musketry  and  a  very 
severe  artillery  fire,  and  endured  the  ordeal  known  among  all 
soldiers  to  be  the  most  trying  to  which  they  are  subjected,  that 
of  being  under  fire  without  being  engaged  in  the  fight.  March- 
ing thence,  after  two  or  three  days'  delay,  the  brigade  found 
itself  in  front  of  one  of  the  bridges  over  the  Chickahominy,  which 
had  been  destroyed  by  the  enemy  on  the  south  side,  who  had 
crossed  the  day  before  on  the  famous  "  grape-vine "  bridge,  some 
distance  above. 

Here,  being  exposed  to  the  enemy's  fire  of  artillery  without 
the  means  of  replying,  Ripley  was  withdrawn  into  a  heavy 
woods  on  the  northwest  side  of  the  road,  lying  there  all  day 
under  the  artillery  fire,  at  times  very  annoying,  but  with  little 
loss.  This  was  the  day  of  the  battle  of  Frazer's  Farm,  a  few 
miles  lower  down  the  stream. 

Next  day,  the  enemy  having  withdrawn  and  the  bridge  hav- 
ing been  repaired,  Ripley  crossed  and  marched  on  Malvern  Hill, 
arriving  there  at  noon,  and  was  posted  immediately  in  the  rear 
of  what  was  known  as  the  Parsonage,  on  the  near  side  of  the 
road  leading  by  Malvern  Hill,  and  on  the  left  of  the  army.  Be- 
ing ordered  to  advance,  the  whole  line  moved  forward  up  the 
hill,  across  the  parsonage  yard,  into  the  road  beyond.  Being 
under  a  most  terrific  fire  of  musketry  and  canister,  and  in  close 
proximity  to  the  enemy  stationed  in  an  open  field  in  front,  the 
left  of  the  regiment  penetrated  the  woods  beyond,  into  the  open 
field,  where  it  engaged  the  enemy,  making  several  charges 
upon  him,  led  by  Captain  David  Williams,  of  Company  K,  and 
causing  the  battery  in  front  to  move  back.  To  Captain  Williams 
and  his  men  great  praise  should  be  accorded  for  their  gallantry. 
The  right  of  the  regiment,  then  in  the  road,  after  firing  several 
rounds,  was  ordered  by  Colonel  Meares  to  lie  down.  At  this 
point  Captain  Parsley,  of  Company  F,  was  wounded  iu  the  neck, 
fell,  and  Colonel  Meares,  being  very  near,  went  to  him.     The 

Third  Regiment.  183 

regiment  was  thrown  into  some  confusion  prior  to  reaching  this 
position,  owing  to  the  fact  that  the  Parsonage  and  yard  referred 
to  were  an  obstruction. 

About  an  hour  before  dusk  word  came  from  the  left  that  Cap- 
tain Brown,  commanding  the  First  North  Carolina,  was  hard 
pressed,  and  wanted  assistance,  when  the  gallant  Colonel  Meares 
gave  the  command  to  move  by  the  left  flank.  He,  being  on  foot 
in  the  road  in  front  of  the  line,  upon  reaching  a  point  near  the 
left  of  the  Third,  stopped,  and  mounting  the  bank  on  the  side  of 
the  road,  was  using  his  field-glass  surveying  the  Federal  lines, 
when  he  was  instantly  killed  by  a  slug  from  a  shrapnel  fired 
from  a  battery  directly  in  front,  said  to  be  the  Third  Rhode 
Island  Battery,  not  over .  seventy-five  yards  distant.  Colonel 
Meares  was  a  digflified  and  elegant  gentleman  and  a  true  type  of 
a  soldier.  Kind,  humane,  intrepid,  he  always  commanded  the 
admiration  of  his  regiment,  for  in  him  they  recognised  a  leader 
who  would  lead. 

Night  came  at  last  to  end  this  bloody  and  disastrous  struggle, 
though  the  firing  was  kept  up  until  about  11  o'clock.  Darkness 
revealed  the  explosive  balls  which  the  Yankees  fired  at  us,  as 
they  struck  the  fences  in  front  and  rear  and  the  undergrowth.  The 
removal  of  the  wounded  back  to  Bethesda  Church,  our  hospital, 
was  pushed  with  vigor.  So  great  was  the  loss  of  all  commands 
in  the  field  and  road  that  one  could  walk  hundreds  of  yards  on 
the  dead  and  wounded  without  touching  the  ground. 

The  next  day  the  dead  of  these  two  regiments,  the  First  and 
Third,  were  found  nearer  to  those  of  the  enemy  than  were  those 
of  any  other  troops  on  this  part  of  the  line,  proving  that  they 
approached  nearer  the  enemy's  line  of  battle  than  any  of  the 
regiments  that  fought  on  this  part  of  the  field.  The  regiment 
suffered  heavily  in  this  engagement.  The  Third  held  its  posi- 
tion during  the  night  and  bivouacked  near  that  point  for  several 
days,  when  the  brigade  was  ordered  back  to  the  old  camping- 
grounds  nearer  Richmond.  Ripley  lay  in  camp  for  several 
weeks,  while  details  were  made  to  work  on  the  intrenchments  in 

184  North  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

our  front  and  for  several  miles  down  towards  the  Chickahominy, 
and  other  details  gathered  arms  from  several  battlefields. 

In  the  latter  part  of  July,  Colonel  DeRosset  returned  from 
Ealeigh,  and  brought  with  him  four  hundred  conscripts,  who 
were  at  once  divided  into  squads,  and,  under  command  of  non- 
commissioned officers,  were  drilled  several  hours  daily.  This 
not  only  helped  to  discipline  the  raw  levies,  but  hardened  them 
somewhat,  thus  enabling  them  the  better  to  stand  the  strains  in- 
cident to  the  march  into  Maryland,  which  soon  followed. 

About  the  9th  of  August  the  regiment  moved  in  the  direction 
the  army  had  taken,  passing  the  battlefield  of  Cedar  Mountain, 
and  was  in  reserve  at  second  Manassas  and  Chantilly.  After- 
wards it  crossed  the  Potomac  at  Point  of  Rocks  and  camped  near 
Frederick,'^Md.,  where  it  remained  for  several  days,  then  crossed 
the  South  Mountain  at  Crampton's  Gap  and  remained  at  Boons- 
boro  until  the  14th,  when  it  participated  in  the  battle  of  the 
gap,  Ripley's  Brigade  marched  by  a  road  leading  towards  the 
Boonsboro  and  Sharpsburg  pike.  On  reaching  a  point  on  the 
crest  of  the  hill,  just  after  crossing  the  Antietam  on  the  stone 
bridge,  the  command  was  placed  in  line  of  battle  under  the  hill, 
the  right  of  the  Third  North  Carolina,  in  the  absence  of  the 
Fourth  Georgia,  on  the  right  of  the  bridge,  and  resting  on  the 
Boonsboro  pike.  This  was  on  the  evening  of  the  15th,  and  the 
brigade  remained  in  that  position  until  the  evening  of  the  16th, 
under  a  heavy  artillery  fire  from  the  enemy's  guns  on  the  side  of 
the  creek,  but  without  loss,  being  well  protected  by  the  crest  of 
the  hill  under  which  they  lay. 

We  now  give  in  full  the  graphic  account  of  the  battle  of 
Sharpsburg,  written  by  Colonel  S.  D.  Thruston. 


On  the  evening  of  the  16th  September,  1862,  being  in  line 
of  battle  in  front  of  the  town  of  Sharpsburg,  a  little  be- 
fore sunset  we  were  moved,  left  in  front,  from  this  position, 
along  the  Sharpsburg- Hagerstown  pike,  some  distance  to  the 
left,  until  reaching  the   mouth   of  a  lane  (apparently  a  private 

Third  Eegiment.  185 

road  leading  to  a  farm)  leading  in  a  generally  perpendicular 
direction  from  the  pike  to  the  Antietam;  following  this  lane  a 
short  distance,  we  again  filed  to  the  left,  across  the  field  and 
halted  under  the  brow  of  a  hill,  on  which  and  in  front  was  a 
white  farm-house  (Mumma's)  about  two  hundred  yards  distant. 
A  little  to  the  right  and  rear  of  this  honse  was  an  apple  orchard 
surrounded  by  a  rail  fence.  In  this  position  we  slept,  to  be 
aroused  at  early  dawn  of  the  17th  by  the  guns  of  the  enemy. 
Before  advancing  to  the  attack  the  house  was  set  on  fire  by  order 
of  General  Hill,  three  men  from  the  Third  North  Carolina  In- 
fantry— Lieutenant  Jim  Clark  was  one  of  the  three,  also  Jim 
Knight — volunteering  to  perform  the  duty. 

The  order  to  advance  was  then  given,  and  we  moved  up  the 
slope  of  the  hill  until  reaching  the  fence  around  the  orchard, 
where  we  halted  to  give  time  for  the  left  centre  of  the  brigade  to 
pass  the  obstruction  of  the  burning  house.  (It  was  at  this  fence 
Ripley  was  hit  in  the  throat).  The  house  being  passed,  the 
Third  North  Carolina  Infantry  mounted  over  the  fence  and 
through  the  orchard,  when  the  order  was-  given  to  change  direc- 
tion to  the  left,  to  meet  the  pressure  upon  General  Jackson,  near 
what  is  known  as  the  Dunkard  Church,  on  the  Sharpsburg- 
Hagerstown  pike.  This  change  of  front  was  admirable,  though 
executed  under  a  heavy  fire  of  infantry  and  artillery.  Owing  to 
this  change  our  line  of  battle  was  five  hundred  yards  further  to 
the  left  than  that  of  the  early  morning,  when  first  ordered  to  ad- 
vance, which  brought  us  in  close  connection  with  the  troops  of  the 
right,  and  in  the  deadly  embrace  of  the  enemy.  I  use  the  word 
embrace  in  its  fullest  meaning.  Here  Colonel  DeRosset  fell, 
severely  wounded,  and  permanently  disabled,  Captain  Thruston 
taking  command  at  once. 

It  was  now  about  7 :  30  A.  m.  Jackson's  troops  were  in  the 
woods  around  and  west  of  the  Dunkard  Church  and  north  of  the 
Sharpsburg-Hagerstown  pike.  As  we  came  up  he  advanced  and 
drove  the  enemy  back  across  a  corn  field  and  into  a  piece  of 
woods  east  and  north  of  the  church;  here  the  enemy,  being  re- 
inforced by  Mansfield's  Corps  of  three  divisions,  returned  to  the 

186  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

assault,  and  the  fight  became  desperate  for  an  hour.  The  two 
weak  divisions  of  Jackson  aud  one  brigade  of  D.  H.  Hill  fought 
and  held  in  check  the  six  divisions  of  Hooker  and  Mansfield.  So 
tenaciously  did  these  brave  troops  cling  to  the  earth,  that  when 
re-inforced  by  Hood  and  two  brigades  of  D.  H.  Hill,  they  were 
still  north  of  the  pike  and  contending  for  every  inch  of  ground 
between  it  and  the  corn  field  in  front.  At  the  moment  when 
their  ammunition  was  absolutely  exhausted,  and  all  had  been 
used  from  the  boxes  and  pockets  of  their  wounded  and  dead 
comrades,  the  re-inforcements  of  Hill  and  Hood,  above  referred 
to,  came  up  and  stayed  the  tide  for  a  short  time.  Now  Sumner, 
with  his  three  divisions,  put  in  an  appearance,  when  our  thin 
lines  were  slowly  pressed  back,  by  weight  of  numbers,  into  the 
woods  and  beyond  the  church  to  the  edge  of  a  field  to  the  south, 
through  which  the?  divisions  of  Walker  and  McLaws  were 
hurrying  to  our  assistance.  When  the  Third  North  Carolina 
laid  down  on  the  edge  of  the  field  to  allow  their  friends  to  pass 
over  them  to  the  front,  there  was  not  one  single  cartridge  in  the 
command,  and  every  gun  was  empty.  It  was  now  about  10:30 
o'clock  A.  M.,  so  that  the  men  of  this  gallant  regiment  had  been 
fighting  vast  odds  for  three  hours,  never  quitting  the  field  until 
absolutely  pushed  off,  and  not  then  until  every  cartridge  of  the 
living  and  the  dead  had  been  exhausted. 

One  curious  incident  of  this  morning's  battle  was  when  Mans- 
field's Corps  came  into  action  a  Federal  division  marched  up, 
and  halting  in  column  of  battalions  in  the  west  woods,  part  of 
the  time  within  one  hundred  yards  of  the  right  of  the  Third 
North  Carolina,  made  no  effort  to  advance,  although  for  five 
hundred  yards  to  our  right  there  was  nothing  to  prevent  its 
doing  so.  Nor  did  this  division  make  any  show  of  resistance 
until  attacked  b^  Colquitt's  and  Garland's  Brigades  (the  latter 
under  Colonel  D.  K.  MacRae),  when  we  were  re-inforced  by 
General  Hill.  The  only  grounds  upon  which  we  can  account 
for  this  are  that  this  division  was  covering  the  movements 
of  Richardson  and  French,  who  were  preparing  to  assault  our 
centre,  now  desperately  weakened,  at  a  point  now  known  as  the 

Thied  Regiment.  187 

"Bloody  Lane."  This  conjecture  is  based  on  the  fact  that  these 
two  divisions  did  make  an  attaclc  at  that  point  a  short  time  after 
Hill  had  sent  his  two  brigades  from  that  position  to  re-inforce 
the  left,  and  just  as  Walker  came  to  the  relief  of  Hill.  It  is  a 
fact,  that  for  five  hundred  yards  on  our  right,  that  is,  from  the 
right  of  the  Third  North  Carolina  to  the  left  of  Hill,  there  was 
a  gap  in  our  lines,  directly  in  front  of  which,  in  the  early  part 
of  the  engagement,  a  Federal  division  halted  and  remained 
halted  until  it  was  filled  by  a  part  of  Walker's  Division.  The 
gap  existed,  and  the  enemy  was  expected  every  minute  to  march 

In  the  June  "Century"  Longstreet  (page  313)  speaks  of  Col- 
onel Cooke's  holding  a  fence  without  ammunition,  while  his  staff 
(Longstreet's)  fought  two  guns  of  the  Washington  Artillery. 
He  does  not  say  that  while  working  the  guns  the  Third  North 
Carolina,  having  refilled  its  cartridge-boxes,  and  going  to  the 
front  a  second  time,  volunteered  to  relieve  Colonel  Cooke's 
Twenty-seventh  North  Carolina,  and  while  doing  so  two  more 
full  batteries  also  came  to  his  relief,  from  whose  duels  with  the 
enemy  the  Third  North  Carolina  suffered  severely.  He  says 
nothing  about  my  message  to  him  by  Lieutenant  Craig,  who 
rather  exaggeratingly  delivered  it  thus :  "  Captain  sends  his 
compliments,  and  requests  re-inforcements,  as  he  has  only  one 
man  to  every  panel  of  fence,  and  the  enemy  is  strong  and  very 
active  in  his  front,"  and  his  reply :  "  Tell  Captain  Thruston  he 
must  hold  his  position  if  he  has  only  one  man  to  every  sixteen 
panels  of  fence.  I  have  no  assistance  to  send  him."  Nor  does 
he  say  how  faithfully  this  order  was  obeyed,  by  which  the  regi- 
ment remained  on  that  hill  and  under  that  fence,  with  the  rails 
of  which  the  enemy's  artillery  played  battle-dore  and  shuttle- 
cock from  midday  of  the  17th  until  10  o'clock  A.  M.  of  the  18th, 
with  not  so  much  as  one  drop  of  water.  Yet  these  are  facts, 
and  stand  a  monument  to  the  soldierly  endurance  of  the  Third 
North  Carolina  on  the  memorable  field  of  Sharpsburg. 

It  was  while  riding  with  General  D.  H.  Hill  on  the  morn- 
ing of  the  18th,  to  obtain  a  regiment  to  relieve  the  Third  North 

188  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Carolina  from  that  position  at  the  fence,  that  he  said:  "Your 
regiment  fought  nobly  yesterday."  The  words  are  well  remem- 
bered, as  we  all  know  that  a  compliment  from  General  Hill  was 
of  the  rarest  sort. 

The  tenacity  with  which  the  Third  Regiment  held  its  ground 
in  front  of  the  Dunkard  Church,  entirely  unsupported  on  its 
right,  and  with  a  very  thin  line  on  its  left,  with  three  separate  lines 
of  the  enemy  pelting  it  mercilessly  in  front  and  a  reserve  column 
standing  like  a  hound  in  the  leash  on  its  immediate  right,  wait- 
ing its  chance  to  pounce  upon  it  as  soon  as  any  wavering  was 
seen;  its  steadiness  when  ammunition  began  to  run  short,  and 
the  cartridge-boxes  and  pockets  of  the  wounded  and  dead  were 
emptied  to  meet  its  necessities;  the  sullen  backward  step,  as  inch 
by  inch  it  was  pressed  from  its  line,  all  pronounce  it,  with  voices 
loud,  a  fearless,  enduring,  self-reliant  body  of  as  glorious  men 
as  were  ever  led  to  battle.  Every  man  seemed  to  know  and  feel 
the  responsibility  of  his  position ;  seemed  to  know  that  there  was 
no  help  to  send  him,  and  that  he  must  do  or  die  until  relief 
had  time  to  reach  him  from  the  rear,  or  Lee's  army  was  doomed. 

And  how  thoroughly  was  that  duty  performed.  Twice,  be- 
fore any  relief  or  re-inforeements  came,  did  the  regiment,  when 
reduced  to  a  handful,  but  that  handful  dauntless,  stand  and 
receive  the  volleys  of  the  Federals  at  twenty  paces,  and  then, 
with  a  yell,  dash  and  drive  back  the  foe.  As  Colquitt's  Brigade 
dashed  in  splendidly  on  our  right,  the  joyful  yell :  "  Come  on, 
boys;  we've  no  ammunition,  but  we  will  go  with  you!"  was 
heard  over  the  din  of  battle.  But  human  endurance  has  a  limit. 
At  this  moment  the  third  re-inforcement,  in  the  shape  of  Sum- 
ner's Corps,  was  marched  to  the  Federal  assistance,  and  our 
brave  boys  were  forced  stubbornly  and  sullenly  from  the  field. 
Their  duty  was  nobly  done;  their -sacrifice  had  enabled  Walker 
and  McLaws  to  come  up,  and  the  day  was  saved. 

Thus  was  fought,  and  successfully,  the  battle  of  thg  Third 
North  Carolina  Infantry  at  Sharpsburg;  and  if  it  had  been  re- 
tired from  service  and  had  not  fired  another  gun,  the  endurance 
fearlessness,  tenacity  and  valor  of  that  day  would  have  been  a 

Third  Eegiment.  189 

crown  of  glory  suitable  to  adorn  the  brow  of  the  bravest  of  the 
brave.  In  truth,  this  one  North  Carolina  regiment  was  in  the 
vortex  of  the  fire,  the  pivot  upon  which  success  or  annihilation 
turned,  and  thank  God,  it  stood  the  test  and  saved  the  day. 

Of  the  twenty-seven  officers  who  went  into  action  on  that 
memorable  morning  all  save  three  were  disabled  and  seven  killed. 
Captain  McNair,  of  Company  H,  was  badly  wounded  in  the  leg 
early  in  the  day,  but  refused  to  leave,  although  urged  to  do  so 
by  the  Colonel,  and  soon  after  gave  up  his  life-blood  on  his 
country's  altar. 

The  official  report  of  the  division  commander  gives  the  loss  in 
the  Third  North  Carolina,  but  it  is  less  than  was  reported  at  the 
close  of  the  day  by  Lieutenant  J.  S.  F.  Van  Bokkelen,  acting 
Adjutant,  who  stated  that  of  the  five  hundred  and  twenty  car- 
ried into  action  only  one  hundred  and  ninety  could  be  accounted 

Ripley's  Brigade,  after  bearing  the  brunt  of  the  battle,  was 
ordered  to  retreat,  the  enemy  not  pursuing.  The  manner  of  this 
retreat  was  slow  and  in  order,  and  under  General  Hill's  personal 
supervision.  Observing  an  abandoned  caisson,  he  (Hill)  ordered 
the  soldiers  to  remove  it  from  the  field,  remarking :  "  We  will 
not  leave  the  enemy  so  much  as  a  wheel."  We  continued  the 
retreat  to  the  Dunkard  Church,  on  the  Hagerstown  road,  where, 
after  being  supplied  with  ammunition,  our  lines  were  reformed, 
the  enemy  making  no  further  demonstration  on  that  day.  The 
following  day  the  troops  rested  on  the  field,  in  plain  view  of  the 
enemy's  lines,  and  during  the  night  crossed  the  swollen  Potomac 
at  Shepherdstown,  marched  to  Bunker  Hill,  where  they  biv- 
ouacked for  several  weeks,  being  employed  in  watching  the 
enemy  and  tearing  up  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Railroad  at  night, 
near  Martinsburg,  Charlestown  and  Harper's  Ferry. 

After  resting  several  weeks  in  the  lower  valley  the  army 
moved  by  way  of  New  Market  Gap,  passing  Orange  Court 
House  in  the  direction  of  Fredericksburg.  While  in  bivouac 
for  the  night  near  Gordonsville,  General  Hill  issued  orders  re- 
quiring company  commanders  to  see  that  the  bare-footed  men 

190  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

made  moccasins  for  themselves  of  the  hides  just  taken  from  the 
beeves,  and  the  brigade  continued  its  march  to  Port  Royal,  on 
the  Rappahannock,  whpre  it  remained  for  several  days.  On  the 
morning  of  the  12th  of  December  the  troops  moved  back  in  the 
direction  of  Fredericksburg,  marching  the  greater  part  of  the 
night,  and  reached  Hamilton's  Crossing  on  the  morning  of  the 
13th.  This  regiment  was  in  the  second  line  until  the  evening 
of  the  first  day,  when  it  took  position  in  the  first  line.  The 
enemy  being  driven  back,  we  lay  on  the  field,  anticipating  an- 
other furious  battle,  and  "  bitterly  thought  of  the  morrow,"  but 
no  blood  was  shed  this  day.  The  enemy  sent  a  flag  of  truce  on 
the  14th,  asking  permission  of  General  Jackson  to  remove  his 
dead  and  wounded.  The  enemy  retreated,  and  thus  ended  the 
first  battle  of  Fredericksburg. 

After  this  the  regiment  built  and  occupied  winter  quarters  on 
the  Rappahannock,  near  Skinker's  Neck.  Here  we  spent  the 
winter  of  1862-'63  on  picket  duty  along  the  river.  While  sta- 
tioned at  this  point  this  regiment,  which  had  been  in  Major- 
General  D.  H.  Hill's  Division,  was  now  changed  to  Jackson's  old 
division,  commanded  by  Major-General  Trimble,  and  our  gal- 
lant Georgia  comrades,  the  Fourth  and  Forty-fourth  Regiments, 
were  exchanged  for  the  Tenth,  Twenty-third  and  Thirty-seventh 
Virginia  Regiments.  These  regiments,  with  the  First  and  Third 
North  Carolina,  formed  a  new  brigade,  and  Brigadier-General 
R.  E.  Colston  was  assigned  to  command  it. 

Lest  the  continuity  in  the  promotion  of  the  field  officers  should 
not  be  apparent  to  all,  and  especially  such  as  are  unacquainted 
with  the  military  gradation  below  the  rank  of  a  general  officer, 
we  formulate  it  with  the  following  result :  After  the  death  of 
Colonel  Meares  at  Malvern  Hill,  Lieutenant-Colonel  DeRosset 
was  promoted  to  Colonel,  Major  Savage  became  Lieutenant- 
Colonel,  and  Captain  S.  D.  Thruston,  Major.  You  will  observe 
in  Colonel  Thruston's  account  of  :the  battle  of  Sharpsburg  (not 
report,  as  it  appears,  for  it  was  written  some  years  after  the 
war)  that  he  refers  to  himself  as  Captain;  his  commission  as 
Major  had  not  then  reached  him,  owing  to  the  rapid  and  uncer- 

Third  Eegiment.  191 

tain  direction  of  the  movements  of  the  army,  and  consequently 
the  greater  uncertainty  of  the  mails.  It  not  infrequently  hap- 
pened that  commissions  were  dated  months  prior  to  their  being 
received  by  officers  in  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  for  whom 
they  were  intended.  Subsequent  to  the  battle  of  Sharpsburg 
Colonel  Savage  resigned  on  account  of  ill  health,  Major  Thi'us- 
ton  then  became  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Captain  William  M. 
Parsley  was  promoted  to  Major.  Subsequently  Colonel  DeRosset 
resigned  his  commission,  having  been  disabled  by  a  wound  re- 
ceived at  Sharpsburg.  By  regular  gradation  then  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Thruston  became  Colonel,  Major  Parsley  became  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, and  Captain  W.  T,.  Ennett  was  promoted  to 
Major.  Such  was  the  personnel  of  the  field  officers  prior  to  the 
battle  of  Chancellorsville,  in  May,  1863,  and  so  it  remained 
until  the  close  of  the  war.  The  regiment  was  ever  after  this- 
time  commanded  either  by  Colonel  Thruston  or  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Parsley,  as  further  narration  will  show,  save  for  three 
days  after  the  death  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Parsley,  which  oc- 
curred April  6,  1865,  and  until  the  surrender,  April  9,  1866, 
when  Major  Ennett  was  in  command. 

On  the  29th  of  April,  1863,  this  regiment,  commanded  by 
Lieutenant-Colonel  S.  D.  Thruston,  left  its  camp  at  Skinker's 
Neck  and  marched  to  Hamilton's  Crossing,  thence  in  the  direc- 
tion of  Chancellorsville.  On  the  2d  of  May,  Saturday  morning, 
was  commenced  that  grand  strategic  movement  which  has  since 
been  the  wonder  and  admiration  of  the  world.  Rapidly  march- 
ing around  the  enemy's  lines  to  his  right  and  rear,  crossing  the 
plank-road  and  arriving  on  the  old  turnpike  about  4  o'clock  p.  M., 
two  and  a  half  miles  west  of  Chancellorsville,  having  marched 
in  all  more  than  fifteen  miles  in  a  few  hours,  and  about  five 
miles  in  a  direct  line  from  the  starting  point  in  the  morning, 
Jackson's  Corps  had  been  detached  from  the  main  body  of  the 
army  to  make  this  attack. 

Regimental  commanders  were  ordered  to  march  in  rear  of 
their  regiments,  with  a  guard  of  strong  men  with  fixed  bayonets, 
to  prevent  straggling.     Immediately  on  arriving  at  the  stone 

192  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-66. 

road  the  troops  were  formed  in  three  lines  of  battle,  Colston's 
Brigade  being  in  the  second  line.  The  order  to  advance  was 
obeyed  with  promptness.  Rushing  on  toward  the  enemy's 
camp,  the  first  scene  that  can  be  recalled  is  the  abundant  supply 
of  beef  and  slaughtered  rations  cooking.  The  Federal  General 
Schiramelfennig's  Brigade  suffered  heavily  as  prisoners.  The 
whole  affair  was  a  wild  scene  of  triumph  on  our  part.  Thus  we 
continued  the  pursuit  until  night,  when  the  enemy  made  a  stand 
within  a  mile  of  the  Chancellor  house.  Here  great  confusion 
ensued.  The  two  front  lines  having  become  mingled,  were 
halted  and  reformed.  Shortly  after  it  was  charged  by  a  com- 
pany of  Federal  cavalry,  which  proved  to  be  a  part  of  the  Eighth 
Pennsylvania.  The  greater  portion  of  them  were  unhorsed  and 
captured.  This  was  a  critical  period  in  the  battle,  and  General 
Jackson  seemed  unusually  anxious.  The  iighting  was  kept  up 
until  night,  when  this  regiment  was  relieved  and  put  in  the 
second  line,  and  during  the  first  part,  and  even  up  to  midnight, 
they  were  exposed  to  a  terrific  cannonading.  Our  men  were 
completely  exhausted  from  the  forced  march  and  the  three  or 
four  hours  of  brisk  fighting.  Our  position  had  to  be  changed 
from  the  time  that  we  were  placed  in  the  second  line  until  about 
midnight,  and  most  of  the  time  without  avail,  until  the  enemy's 
fire  ceased,  before  our  men  could  get  any  rest.  They  would 
locate  our  troops  in  the  second  line  and  so  time  the  fuses  that 
their  shells  would  explode  just  over  our  heads. 

On  Sunday,  the  3d  instant,  the  regiment  was  formed  on  the 
right  of  the  road,  and,  advancing,  captured  the  first  line  of  the 
enemy's  works — a  barricade  of  huge  logs  with  abatis  in  front. 
The  portion  of  these  works  that  crossed  a  ravine  and  swamp, 
and  which  was  favorable  to  the  occupancy  of  the  enemy,  was 
assaulted  three  times  by  the  Confederates  before  it  was  finally 
held.  During  one  of  these  assaults  Colonel  Thruston  was 
wounded,  and  the  command  devolved  upon  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Parsley,  who  remained  in  command  during  the  campaign  of 
1863,  known  as  the  Pennsylvania  campaign.  This  regiment 
participated  in  the  last  two  of  these  charges.     It  was  then  that 

Third  Eegiment.  193 

General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  who  was  in  command  (Generals  Jack- 
son and  Hill  having  been  wounded  on  the  evening  before),  or- 
dered the  whole  line  forward.  The  enemy's  earth-works  in  front 
were  carried  by  storm,  and  many  pieces  of  artillery,  which  had 
occupied  them,  were  captured.  We  were  now  in  full  view  of 
the  Chancellor  house,  and  the  captured  guns  were  turned  on 
the  fleeing  enemy.  Soon  the  Chancellor  house  was  in  flames, 
and  a  glorious  victory  perched  upon  our  banners. 

The  Confederate  line  was  again  moved  forward,  and  executed 
a  wheel  to  the  left,  bringing  this  brigade  and  regiment  immedi- 
ately to  the  Chancellor  house,  hence  this  brigade,  which  had 
been  commanded  since  early  in  the  day  by  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Brown,  of  the  First  North  Carolina  Infantry,  the  other  ofiicers 
of  the  brigade  ranking  him  having  been  wounded,^was  the  first 
of  the  Confederate  troops  to  reach  the  Chancellor  house.  Dur- 
ing one  of  these  assaults  alluded  to  above,  this  brigade'i^became 
detached  from  the  division,  and  when  it  arrived  at  the  Chancel- 
lor house  was  between  two  of  Major-General  Rodes'  brigades. 
On  the  6th  the  brigade  marched  to  U.  S.  Ford.  While  here  the 
enemy  was  permitted  by  General  Lee  to  lay  a  pontoon  bridge 
and  send  over  .about  one  thousand  ambulances  to  the  battlefield 
of  Chancellorsville  for  his  wounded.  The  ofiicers  of  this  regi- 
ment and  brigade  acted  on  the  part  of  the  Confederates  to  carry 
out  these  negotiations,  General  Sharp,  Deputy  Provost  Marshal 
of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  acting  on  the  part  of  the  enemy. 
A  whole  week  was  consumed  in  effecting  this  object,  after  which 
the  brigade  was  removed  and  operations  resumed.  The  troops 
now  returned  to  the  vicinity  of  Fredericksburg. 

Early  in  June,  1863,  soon  after  the  Chancellorsville  battle, 
Major-General  Edward  Johnson  was  assigned  to  command  the 
Stonewall  Division  and  General  George  H.  Stewart,  Colston's 
Brigade.  The  division  was  now  composed  of  Paxton's,  or  the 
First  Brigade,  known  as  the  Stonewall  Brigade;  Jones',  or  the 
Second  Brigade;  and  Colston's,  now  George  H.  Stewart's,  the 
Third  Brigade,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Parsley  being  in  command 
of  the  Third  Eegiment. 

194  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

The  army  now  marched  in  the  direction  of  Winchester,  cross- 
ing the  Blue  Ridge  at  Chester  Gap  and  participating  in  the  bat- 
tle of  Winchester  on  the  13th  and  14th  June,  1863.  This  bri- 
gade marched  all  night,  and  by  indirect  route  arrived  at  day- 
light on  the  15th  five  miles  below  Winchester.  This  movement 
was  intended  to  intercept  and  capture  the  fleeing  troops  of  Gen- 
eral Milroy,  who  had  been  driven  from  Winchester  on  the  pre- 
vious evening.  After  a  sharp  contest  at  Jordan  Springs  more 
than  twenty-five  hundred  of  the  enemy  threw  down  their  guns. 
This  engagement,  though  of  short  duration,  was  decidedly  of  an 
active  character  on  both  sides,  and  this  regiment,  as  was  its 
wont,  was  in  the  thickest  of  the  fray.  In  this  battle  George 
Rouse,  of  Company  D,  was  killed,  and  Lieutenant  Craig  and 
others  wounded.  Our  position  being  in  a  railroad  cut,  we  were 
in  a  great  measure  protected  from  the  enemy's  bullets.  While 
Stewart's  Brigade /om^i'/i^  the  battle,  a  guard  from  the  Stonewall 
Brigade  was  sent  to  Richmond  with  the  prisoners,  and  were 
highly  commended  for  gallantry,  which  praise  belonged  to  this 

On  the  18th  June,  1863,  the  regiment  crossed  the  Potomac  at 
Shepherdstown  and  encamped  near  the  Dunkard  Church,  in  a 
piece  of  woods  embraced  in  the  battlefield  of  Sharpsburg. 

While  here  and  in  the  quietude  of  twilight,  when  all  nature 
seemed  to  be  in  repose,  and  so  emblematic  of  those  weary  souls 
which  slept  peacefully  under  the  sod  of  this  spot,  made  so  mem- 
orable by  the  heroism  displayed  by  them  scarcely  a  twelvemonth 
ago,  the  First  and  Third  Regiments  assembled,  and  with  arms 
reversed  and  to  the  roll  of  the  muflied  drum  marched  to  the  bat- 
tlefield, where  the  Rev.  George  Patterson,  Chaplain  of  the  Third, 
read  the  burial  services.  A  detail  of  men  under  the  command 
of  Lieutenant  James  I.  Metts  (afterwards  Captain)  had  previ- 
ously during  the  day  fired  a  military  salute  over  the  spot  where 
their  bodies  were  buried.  Upon  this  solemn  occasion  many 
tears  stole  down  the  bronzed  cheeks  of  the  old  veterans,  and  all 
heads  were  bowed  in  grief. 

From  this  camp  the  regiment,  with  the  brigade,  marched  via 

Third  Eegiment.  195 

HagerstowD  to  Chambersburg,  Greencastle  and  McConnelsburg, 
to  the  vicinity  of  Carlisle,  from  which  point  we  counter-marched, 
and  after  a  very  long  and  tiresome  march,  on  the  1st  of  July, 
1863,  arrived  at  Gettysburg  about  7:30  o'clock,  and  filed  to 
the  left,  nearly  encircling  the  town.  Here  we  lay  in  line  of  bat- 
tle until  the  evening  of  the  2d,  when  about  6  o'clock  we  were 
ordered  forward.  We  were  on  the  right  of  the  brigade  and  were 
ordered  to  connect  our  right  with  the  left  of  Nichols'  (La.)  Bri- 
gade, and  at  the  same  time  by  yvheel  to  the  right  to  properly 
prolong  their  lines.  We  did  so,  thereby  in  some  degree  discon- 
necting our  regiment  from  the  rest  of  the  brigade.  We  contin- 
ued to  the  front,  driving  the  enemy's  skirmishers  before  us  with- 
out trouble,  and  with  very  little  loss,  until  we  met  his  line  of 
battle  at  his  first  line  of  breastworks.  He  was,  however, 
driven  from  those,  and  soon  thereafter  we  received  a  front  and 
oblique  fire  from  behind  his  second  line  of  breastworks,  to 
which  he  had  fallen  back.  He  was  soon  driven  from  the  por- 
tion from  which  we  received  the  oblique  fire,  and  then  the  fire 
from  the  front  seemed  even  more  terrific.  A  steady  firing  was 
kept  up  until  10  o'clock  p.  M.,  when,  as  by  common  consent,  it 
ceased,  re-opening  at  4:30  o'clock  next  morning.  We  here 
found  our  ammunition  nearly  exhausted,  some  men  having  not 
more  than  two  rounds.  We  partially  refilled  our  cartridge-boxes 
from  those  of  the  dead  and  wounded,  of  whom  there  was  a  great 
number,  and  held  this  position  that  night  and  the  next  morning, 
exposed  to  a  terrific  fire  until  about  10:30  o'clock  p.  m.,  when 
we  were  ordered  to  move  by  the  left  flank  along  the  line  of  the 
captured  breastworks,  and  to  cross  them  and  form  line  with  the 
rest  of  the  brigade  to  charge  the  enemy's  works  on  what  was  sup- 
posed to  be  his  right  flank.  The  few  men  then  remaining  in 
the  regiment  were  formed  on  the  right  of  the  brigade  and  very' 
soon  thereafter  were  ordered  forward,  the  line  advancing  beauti- 
fully under  the  heaviest  fire,  until  we  found  our  regiment  alone 
moving  to  the  front,  unsupported,  when  the  officers  and  men 
were  ordered  to  withdraw,  which  was  done  slowly  and  without 
confusion,  the  regiment  being  greatly  reduced  (one  company — 

196  North  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Captain  John  Cowan's — and  part  of  another  being  detached  to 
fill  up  a  space  between  the  regiment  and  the  Louisiana  brigade). 
Too  much  praise  cannot  be  given  to  the  officers  and  men  of  our 
command  for  their  coolness  and  bravery,  for  the  promptness 
with  which  they  obeyed  all  orders  given  them,  and  their  untiring 
zeal  generally.  The  enemy  was  driven  back  to  the  Baltimore 
turnpike  in  this  charge  by  Stewart's  Brigade,  which  came  so 
near  inflicting  a  critical  blow  on  the  enemy's  extreme  right  flank. 
Had  this  gallant  movement  been  supported  the  charge  of  Long- 
street  would  not  have  been  necesssary. 

That  last  charge  on  the  third  day  was  a  cruel  thing  for  the 
Third.  They  had  borne  their  full  share  of  the  engagement,  not 
even  enjoying  the  protection  of  the  works  they  had  captured 
from  the  enemy,  by  reason  of  their  position,  other  regiments  of 
the  brigade  happening  by  the  fortunes  of  the  battle  to  have  them 
(breastworks)  in  their  front.  There  they  stood,  heroes,  holding 
their  ground  unprotected,  receiving  a  most  deadly  fire,  giving  in 
turn,  like  true  soldiers,  what  they  could  from  their  decimated 
ranks,  most  of  their  comrades  being  already  down,  dead  or 
wounded,  until  ordered  to  the  right  to  join  the  balance  of  the  bri- 
gade to  participate  in  the  charge. 

The  battle  of  Gettysburg  is  generally  conceded  to  have  been 
the  hardest  fought  battle  of  the  war  on  either  side;  at  least  of 
those  in  which  General  Lee's  army  was  engaged.  This  regiment 
certainly  suffered  more  in  killed  and  wounded  than  in  any  of 
the  many  battles  in  which  it  was  engaged.  What  fearful  slaugh- 
ter it  endured  is  shown  beyond  peradventure  by  the  figures. 
Entering  the  battle  with  three  hundred  guns,  it  was  greatly 
reduced  by  the  killing  and  wounding  of  two  hundred  and  twenty- 
three  men.  When  the  regiment  was  mustered  after  the  battle, 
seventy-seven  muskets  were  all  that  could  be  gotten  in  the  ranks, 
and  it  lost  no  prisoners  and  had  no  stragglers.  The  loss  was 
within  a  fraction  of  seventy-five  per  cent.  Colonel  Parsley, 
Captain  E.  H.  Armstrong  and  Lieutenant  Lyon  were  the  only 
officers,  perhaps,  not  killed  or  wounded. 

Next  day  we  turned  our  faces  toward  Virginia,  and  after  sev- 

Third  Regiment.  197 

eral  skirmishes  and  hard  marches,  arrived  at  Williamsport,  Md., 
and  forded  the  swollen  Potomac  on  the  15th,  the  men  having  to 
put  their  cartridge-boxes  on  their  bayonets  to  keep  them  above 
the  water.  After  various  marches  via  Front  Royal  and  Page 
Valley,  and  with  some  skirmishing,  we  reached  Orange  Court 
House  early  in  August  and  participated  in  the  Bristow  cam- 
paign in  October,  1863,  with  an  occasional  skirmish  with  the 

Prior  to  going  into  winter  quarters,  while  in  bivouac,  the 
order  was  given  about  noon  of  November  27th  for  the  march 
instanter,  probably  to  go  in  force  on  a  reconnoitering  expedition, 
as  the  sequel  would  seem  to  show.  However,  on  the  first  and 
only  day  of  the  march,  about  3  o'clock  p.  m.  on  November  27, 
1863,  the  battle  of  Payne's  Farm  was  fought  by  Johnson's  Di- 
vision, of  which  this  regiment  formed  a  part.  This  was  de- 
cidedly one  of  the  most  unique  battles,  in  all  the  details  con- 
nected with  it,  in  the  annals  of  warfare,  being  conducted,  seem- 
ingly, regardless  of  tactical  evolutions.  A  body  of  troops  march- 
ing slowly  along  a  country  road,  with  no  idea  that  their  progress 
would  be  impeded  or  their  right  to  proceed  peaceably  questioned, 
indulging  in  the  characteristic  chat  which  was  usual  among 
troops  of  the  "same  persuasion,"  passing  two  or  three  cavalry- 
men dressed  in  gray,  who  had  reined  their  horse  to  the  side  of 
the  road  and  were  quietly  at  a  stand-still,  ostensibly  waiting  for 
the  column  to  pass,  and  when  questioned  by  the  men,  as  they 
would  reach  them,  as  to  the  whereabouts  of  the  enemy,  or  in  the 
usual  vernacular,  "  have  you  seen  any  Yankees  around  this  way  ?  " 
with  the  utmost  assurance  replying,  "  No,  there  are  no  Yankees 
within  miles  of  this  place."  Imagine  that  under  such  condi- 
tions, and  within  a  few  minutes  after  the  rear  of  the  column  had 
passed  the  point  where  the  cavalrymen,  who  doubtless  were' 
spies,  were  stationed,  this  small  body  of  troops  being  suddenly 
fired  upon;  what  consternation,  demoralization,  is  likely  to  ensue 
among  any  troops,  raw  or  veterans,  and  yet  these  heroes  of  many 
a  hard-fought  battle,  who  had  been  in  so  many  perilous  positions, 
stood  the  test  of  this  hazardous  situation.     Skirmishers  are  at 

198  NoKTH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

once  thrown  out,  and  meet  with  a  hot  fire.  They  are  confronted 
either  by  a  line  of  skirmishers  vastly  outnumbering  them,  or  by 
a  close  line  of  troops ;  they  are  checked  and  have  to  be  re-inforced 
to  enable  them  to  hold  their  ground.  The  enemy,  which  proved 
to  be  French's  Corps  of  infantry,  has  evidently  flanked  us,  for 
our  line  of  battle  is  immediately  formed  perpendicular  to  our 
line  of  march,  and  facing  the  direction  from  which  we  were 
marching,  and  then  begins  as  warm  a  contest  as  this  regiment 
was  ever  engaged  in  for  the  same  length  of  time.  It  seemed  as 
if  the  enemy  was  throwing  minnie-balls  upon  us  by  the  bucket- 
full,  when  the  battle  got  fairly  under  way.  The  First  and  Third 
North  Carolina  Regiments  charged  across  a  field  and  routed  the 
men  who  were  there  in  a  skirt  of  woods  and  in  their  front. 
Our  casualties  were  many  for  a  fight  of  such  short  duration. 
General  Johnson's  horse  was  killed  under  him;  he  immediately 
mounted  the  horse  of  a  courier  and  continued  the  direction  of 
the  battle.  We  drove  the  enemy  back,  completing  the  job  by 
nightfall,  and  then  pursued  our  way  to  Mine  Run.  So  adroitly 
did  General  Johnson  handle  his  troops  at  Payne's  Farm,  and  so 
successfully  did  he  extricate  them  from  the  chaotic  situation  de- 
scribed, being  further  successful  in  repelling  the  enemy  who  were, 
numerically,  by  long  odds  superior  to  his  command,  that  he  was 
complimented  in  a  special  congratulatory  order  by  General  Lee. 
Reaching  Mine  Run,  we  remained  in  line  of  battle  several 
days.  Pickets  in  force  were  of  course  kept  out  day  and  night. 
The  weather  was  as  cold  as  we  ever  experienced;  raining,  too, 
which  added  to  the  disagreeableness  of  the  situation.  The  men 
on  the  picket-line  were  almost  benumbed  with  cold,  for  fires  were 
prohibited  by  special  order,  as  if  to  emphasize  the  precarious 
situation  at  this  particular  juncture.  Officers  in  command  of 
the  picket-lines  did  endeavor,  and  successfully,  to  keep  up  the 
spirits  of  the  men;  not  that  the  men  were  wanting  in  patriotic 
fervor,  or  that  their  characteristic  fortitude  had  abated  one 
jot  or  tittle,  but  human  endurance  hath  limits,  and  poorly  fed, 
and  worse  clad,  their  sufi^ering  was  intense.  When  the  men 
were  stationed  on  the  picket-line  after  dark,  they  remained  sta- 

Third  Regiment.  199 

tionary  until  relieved  the  next  night,  and  were  expected  to  be 
the  eyes  and  ears  of  that  particular  post  or  point;  for  the  inter- 
val between  the  pickets  was  short,  and  each  man  was  required  to 
exercise  the  extremest  surveillance  over  that  part  assigned  to  him 
individually.  There  was  a  consolatory  reflection  even  at  that 
time,  founded  upon  the  hypothesis  that  "misery  loves  com- 
pany," to-wit,  the  enemy  were  in  the  same  plight  we  were. 
There  we  lay,  watching  each  other  for  several  days,  and  beyond 
an  occasional  artillery  duel,  for  a  short  time,  and  an  occasional 
fire  of  musketry  from  one  side  or  the  other  at  some  soldier 
who  was  sent  out  from  one  of  the  flanks  to  ascertain  what  he 
could,  nothing  occurred.  The  temperature  was  well  down  to 
zero  and  the  biting  cold  was  such  as  to  chill  the  warmest  resolu- 
tion, and  when  both  sides  marched  (or  stole)  away,  each  was 

This  ended  the  campaign  of  1863,  Wnd  the  regiment  built  and 
occupied  winter  quarters  near  the  Rapidan  River  and  did  picket 
duty  along  that  river  at  Mitchell's  Ford  during  the  winter 
1863-'64.  The  writers  again  find  themselves  under  special 
obligations  to  Colonel  S.  D.  Thruston,  who  has  so  vividly  de- 
scribed events  from  the  4th  to  the  10th,  when  he  was  wounded; 
and  as  he  says  in  an  elaborate  account  covering  those  seven 
days :  "  The  only  object  is  simply  to  put  upon  record,  for  history, 
those  men  and  comrades  who  at  the  time  had  no  one  to  do  that 
duty  for  them." 

On  the  morning  of  May  4,  1864,  the  brigade,  commanded 
by  General  George  H.  Stewart,  being  on  pfcket  along  the  Rapi- 
dan, discovered  the  columns  of  the  Federal  army  in  the  distance, 
moving  to  the  right,  and  apparently  to  the  river  below.  The 
order  soon  came  to  be  ready  to  move,  and  at  midday  the  brigade 
took  up  the  line  of  march  in  the  direction  of  Locust  Grove,  a 
point  on  the  old  stone  pike  running  from  Orange  Court  House 
to  Fredericksburg.  This  point  was  reached  and  passed  in  the 
evening  of  the  same  day,  and  the  brigade  went  into  bivouac 
about  two  and  one  half  miles  beyond.  The  night  was  passed  in 
quiet.     The  next  morning  (May  5th)  about  10 :30  o'clock,  a  few 

200  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

scattering  shots  being  heard  in  the  front,  the  troops  were  called 
to  arms  and  put  in  motion  towards  the  firing.  We  soon  discov- 
ered that  the  Sixth  Corps  of  the  Federal  army  was  posted  in  line 
of  battle,  while  the  remainder  of  the  Array  of  the  Potomac 
was  passing  on  the  right,  along  the  road  from  Germania  Ford, 
immediately  in  the  rear  of  this  line  to  cover  the  movement. 
Ewell's  Corps,  our  brigade  forming  a  part,  and  the  Sixth  Fed- 
eral Corps  were  then  both  in  what  was  known  and  always  called 
the  Wilderness,  the  name  being  derived  from  the  character  of 
the  land,  which  is  described  as  "covered  with  a  matted  growth 
of  scrub  oak,  stunted  pine,  sweet-gum  brush  and  dogwood,"  and 
the  two  corps  of  which  we  write  were  only  separated  by  a  few 
hundred  yards.  Stewart's  Brigade  was  in  column  on  the. pike  a 
very  few  minutes  after  the  firing  began  at  10:30  oclock  A.  M. 
Line  of  battle  was  immediately  formed  in  the  following  order: 
The  Third  North  Carolina  to  the  right,  the  First  North  Caro- 
lina across,  and  the  Virginia  regiments  to  the  left  of  the  pike. 
It  was  now  10:30  o'clock  a.  m.  (The  line  advanced  and  struck 
a  stout  line  of  Federal  infantry  in  a  thicket  of  pines  skirting  a 
field.  This  line  of  Federals  was  assaulted,  and  after  a  hard  fight 
the  Third  North  Carolina  Regiment  and  the  First  North  Caro- 
lina Regiment  captured  two  pieces  of  artillery  and  more  than  one 
hundred  prisoners.  Here  Colonel  Jenkins,  of  the  One  Hundred 
and  Forty-sixth  New  York  Regiment,  was  killed.  Lieutenant 
Shelton,  commanding  the  battery  (Battery  D,  New  York  Light 
Artillery),  the  captain,  Winslow,  having  been  wounded,  at  last 
surrendered  two  guns,  howitzers,  the  other  two  escaping.  We 
attempted  to  bring  oiF  the  two  guus  captured,  and  did  get  them 
some  distance,  but  the  enemy,  being  re-inforced,  made  an  ad- 
vance, and  we  were  in  turn  driven  back  to  our  first  position, 
leaving  the  guns  between  the  lines.  Preceding  and  up  to  the 
capture  of  the  howitzers  referred  to  the  fighting  was  des- 
perate, muskets  and  their  butt-ends  and  bayonets  being  used. 
At  one  time  there  was  such  an  intermingling  of  troops  that  con- 
fusion decidedly  predominated;  every  man  was  going  it  on  his 
own  hook,  for  it  was  a  hand-to-hand  contest.     We  recall  that 

Thied  Eegiment.  201 

in  a  gully  which  formed  a  part  of  the  topography  of  this  battle- 
field, and  which  ran  for  more  than  a  brigade  front,  Confederates 
and  Federals  were  so  nearly  on  even  terms,  or  at  equal  advan- 
tage, that  they  were  simultaneously  demanding  each  other  to 
surrender.  However  we  succeeded  in  establishing  the  superior- 
ity of  our  claim,  and  came  off  victors.  It  was  now  about 
2  o'clock  p.  M.  No  more  fighting  was  .done  on  this  front,  save 
a  few  picket  shots  and  a  feeble  attempt  of  the  enemy  late  in  the 
afternoon  to  recapture  the  two  guns,  which  still  remained  be- 
tween the  lines  and  at  a  point  to  which  we  had  pulled  them  in  the 
morning.  This  was  a  signal  failure,  and  the  repulse  was  largely 
assisted  by  the  men  of  the  First  and  Third  North  Carolina. 
After  dark  the  two  howitzers  were  brought  in  by  details  from 
the  two  North  Carolina  regiments. 

We  would  like  just  here,  and  in  connection  with  the  joint  cap- 
ture of  a  section  of  that  battery,  to  emphasize  the  afiinity  which 
obtained  between  the  First  and  Third  North  Carolina  Infantry. 
Beginning  their  military  career  together,  fate  had  not  separated 
them  for  now  three  years;  military  duty  of  whatever  kind  that 
was  assigned  to  one  befell  the  other  also;  the  glory  of  the  one 
was  the  boast  of  the  other,  the  misfortune  of  one  the  sorrow  of 
the  other;  they  achieved  renown  in  common,  they  suffered  de- 
feat together. 

In  the  early  morning  of  the  6th,  Stewart's  Brigade  was  closed 
in  to  the  left,  until  its  right  rested  on  the  pike,  with  Jones' 
(Virginia)  Brigade  on  its  right,  which  connected  with  the  left 
of  Battle's  (Alabama)  Brigade.  Several  vigorous  attempts  were 
made  during  the  day  by  the  enemy  by  attack  upon  that  quarter, 
to  force  the  line  to  the  left,  but  they  were  as  vigorously  repulsed, 
and  then  we  would  return  to  our  position  of  the  morning. 

The  morning  of  the  7th  revealed  the  enemy  gone,  and  the 
day  was  spent  by  the  men  in  congratulations.  Late  in  the  even- 
ing of  this  day  the  brigade  began  closing  or  extending — cannot 
call  it  marching — to  the  right,  which  continued  during  the  en- 
tire night,  the  men  having  no  time  for  rest  or  sleep.  The  morn- 
ing of  the  8th  dawned  bright  and  hot.     The  line  of  march  was 

202  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

taken  up  and  pushed  with  vigor,  notwithstanding  the  heat,  dust, 
parching  thirst  and  smoke  and  fire  of  burning  woods.  The 
nature  of  the  march  was  sufficient  to  convince  those  heroes  that 
their  presence  was  required  to  meet  the  foe  on  some  other  field, 
and  gallantly  did  they  toil  through  the  day.  As  the  sun  was 
hiding  behind  the  western  wood  the  brigade  was  thrown  in  line 
to  the  support  of  General  Rodes'  Division,  in  front  of  the 
Spottsylvania  court-house,  but  was  not  engaged.  After  dark  it 
marched  and  counter-marched  in  search  of  a  position,  and  at  10 
P.  M.  was  formed  in  line  and  ordered  to  throw  up  works  in  that 
salient  which  proved  so  disastrous  on  the  12th  following.  By 
daylight  of  the  9th,  in  spite  of  the  fatigue  and  loss  of  sleep  on 
the  night  of  the  7th  and  the  terrible  march  of  the  8th,  the  en- 
tire brigade,  with  no  tool  except  the  bayonet  and  tin  plate,  was 
intrenched  behind  a  good  and  defensible  rifle-pit.  This  day  was 
spent  in  strengthening  the  lines,  scouting  to  the  front,  and  that 
sleep,  so  much  needed.  The  works  or  fortifications  referred  to 
assumed  the  shape  of,  and  were  always  designated  as,  the  "horse- 
shoe." The  morning  of  the  10th  found  the  brigade  closed  to  the 
right,  connecting  with  the  left  of  Hill's  Corps,  with  Jones'  Bri- 
gade on  our  left,  occupying  the  works  in  the  salient  proper. 
Late  in  the  afternoon  Doles'  Brigade,  whose  position  was  on  the 
left  of  Jones'  Brigade,  was  attacked  about  sunset,  and  was 
pressed  back  upon  Stewart's  rear,  followed  closely  by  the  exul- 
tant enemy.  Orders  to  "Fall  in,"  "Take  arms,"  "Face  by  the 
rear  rank,"  and  "Forward"  were  repeated  in  quick  succession. 
The  brigade  responded  with  alacrity,  and  soon  was  moving 
steadily,  though  moving  in  line  of  battle  by  the  rear  rank, 
through  a  small  strip  of  woods  into  a  field  (in  which  stood  a 
dwelling),  and  there  meeting  the  enemy,  immediately  attacked. 
The  work  here  was  sharp  and  quick,  resulting  in  the  repulse  of 
the  Federals  across  and  out  of  Doles'  works  and  their  occupation 
by  Stewart.  It  was,  however,  soon  discovered  that  Stewart  did 
not  cover  Doles'  entire  front  to  the  left,  and  fifty  or  more  of  the 
enemy  were  having  a  happy  time  enfilading  the  lines.  Lieu- 
tenant Robert  Lyon,  with  Company  H,  Third  North  Carolina — 

Third  Eegimejit.  203 

the  then  left  company — was  formed  across  and  perpendicularly 
to  the  line,  and,  moving  promptly  down  the  left,  drove  them  off. 
Before  this  could  be  accomplished  the  Third  North  Carolina,  on 
the  left,  had  suffered  severely.  Many  men  were  wounded,  in- 
cluding Colonel  S.  D.  Thruston,  seriously,  and  Lieutenant 
Cicero  H.  Craige  and  Sergeant-major  Robert  C.  McRee  were 
killed.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Parsley,  of  course,  after  Colonel 
Thruston  was  wounded,  was  in  command  of  the  regiment.  The 
brigade  was  then  moved  back  to  its  original  position  and  re- 
mained inactive  throughout  the  11th.  Just  after  night-fall  of 
the  11th  the  artillery,  for  some  reason  or  other  which  was  never 
apparent  to  those  not  high  in  authority,  if  to  them,  was  removed 
from  their  position  on  this  part  of  the  line,  and  for  aught  we 
know,  from  all  parts,  the  direct  effect  of  such  withdrawal,  com- 
mencing to  be  felt  on  the  12th,  was  never  fully  recovered  from. 
We  had  great  generals,  but  they  were  human,  and  "to  err  is 
human."  At  the  peep  of  dawn  on  May  12,  1864,  dark  and 
rainy,  an  attack  was  made  by  the  Federals  en  masse  on  Jones' 
Brigade,  occupying  the  salient  angle  of  this  doomed  "horse- 
shoe," the  shock  of  which  was  felt  throughout  the  entire  Con- 
federacy. No  pen  can  adequately  portray  what  occurred  then 
and  there.  The  weather,  thus  early,  was  a  fitting  prelude  to  a 
day  that  eventuated  in  so  great  sorrow  and  anguish.  The  ele- 
ments seemed  to  portend  impending  fate — ^hopes  blasted,  aspira- 
tions crushed.  The  First  North  Carolina  was  on  the  right  of 
Jones'  Brigade,  and  their  commander,  the  brave  Colonel  Hamil- 
ton A.  Brown,  says:  "For  a  short  time  the  fighting  was  des- 
perate. The  terrific  onslaught  of  this  vast  multitude  was  irre- 
sistible, there  being  a  rectangular  mass  of  twenty  thousand  Fed- 
eral troops,  not  in  line  of  battle,  but  in  column  of  regiments 
doubled  on  the  centre,  supported  by  a  division  on  each  flank — 
in  all  more  than  thirty  thousand  concentrated  against  this  one 
point.  The  portion  of  the  works  assaulted  by  this  formidable 
column  was  little  more  than  four  hundred  yards  wide.  The 
Confederate  troops  occupying  this  angle  were  Jones'  Brigade 

204  NoETH  Carolina  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

and  the  First  North  Carolina  Eegiment,  numbering  about  two 
thousand."  The  clash  of  arms  and  the  murderous  fire  around 
this  bloody  angle  are  indescribable. 

The  enemy  sweeping  to  the  right  and  rear  of  the  fortifications 
and  striking  the  Third  North  Carolina  Regiment,  which  ad- 
joined the  First  North  Carolina,  and  capturing  that  entire  regi- 
ment, with  very  few  escapes,  pursued  their  way  into  the  lines  of 
A.  P.  Hill's  Corps,  making  many  captures  there.  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Parsley,  commanding  the  Third  North  Carolina  Infan- 
try on  that  morning,  and  who  was  captured  in  his  works,  says : 
"Stewart  faced  the  rear  rank  and  continued  to  fight  inside  the 
lines  until  a  second  column  attacked  him  in  front,  when,  find- 
ing himself  betweeen  two  fires  at  short  range,  he  was  compelled 
to  surrender."  At  what  particular  point  the  enemy  was  checked 
on  our  right  we  do  not  know,  as  we  were  captured  with  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Parsley.  The  prisoners  of  war  hauled  in  by  the 
Federals  on  that  morning  we  have  heard  estimated  at  three 
thousand,  including  Major-General  Edward  Johnson,  Brigadier- 
General  Stewart  and  other  brigadiers,  and  very  many  field  and 
line  officers.  Captain  E.  H.  Armstrong  was  killed.  Some  asper- 
sion has  been  cast,  and  that,  too,  by  one  high  in  command,  upon 
Jones'  Brigade,  for  not  holding  their  ground  when  attacked  that 
morning  (12th).  Such  a  judgment,  in  our  opinion,  is  not  only 
at  fault,  but  has  a  tinge  of  garrulous  fatuity,  or  is  predicated 
upon  malevolence.  In  the  name  of  all  that  is  reasonable,  fair, 
or  an  equitable  decision  as  to  another,  how  could  about  two 
thousand  men,  probably  less,  withstand  the  combined  attack  of 
thirty  thousand  men,  concentrated  upon  a  point  of  four  hundred 
yards,  and  resist  them  successsfully,  and  that,  too,  without  an 
important  arm  of  the  service  (the  artillery)  aiding  them,  for,  as 
we  have  said,  it  had  been  removed  from  their  front  ?  Remem- 
ber this  was  in  an  open  space.  The  breastworks  referred  to  were 
trenches,  in  depth  not  more  than  four  and  one- half  or  five  feet. 
We  have  said  this  much  in  sheer  justice  to  Jones'  Brigade,  for 
we  do  not  believe  that  any  similar  number  of  troops  could  be 

Thied  Regiment.  205 

found  anywhere  who  could  have  done  more  than  was  done  by 
them.  We  count  any  brigade  fortunate  which  was  not  exposed 
to  such  a  test. 

At  this  time  such  portions  of  the  First  and  Third  Regiments 
as  were  not  captured  on  May  12th  were  consolidated  and  placed 
in  General  W.  R.  Cox's  Brigade. 

On  the  night  of  May  21st  the  army  was  withdrawn  from  its 
position  to  meet  the  enemy,  who  had  retired  toward  the  North 
Anna.  On  the  morning  of  the  23d  we  confronted  the  enemy 
near  Hanover  Junction,  where  the  line  of  battle  was  formed  and 
earth-works  thrown  up.  May  24th  the  enemy  attacked  the  sharp- 
shooters and  drove  them  from  their  position,  but  after  a  sharp 
and  hand-to-hand  fight  for  several  minutes  they  were  driven  to 
the  opposite  side  of  the  breastworks  and  the  assault  was  con- 
tinued several  hours.  The  enemy  several  times  attempted  to 
recapture  the  works,  but  were  as  often  repulsed.  A  heavy  rain 
having  set  in  and  darkness  approaching,  the  enemy  retired. 
Shortly  after  dark  the  army  retired  towards  Richmond  to  meet 
the  enemy,  who  were  moving  in  the  same  direction.  Nothing 
save  frequent  skirmishing  occurred  until  the  afternoon  of  May 
30th,  on  which  the  battle  of  Bethesda  Church  occurred.  Further 
skirmishing  took  place  May  31st,  June  1st,  and  the  battle  of 
Gaines'  Mill,  June  2d,  and  Cold  Harbor,  June  3d,  in  all  of 
which  the  First  and  Third  (consolidated)  participated.  After  the 
battle  of  Cold  Harbor,  June  3d,  the  Second  Corps,  composed  of 
Ramseur's,  Rodes'  and  Gordon's  Divisions,  under  the  command 
of  General  Early,  was  directed  to  proceed  to  the  Valley  of  Vir- 
ginia for  the  purpose  of  destroying  or  capturing  Hunter,  who 
was  in  camp  near  Lynchburg.  General  Breckinridge  and  Major- 
General  Robert  Ransom,  commanding  the  cavalry,  were  awaiting 
our  arrival.  Hunter,  upon  learning  of  the  arrival  of  the  Confeder- 
ates on  the  18th,  under  the  cover  of  night,  made  a  hasty  retreat. 
Early  on  the  morning  of  the  19th  we  commenced  pursuit,  and 
just  before  night  overtook  the  enemy's  rear  at  Liberty,  where  a 
skirmish  ensued,  and  again  at  Buford's  Gap,  on  the  afternoon  of 
the   20th.     The  pursuit  was  continued  on  the  21st   through 

206  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Salem,  Va.,  where  another  skirmish  took  place.  After  resting  a 
day,  we  resumed  the  march  in  the  direction  of  the  Potomac  River, 
reaching  Staunton  on  the  morning  of  the  27th,  then  marched  in 
the  direction  of  Harper's  Ferry,  which  was  reached  on  the 
morning  of  July  4th.  Here  Bolivar  Heights  was  captured 
about  10  o'clock  a.  m.,  and  about  8  o'clock  p.  M.  the  enemy  were 
driven  from  Harper's  Ferry  across  the  river  to  Maryland 
Heights.  On  the  6th  the  corps  crossed  the  Potomac  at  Shep- 
herdstown,  and  engaged  the  enemy  in  the  rear  of  Maryland 
Heights.  The  battle  continued  nearly  all  day.  We  moved 
through  Crampton's  Gap  toward  Frederick,  and  after  many 
skirmishes  reached  Frederick  Md.,  on  the  morning  of  the  9th, 
where  General  Wallace's  Division  of  Federals  was  strongly 
posted  on  the  eastern  bank  of  the  Monocacy  River.  After  a 
stubborn  fight  the  enemy  was  driven  from  the  field,  leaving  in 
our  hands  six  or  seven  hundred  prisoners,  besides  killed  and 
wounded.  Our  loss  in  killed  and  wounded  was  severe.  The 
march  was  resumed  on  the  10th  in  the  direction  of  Washington 
City.  As  the  weather  was  hot  and  the  roads  dusty,  it  was  very 
trying  to  our  troops,  who  arrived  in  front  of  Fort  Stevens  on  the 
evening  of  the  11th,  within  sight  of  the  dome  of  the  Federal 
Capitol.  After  reconnoitering  and  skirmishing  a  couple  of  days, 
and  upon  hearing  of  the  arrival  of  two  additional  corps  at  Wash- 
ington from  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  our  troops  were  with- 
drawn on  the  night  of  the  12th,  and  we  crossed  the  Potomac  on 
the  night  of  the  15th  near  Leesburg,  followed  by  the  enemy's 
cavalry.  We  then  moved  towards  the  Valley  of  Virginia, 
crossing  the  Blue  Ridge  at  Snicker's  Gap  on  the  17th  of  July, 
the  Federals  slowly  following.  On  the  afternoon  of  the  18th 
Rodes'  Division  attacked  the  enemy  at  Snicker's  Ford,  di-iving 
them  in  the  Shenandoah  River,  where  they  lost  heavily  in  killed 
and  drowned.  On  the  19th  the  division  moved  towards  Stras- 
burg,  and  on  the  afternoon  of  the  20th  to  the  support  of  General 
Ramseur,  but  arrived  after  the  engagement  had  ceased.  The 
division  then  retired  to  Fisher's  Hill,  remaining  until  the  enemy 
was  attacked  at  Kernstown,  on  the  24th,  and  driven  across  the 

Third  REaiMENT,  207 

Potomac  into  Marylaud.  Rodes'  Division  then  marched  and 
counter-marched  between  the  Potomac  and  Fisher's  Hill  until 
September  22d,  during  which  time  it  was  engaged  almost 
daily  in  skirmishing,  and  took  part  iu  the  battles  of  Winchester, 
August  17th;  Charlestown,  August  21st;  Smithfield,  August 
29th;  Bunker  Hill,  September  3d;  second  battle  of  Winchester, 
September  19th ;  Fisher's  Hill,  September  22d.  On  the  morning 
of  September  19th  this  division,  while  moving  in  column  up  the 
Martinsburg  road  to  the  support  of  General  Ramseur,  who  was 
engaged  with  Sheridan's  army  near  Winchester,  was  unex- 
pectedly called  to  attention,  faced  to  the  left  and  moved  forward 
to  engage  the  enemy,  who  had  advanced  to  within  one  hundred 
yards  of  the  road.  After  a  brief  and  vigorous  assault  the  Fed- 
erals commenced  falling  back,  and  were  driven  through  the 
woods  and  the  open  fields  until  Cooke's  Brigade  was  brought  to 
a  temporary  halt  and  Cox  received  orders  to  push  forward  his 
brigade.  At  this  time  General  Rodes  was  shot  in  the  head  by  a 
ball,  and  fell  from  his  horse.  The  troops  pushed  on,  unaware 
of  this  calamity,  and  struck  a  weak  line  of  the  enemy.  At  this 
point  the  Federals  were  severely  punished,  and  fell  back,  leaving 
their  killed  and  wounded.  A  large  number  of  officers  and  men, 
who  were  secreted  in  a  ditch,  were  captured.  We  pursued  the 
enemy  with  a  hot  fire  beyond  the  crest  of  a  hill,  on  which 
Grimes  had  established  his  line.  Here  Evans'  Brigade,  upon 
meeting  a  heavy  fire,  fell  back,  which  exposed  this  brigade  to 
a  concentrated,  direct  and  left-oblique  fire.  At  the  request  of 
General  Cox,  a  battery  was  placed  on  a  hill  in  our  rear,  and  the 
brigade  fell  back  and  formed  behind  it,  which  opened  with  tell- 
ing effect  upon  the  enemy's  heavy  lines.  They  laid  down,  and 
the  victory  appeared  to  be  ours.  While  our  loss  in  men  and  offi- 
cers had  been  severe,  the  troops  had  good  spirits.  Here  Colonel 
S.  D.  Thruston  -was  severely  wounded,  the  command  devolving 
upon  Lieutenant-Colonel  Parsley.  After  remaining  until  about 
4  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  we  discovered  that  the  Federals  were 
in  our  rear,  and  fell  back  in  good  order  to  the  Martinsburg  pike 
and  formed  on  the  left  of  our  troops.    Here  we  were  exposed, 

208  NoETH  Carolina  Teoops,  1861-66. 

without  any  protection,  to  a  heavy  artillery  fire,  which  was  tell- 
ing upon  our  men.     We  were  then  faced  about  and  commenced 
retiring  deliberately  to  the  hills,  all   the  troops  conforming  to 
this  movement.     General  Early,  through  a  stafi'  officer,  directed 
General  Cox  to  return,  when  we  were  faced  about  and  moved  to 
the  front.     Upon  reaching  the  turnpike,  we  were  ordered  by 
General  Early  to  fall  back,  which  we  slowly  accomplished.  Our 
troops  now  retreated  toward  Fisher's  Hill.     While  retreating  in 
column,  this  brigade  was  ordered  to  protect  the  artillery  then 
passing.     Facing  about,  we  were  deployed,   and  advanced  be- 
tween the  enemy's  cavalry  and   our  artillery,  which  was  done 
with  great  spirit  and  promptness.   In  this  manner  we  moved  on, 
protecting  the  artillery  until  near  dusk,  when  we  found  General 
Ramseur  with  his  division  thrown  across  the  turnpike  to  prevent 
pursuit.     About  the  time  this  brigade  and  the  artillery  crossed 
his  line  the  enemy  made  a  spirited  charge  to  capture  the  guns, 
which  was  met  with  a  well-directed  fire  from  Ramseur's   men, 
which  stopped  further  pursuit.     After  our  defeat  at  Winchester 
we  fell  back  and  formed  line  of  battle  behind  Fisher's  Hill. 
After  the  fall  of  General  Rodes,  General  Ramseur  was  placed  in 
charge  of  his  division.     On  the  22d    we  had  a  skirmish  with 
the  enemy.     About  dusk    the  brigade   was    promptly   formed 
across  the  road  to  cover  the  retreat.     We  advanced  rapidly  to 
a  fence,  where  we  met  the  enemy  in  a  hand-to-hand  encounter, 
repulsed  him,  and  stopped  pursuit  for  the   night.   Here  Colonel 
Pendleton,  of  the  artillery,  fell,  mortally  wounded.     After  the 
defeat  at  Fisher's  Hill  we  fell  back  up  the  Valley  as  far  as 
Waynesboro,  where  re-inforcements  were  received.     October  1st 
we  returned  down  the  Yalley,  reaching  Fisher's  Hill  on  October 
13th,  and  there  formed  behind  breastworks.     A  flanking  move- 
ment was  directed  by  General  Early,  and  we  commenced  mov- 
ing  soon   after   dark.     The    night    was    consifmed    by  a   very 
fatiguing  and  exhausting  march,  which  was  conducted  with  the 
greatest  secrecy.     We  crossed  Cedar  Creek  at  early  dawn,  being 
joined-  here  by  Payne's  Cavalry,  who  at  full  speed  advanced 
upon  and  captured  Sheridan's  headquarters.     But  for  his  ab- 

Third  Eegiment.  209 

sence  they  would  have  captured  him.  The  first  warning  Crook's 
Corps  had  of  our  presence  was  the  rebel  yells  and  volleys  of 
our  musketry,  which  sent  them  hastily  from  their  camp,  leav- 
ing all  behind.  This  victory  was  delightful  to  our  troops,  after 
so  many  repulses.  So  great  was  the  demoralization  of  the  enemy 
after  this  little  brigade  drove  back  a  division  ten  times  its  num- 
ber, meeting  with  but  slight  resistance,  that  by  8  o'clock  we  had 
captured  all  of  their  artillery  and  from  one  thousand  five  hun- 
dred to  two  thousand  prisoners.  The  Federals  were  in  retreat. 
About  3  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  Sheridan,  having  joined  and 
rallied  his  troops,  the  tide  of  battle  was  turned,  and  the  Confed- 
erates were  driven  up  the  Valley  to  New  Market.  Here  Major- 
Geueral  Ramseur  was  killed  endeavoring  to  rally  his  troops, 
where  they  remained  until  about  the  22d  of  November,  when 
Ramseur's  Division  routed  General  Sheridan,  commanding  a 
considerable  body  of  cavalry,  between  New  Market  and  Mount 
Jackson.  This  ended  the  Valley  campaign  of  1864,  and  Briga- 
dier-General Bryan  Grimes  was  promoted  to  Major- General,  and 
assigned  to  the  command  of  this  division.  About  a  week  before 
Christmas  this  regiment  and  other  troops  composing  the  Second 
Corps  returned  to  Petersburg  and  went  into  winter  quarters  at 
Swift  Creek,  about  three  miles  north  of  the  city.  About  the 
middle  of  February,  1865,  we  moved  to  Southerland's  Depot,  on 
the  right  of  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia.  Here  the  regiment 
remained  until  the  middle  of  March,  when  it  was  ordered  into  the 
trenches  in  front  of  Petersburg,  where  it  remained  until  the 
night  of  the  24th  of  March,  when  General  Gordon's  Corps,  this 
brigade  forming  a  part,  was  massed  opposite  Hare's  Hill,  where 
the  distance  between  the  lines  was,  one  hundred  yards.  On  the 
morning  of  the  25th  the  division  corps  of  sharji-shooters,  com- 
manded by  Colonel  H.  A.  Brown,  surprised  and  captured  the 
enemy's  pickets  and  entered  his  main  lines.  This  regiment, 
with  the  other  troops  of  the  division  immediately  following,  oc- 
cupied the  enemy's  works  for  some  distance  on  either  side  of 
Hare's  Hill,  and  held  them  against  great  odds  for  about  five 
hours,  during  which  time  the  enemy  poured  a  deadly  fire  into  the 


210  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Confederates  from  several  batteries,  and  having  massed  large 
bodies  of  infantry,  forced  the  withdrawal  of  the  Confederates, 
with  considerable  loss  in  killed,  wounded  and  prisoners.  We 
then  resumed  our  position  in  the  trenches.  About  11  o'clock  on 
the  night  of  April  1st  the  enemy  opened  a  heavy  cannonading 
all  along  the  line,  under  cover  of  which  they  attacked  in  heavy 
forces  at  several  points,  making  a  break  in  the  division  on  our 
right.  On  Sunday  morning,  the  2d,  at  daylight,  they  made  a 
breach  in  the  line  held  by  the  brigade  of  the  left  centre  of  the 
division,  and  occupied  our  works  for  some  distance  on  either  side 
of  Fort  Mahone.  The  division  attacked  the  enemy  at  close 
quarters,  driving  him  from  traverse  to  traverse,  sometimes  in  a 
hand-to-hand  fight,  until  the  works  were  retaken  up  to  a  point 
opposite  Fort  Mahone,  which  was  finally  captured.  The  Con- 
federates thus  regained  the  entire  works  taken  from  the  division 
in  the  early  morning.  The  enemy,  however,  promptly  moved 
forward  and  recaptured  the  Confederate  line  and  Fort  Mahone, 
leaving  Grimes'  Division  still  in  possession  of  that  portion  of  the 
line  retaken  from  the  enemy  in  the  early  part  of  the  day,  and 
which  was  held  until  the  lines  in  front  of  Richmond  and  Peters- 
burg were  opened,  when  we,  with  the  army,  commenced  to 
retreat.  Marching  day  and  night,  with  only  short  intervals  of 
rest,  we  reached  Amelia  Court  House  on  April  4th,  where  the  ex- 
hausted troops  rested  a  few  hours.  Being  closely  pursued  by 
the  enemy,  the  march  was  resumed  that  night. 

General  Bryan  Grimes,  then  Major-General  commanding  the 
division,  was  assigned  to  the  position  of  rearguard.  General  Cox 
still  commanding  our  brigade  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Parsley 
the  regiment.  The  enemy's  cavalry,  elated  over  their  successes, 
frequently  rode  into  the  Confederate  lines,  making  it  necessary  to 
form  a  line  of  battle  across  the  road  in  column  of  brigade,  while 
the  others  continued  to  march.  This  running  fight  continued  until 
the  afternoon  of  the  6th,  when  at  Sailor's  Creek,  near  Farmville, 
Va.,  a  general  engagement  ensued,  where  the  Confederates,  over- 
whelmed by  superior  numbers,  retreated  along  the  bridge  at 

Third  Regiment.  211 

Farmville.  Here  the  gallant  hero,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Parsley, 
gave  up  his  life,  being  shot  in  the  head  with  a  minnie-ball. 

Who  ever  knew  Willie  Parsley,  that  did  not  love  him?  We 
write  not  the  empty  words  of  the  mere  panegyrist;  we  speak 
the  words  of  a  candid  soberness  and  truth.  He  so  impressed  all 
with  whom  he  came  in  contact  that  no  one  who  ever  met  ever 
forgot  him.  He  was  the  soul  of  honor.  Without  fear,  he  was 
without  reproach.  Knowing  how  to  obey,  he  was  the  better 
fitted  to  command.  There  was  not  the  semblance  of  dissimula- 
tion in  any  trait  of  his  character.  You  always  felt  after  an  in- 
terview with  him  that  he  was  guided  and  controlled  by  an  hon- 
esty of  purpose.  He  commanded  in  an  especial  degree  the  esteem 
and  confidence  of  his  superior  officers.  A  report  emanating  from 
Colonel  Parsley,  they  knew,  told  the  exact  status  of  the  subject- 
matter  upon  which  they  were  seeking  information.  They  fre- 
quently came  to  his  headquarters  socially  and  enjoyed  his  hospi- 
tality. On  duty  he  was  the  officer;  duty  done,  he  was  the  kind, 
genial  gentleman  and  friend.  Strictly  conscientious  in  the  dis- 
charge of  his  religious  obligations,  no  asceticism  marred  the 
beauty  and  symmetry  of  a  well-ordered  life.  The  scales  of  jus- 
tice in  his  hands  were  well  poised  between  his  company  officers 
and  the  rank  and  file  in  their  commands.  Every  man  in  his 
regiment  could  appeal  to  him  and  be  heard.  Young  in  years, 
he  was  experienced  in  true  wisdom,  and  would  have  been  a  most 
capable  officer  in  any  of  the  gradations  of  rank.  Killed  in  the 
battle  of  Sailor's  Creek,  at  the  early  age  of  twenty-four,  no  Con- 
federate soldier  who  yielded  up  his  life  was  more  sincerely 
mourned,  and  no  one  remembered  with  more  grateful  recol- 

Beyond  Farmville,  on  the  morning  of  the  7th,  the  division 
charged  the  enemy  and  recaptured  a  battery  of  artillery  which 
had  been  taken  by  him.  We  continued  the  march  towards 
Lynchburg  upon  a  parallel  road  to  that  the  enemy  had  taken  for 
the  purpose  of  intercepting  us.  We  reached  Appomattox  Court 
House  on  Saturday  evening,  the  8th,  where  the  exhausted  troops 
bivouacked  until  about  the  middle  of  night,  when  this  division 

212  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

was  ordered  from  the  position  of  rearguard  to  the  front  to  open 
the  road  towards  Lynchburg,  now  occupied  by  the  enemy  in 
large  force.  About  sunrise  on  Sunday  morning,  April  9,  1865, 
this  division  (Grimes')  engaged  a  large  body  of  the  enemy's 
cavalry,  supported  by  infantry,  and  drove  them  more  than  a 
mile,  capturing  a  battery  and  several  prisoners.  While  engaged  in 
this  pursuit,  they  were  ordered  back  to  a  valley.  This  brigade 
was  commanded  by  the  veteran  soldier,  General  W.  E..  Cox, 
who,  as  his  men  were  retiring,  ordered  a  halt,  and  the  command 
was  given:  "Right  about,  face!"  to  meet  a  cavalry  force  which 
was  coming  down  upon  him.  It  was  promptly  obeyed,  and 
once  more  and  for  the  last  time,  these  valiant,  ragged,  foot-sore 
and  half-starved  North  Carolinians  withstood  in  the  strength  of 
their  invincible  manhood  the  men  whom  they  had  met  and 
driven  back  on  many  a  bloody  iield.  In  the  clear  and  firm  voice  of 
the  gallant  Cox  the  command  rang  out :  "Ready,  Aim,  Fire!" 
and  the  last  volley  fired  by  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  was  by 
these  North  Caroli/ia  troops,  this  regimen!  among  the  number. 
Defeated,  but  not  dishonored !  On  leaving  the  valley,  we  learned 
the  sad  intelligence  that  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  had 
surrendered.  Sad  and  gloomy  indeed  were  the  faces  of  those 
noble  heroes,  who  could  not  realize  that  General  Lee  would  ever 

The  fragment  of  the  First  and  Third  Regiments,  commanded 
by  Major  W.  T.  Ennett,  since  the  loss  of  Colonel  Parsley  on  the 
6th,  was  bivouacked  with  the  brigade  (Cox's),  Grimes'  Division, 
Gordon's  Corps,  and  prepared  the  muster-rolls  for  the  final  capit- 
ulation. Od  the  morning  of  April  12th  they  laid  down  their 
arms,  dispersed  on  foot,  many  ragged  and  without  shoes,  and 
made  their  way  to  their  desolated  homes. 

And  now  let  us  recite  the  "  roll  of  honor" :  Colonel  Gaston 
Meares,  killed  in  the  battle  of  Malvern  Hill ;  Captain  Thomas 
E.  Armstrong,  killed  in  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville;  Captain 
John  F.  S.  Van  Bokkelen,  wounded  in  the  battle  of  Chancellors- 
ville, died  within  a  month  afterwards. 

It  was  with  grief,  and  that,  too,  without  alloy,  that  the  death 

Third  Regiment.  213 

of  Captain  Van  Bokkelen,  which  occurred  in  Richmond,  Va., 
was  announced  to  the  regiment  while  on  the  march  in  the  cam- 
paign of  1863.  He  was  universally  popular  and  almost  idolized 
by  his  own  men.  But  twenty-one  years  of  age,  and  full  of  youth- 
ful ardor,  intelligent,  with  an  acute  conception  of  his  duties  and 
an  indomitable  energy  in  pursuing  the  line  of  conduct  which  a 
discriminating  judgment  dictated,  to  him,  possibly,  more  than  to 
any  other  officer  of  the  company  which  he  commanded,  was  due 
the  high  morale  to  which  that  company  attained. 

Captain  David  Williams,  Captain  E.  H.  Rodes,  Captain  E.  G. 
Meares,  Lieutenants  Duncan  McNair,  Thomas  Cowan  and  Wil- 
liam Quince,  killed  in  the  battle  of  Sharpsburg;  Lieutenants 
Tobias  Garrison,  Henry  A.  Potter  and  Thomas  Kelly,  killed  in 
the  battle  of  Gettysburg;  Captain  E.  H.  Armstrong,  Lieutenant 
Cicero  H.  Craige  and  Sergeant-major  Robert  C.  MoRee,  killed 
in  the  battle  of  Spottsylvania;  Lieutenant-Colonel  W.  M.  Pars- 
ley, killed  in  the  battle  of  Sailor's  Creek,  near  Farmville;  and 
that  host  of  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates  (would  that 
their  names  were  accessible  to  us,  that  we  might  locate  each  in- 
dividual as  to  company  and  record  his  merit)  who  yielded  their 
lives  under  the  banner  of  the  Confederacy.  Good  soldiers  and 
true  men  they  were,  discharging  duty  under  any  and  all  condi- 
tions. Their  hearts'  blood  flecked  the  soil  of  Virginia,  Mary- 
land and  Pennsylvania,  and  the  fields  of  battle  in  those  three 
States  attest  their  prowess. 

Nor  yet  would  the  history  of  the  Third  North  Carolina  In- 
fantry be  complete  without  reciting  the  names  of  Dr.  J.  F. 
McRee,  Surgeon,  and  Doctors  Josh  C.  Walker,  Kenneth  Black 
and  Thomas  F.  Wood,  the  well-beloved  and  faithful  physicians, 
Captain  Roger  P.  Atkinson,  Captain  R.  S.  Radcliffe,  Captain  Wil- 
liam A.  Gumming,  Major  W.  T.  Ennett,  Lieutenant  Amos  Sid- 
bury,  Lieutenant  Ward,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Edward  Savage, 
Captain  Richard  F.  Langdon,  Lieutenants  I.  J.  Pickett,  S.  P. 
Hand,  George  B.  Baker,  N.  A.  Graham,  L.  Moore,  W.  H.  Barr 
and  Robert  H.  Lyon,  who  have  all  died  since  the  capitula- 
tion.   Adjutant  Theodore  C.  James  has  also  crossed  "the  narrow 

214  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

stream  of  death."  Our  pen  falters  when  we  attempt  to  pay  tribute 
to  his  memory:  companion  of  our  youth,  friend  of  our  manhood. 
For  him  to  espouse  a  cause  was  to  make  it  a  part  of  his  very  self. 
Intrepid,  no  more  courageous  soldier  trod  the  soil  of  any  battle- 
field upon  which  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  encountered  a 
foe.  The  impulses  of  his  nature  were  magnanimous;  no  grovel- 
ing thoughts  unbalanced  the  equity  of  his  judgment.  True  to 
his  friends  and  to  principle,  he  remained  as  "constant  as  the 
northern  star,  of  whose  true,  fixed  and  resting  quality  there  is 
no  fellow  in  the  firmament."  Leaving  his  right  arm  upon  a 
battlefield  of  Virginia,  and  exempt  for  that  cause  from  further 
military  duty,  he  disdained  any  privilege  which  such  disability 
brought  to  him,  but  continued  in  active  service  until  the  last 
shot  had  been  fired  and  "  arms  stacked  "  forever. 

We  have  endeavored  to  compile  a  correct  history  of  the 
regiment  with  which  we  served  as  Confederate  soldiers.  If 
errors  of  commission  have  crept  in,  or  if  there  be  any  of  omis- 
sions, it  is  with  sincere  regret  on  our  part;  nor  should  they  have 
occurred,  save  that  we  were  ignorant  of  them.  The  memories  of 
the  martyrs  of  the  "  lost  cause"  are  too  precious  to  be  relegated 
to  oblivion  through  any  laches  on  the  part  of  those  who  could 
prevent  it,  or  whose  duty  it  is  to  preserve  them.  A  duty  owed 
first  to  the  dead — and  to  the  living. 

John  Cowan, 

James  I.  Metts. 

Wilmington,  N.  C., 

9th  April,  1900. 


By  colonel  W.  L.  DeROSSET. 

Gaston  Meares,  of  Wilmington,  N.  C,  was  appointed  by  Gov- 
ernor Ellis  to  the  command  of  the  Third  Regiment  of  State 
Troops,  and  Robert  Harper  Cowan  and  William  Lord  DeRosset 
were  commissioned,  respectively,  Lieutenaot-Colouel  and  Major 
of  the  same  regiment. 

Steps  were  at  once  taken  to  form  the  regiment,  first  from 
material  already  partially  organized  into  companies  and  partly 
by  regular  enlistments  under  company  officers  likewise  appointed 
by  the  Governor. 

This  regiment,  one  of  ten  authorized  by  «the  Constitutional 
Convention  to  be  raised,  enlisted  for  the  war,  and  all  officers 
were  appointed  by  the  Governor,  with  the  understanding  clearly 
had  that  all  vacancies  should  be  filled  by  promotion  or  appoint- 
ment by  recommendation  of  the  commanding  officer. 

[The  companies,  with  names  of  their  respective  captains,  and 
counties  from  which  raised,  are  given  in  the  sketch  of  Captains 
Cowan  and  Metts,  page  178,  ante.] 

The  several  companies  were  ordered  to  assemble  at  the  camp 
of  instruction  at  Garysburg  as  faet  as  their  ranks  were  filled, 
and  in  the  latter  part  of  May  they  began  to  report  to  the  officer 
in  charge  of  the  camp. 

Colonel  Meares  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Cowan  reported  at 
the  camp  about  June  1st.  Major  DeRosset,  having  been  ordered 
to  Fort  Macon  to  relieve  Colonel  C.  C.  Tew,  of  the  Second  North 
Carolina  Regiment,  of  the  command  of  that  post,  was  delayed  in 
joining  his  command  until  some  two  weeks  later.  Meanwhile, 
the  men  were  being  drilled  in  the  school  of  the  soldier,  prepara- 
tory to  company  drill ;  and  so  soon  as  Major  DeRosset  reported 

216  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-66. 

for  duty  he  was  ordered  to   take  charge  of  the  drilling  and  dis- 
ciplining of  the  force. 

Colonel  Meares  moved  West  from  Wilmington,  where  he  was 
born,  when  quite  a  young  man  and  settled  in  Arkansas,  whence 
he  went  into  the  war  with  Mexico  as  Adjutant  of  one  of  the 
first  regiments  raised  in  that  State ;  subsequently  being  elected 
to  command  on  the  death  of  its  colonel  (Yell).  At  the  begin- 
ning of  our  late  difficulty  he  reported  for  duty  to  the  Governor 
and  was  at  once  commissioned  as  Colonel. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Robert  H.  Cowan  was  also  a  native  of 
Wilmington,  and  was  prominent  in  the  politics  of  the  State, 
both  locally  and  as  a  Representative  in  its  legislative  halls. 
Upon  the  reorganization  of  the  twelve  months  regiments,  he 
was  elected  Colonel  of  the  Eighteenth,  thus  severing  his  connec- 
tion with  the  Third  in  May,  1862. 

Major  DeRosset,  likewise  a  native  of  the  same  place,  had  been 
connected  with  the  local  military  for  seven  years,  most  of  the 
time  as  an  officer  of  the  Wilmington  Light  Infantry,  having 
carried  that  company  into  service,  which  was  later  assigned  to 
the  Eighteenth. 

A  portion  of  the  Third  was  ordered  to  Richmond  early  in 
July,  where  it  was  joined  some  we'eks  later  by  the  remaining 
companies  which  had  been  left  at  Garysburg  under  Major  De- 

A  few  days  after  the  first  battle  of  Manassas  the  regiment  was 
ordered  to  report  to  Major- General  T.  H.  Holmes,  at  Acquia 
Creek,  and  went  into  camp  n^ar  Brooks'  Station,  on  the  Rich- 
mond, Fredericksburg  &  Potomac  Railroad,  later  moving  camp 
to  a  point  near  the  Potomac  River,  and,  as  winter  approached, 
having  meantime  built  substantial  winter  quarters,  they  took  up 
their  abode  therein,  immediately  in  rear  of  the  lower  battery  of 
those  constructed  for  the  defense  of  Acquia  Creek. 

Upon  the  evacuation  of  the  line  of  the  Potomac  the  Third 
North  Carolina,  with  the  First,  was  ordered  to  Goldsboro  to 
meet  a  supposed  advance  of  Burnside  from  New  Bern,  remain- 
ing thereabouts  until  early  in  June,  1862.     In  May,  Lieutenant- 

Thied  Eegiment.  217 

Colonel  Cowan  having  been  promoted,  Major  DeRosset  was 
made  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Captain  Savage,  Major. 

The  First  and  the  Third  North  Carolina  Troops  were  under 
the  same  brigade  commanders  from  first  to  last,  but,  unfortunately, 
were  always  brigaded  with  troops  from  other  States,  and  never 
received  the  deserved  meed  for  their  achievements. 

First,  Colonel  John  G.  Walker  was  assigned  to  command,  the 
brigade  then  consisting  of  the  First  and  Third  North  Carolina 
and  the  Thirtieth  Virginia  and  First  Arkansas;  but  Colonel 
Walker  proved  to  be  the  junior  colonel  in  the  brigade,  and 
General  Holmes  asked  for  and  obtained  a  commission  for  him  as 
brigadier-general,  and  he  continued  in  command. 

Brigadier-General  Roswell  S.  Ripley  next  had  its  command, 
and  upon  reaching  Richmond  on  the  evening  of  the  last  day's 
fight  at  Seven  Pines  a  change  was  made  in  the  composition  of 
the  brigade  and  the  Fortieth  and  Forty-fourth  Georgia  Regi- 
ments took  the  places  of  the  Virginia  and    Arkansas  troops. 

The  Third  reached  the  battlefield  only  in  time  to  be  held  in 
reserve  late  in  the  evening,  but  were  not  ordered  to  participate. 

The  march  from  Richmond  was  most  trying  to  the  raw  troops 
of  the  brigade,  who  had  not  then  received  their  baptism  of  fire, 
passing  thousands  of  dead  and  wounded  from  the  time  they  left 
the  cars  until  they  arrived  on  the  field;  and  the  groans  and  cries 
of  the  wounded  were  not  calculated  to  inspire  the  boys  with  a 
martial  spirit.  During  the  period  from  that  date  to  the  opening 
of  the  battles  around  Richmond  the  command  was  in  camp  about 
six  miles  from  Richmond,  drilling  and  preparing  for  the  sum- 
mer campaign. 

Late  in  the  evening  of  June  25, 1862,  Colonel  Meares  received 
orders  to  march,  and  proceeding  early  next  morning  in  a  north- 
erly direction,  was  halted  on  the  high  hills  on  the  south  of  the 
Chickahominy  where  it  is  crossed  by  the  Mechanicsville  pike. 

Lieutenant- Colonel  DeRosset  was  here  again  detached  and 
ordered  to  take  charge  of  a  battalion  composed  of  one  company 
from  each  regiment,  and  to  advance,  crossing' the  stream,  to 
Mechanicsville;  but  after  reaching  the  middle  of  the  creek  he  was 

218  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

ordered  to  assemble  his  command  and  cross  on  the  bridge.  The 
battalion  was  thus  thrown  on  the  left  of  the  brigade,  advancing 
left  in  front,  and,  on  being  drawn  up  in  line  of  battle  on  the 
north  side,  went  into  action,  charging  the  enemy's  position,  which 
was  well  fortified  on  the  further  side  of  a  small  stream  about 
one-half  mile  from  the  pike.  The  brigade  suffered  severely  in 
this  attack,  mainly  from  the  stupid  manner  in  which  it  was  put 
into  action.  The  Forty-fourth  Georgia  was  almost  annihilated, 
having  lost  heavily  in  killed  and  wounded,  the  others  mostly 
routed.  The  Fortieth  Georgia  lost  its  colonel  early  in  the  action, 
and  were  more  or  less  demoralized.  The  First  North  Carolina 
perhaps  suffered  in  killed  and  wounded  more  than  either  of  the 
regiments,  if  not  of  all  combined.  They  had  the  misfortune  to 
be  immediately  in  front  of  the  heaviest  of  the  Yankee  batteries, 
which  swept  the  approaches  with  grape  and  canister  continuously. 
The  Third  North  Carolina  lost  perhaps  less  than  either  of  the 
others,  Major  Savage  being  the  only  one  of  the  field  officers 

Joining  after  that  battle  the  forces  of  General  Jackson,  the 
command  was  marched  by  a  circuitous  route  to  Cold  Harbor,  or 
Gaines'  Mill,  where  the  battle  took  place  on  the  afternoon  of 
June  27th.  Here  but  a  small  fraction  of  the  Third  was  exposed 
to  direct  musketry  fire,  for  reasons  none  but  General  Ripley 
could  explain,  and  the  officers  of  the  command  are  not  known  to 
have  said  that  any  explanation  was  vouchsafed.  Marching 
thence,  after  two  or  three  days'  delay,  the  brigade  found  itself  in 
front  of  one  of  the  bridges  over  the  Chickahominy  which  had 
been  destroyed  by  the  enemy  on  the  south  side,  he  having  crossed 
the  day  before  on  the  famous  "grape-vine"  bridge,  some  distance 
above.  Here,  being  exposed  to  the  enemy's  fire  of  artillery 
without  the  means  of  replying,  Ripley  was  withdrawn  into  a 
heavy  woods  on  the  northwest  side  of  the  road,  lying  there  all 
day  under  the  artillery  fire,  at  times  very  annoying,  but  with 
little  loss.  This  was  the  day  of  the  battle  of  Frazer's  Farm,  a 
few  miles  lower  down  the  stream. 

Next  day,  the  enemy  having  withdrawn  and  the  bridge  re- 

Third  Regiment.  219 

paired,  Ripley  crossed  and  marched  on  Malvern  Hill,  arriving 
there  at  noon,  and  was  posted  immediately  in  the  rear  of  what 
was  known  as  the  Parsonage,  on  the  near  side  of  the  road  lead- 
ing by  Malvern  Hill,  and  on  the  left  of  the  army.  Being  or- 
dered to  advance,  the  whole  line  moved  forward,  and  from  the 
peculiar  conformation  of  the  land  in  front,  the  hill  up  which 
Ripley  moved  being  almost  an  isolated  knoll,  upon  reaching  the 
top  each  regiment  was  found  to  be  represented  in  the  mass  of 
disorganized  troops  occupying  the  yard  of  the  Parsonage  and  the 
road  in  front.  The  officers  of  the  several  commands  seemed  not 
to  have  noted  the  conformation  of  the  ground,  and  as  each  com- 
pany reached  the  foot  of  the  hill  it  would  change  direction  to 
go  up  the  shortest  road,  thereby  bringing  about  the  trouble  as 
seen  at  that  point.  Meantime  a  terrific  fire  of  artillery  and 
infantry  swept  the  field,  and  the  men  involuntarily  hugged  the 
ground.  Here  they  lay  for  some  time,  men  falling  every  minute, 
and  some  leaving  the  field  in  search  of  surgical  assistance- 
There  was  no  possibility  of  doing  anything,  so  far  as  could  be 
seen  by  the  field  officers,  and  Ripley  had  not  been  seen  about  the 
lines  after  the  first  order  was  given  to  advance.  About  an  hour 
before  dusk  word  came  from  the  left  that  Captain  Brown,  com- 
manding the  First  North  Carolina,  was  hard  pressed,  and  wanted 
assistance,  when  Colonel  Meares  determined  to  re-inforce  him, 
and  gave  the  command  to  move  by  the  left  flank.  He,  going  on 
foot  into  the  road  in  front  of  the  line,  upon  reaching  a  point 
about  opposite  the  left  of  the  Third,  stopped,  and  mounting  the 
bank  on  the  side  of  the  road,  was  using  his  field-glass,  surveying 
the  Yankee  lines,  when  he  was  instantly  killed  by  a  slug  from  a 
shrapnel  fired  from  a  battery  directly  in  front,  said  to  be  the 
Third  Rhode  Island  Battery,  not  over  seventy-five  yards  distant. 

Colonel  Meares  was  a  man  of  marked  individuality.  Re- 
spected by  his  superior  officers,  beloved  by  his  subordinate  offi- 
cers, and  even  by  the  most  humble  private,  his  untimely  death 
was  deeply  deplored  by  ail  alike.  It  is  certain  that  he  would 
have  been  recommended  for  promotion. 

The  Third  held  its  position  until  withdrawn  sometime  during 

220  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

the  night,  aud  bivouacked  near  that  point  for  several  days,  when 
the  brigade  was  ordered  back  to  the  old  camping-grounds  nearer 

Colonel  DeRosset  having  been  promoted  to  the  command  of 
the  Third,  decided  to  visit  Raleigh  for  the  purpose  of  recruiting 
the  regiment. 

The  losses  in  officers  of  the  Third  were  numerous,  but  several 
were  temporarily  disabled  by  wounds.  Some  vacancies  occurred 
about  this  time,  and  the  conspicuous  gallantry  of  Cicero  H. 
Craig  caused  his  recommendation  for  promotion,  and  he  was  at 
once  put  on  duty,  by  brigade  orders,  as  Lieutenant  of  Company  I. 

Just  here  it  is  well  to  put  on  record  an  instance  showing  how 
the  officers  of  the  Third  held  to  the  original  understanding  with 
the  Governor  that  all  promotions  and  appointments  should  be  made 
by  or  upon  the  recommendation  of  the  commanding  officer  of 
the  regiment.  Upon  the  report  made  to  Governor  Clark  in 
person  by  Colonel  DeRosset,  the  Governor  promised  to  have 
the  commission  for  Lieutenant  Craig  mailed  to  him  without  delay, 
but  upon  being  approached  by  two  officers  of  Company  I,  who 
represented  to  the  Governor  that  if  Craig  was  made  lieutenant 
of  the  company  the  men  would  resist  and  disband,  he  revoked 
his  order  for  the  commission,  and  ordered  an  election  to  be  held 
in  the  company  to  fill  the  vacancy.  Upon  receipt  of  the  com- 
munication from  the  Adjutant-General,  Colonel  DeRosset  ad- 
dressed the  Governor,  declining  to  hold  an  election  in  his  regi- 
ment, and  should  he  insist  upon  it,  that  he  could  consider  his 
resignation  as  being  before  him.  Further  explanation  was  made 
that  the  parties  who  informed  the  Governor  of  the  condition  of 
affairs  in  Company  I  had  not  participated  in  the  late  fights,  and 
were  hardly  in  position  to  form  an  intelligent  opinion  of  the 
facts,  and  that  the  discipline  of  the  men  in  his  regiment  was  his 
responsibility  as  much  as  that  of  the  company  officers,  and  he 
would  be  responsible  for  results.  As  a  finale,  both  officers 
referred  to  very  soon  ceased  to  hold  their  positions,  and,  for  some 
forgotten  reasons,  were  allowed  to  go  home.     The  Governor  ex- 

Thikd  Regiment.  221 

pressed  himself  as  fully  satisfied,  and  immediately  sent  on  Craig's 

Apropos,  as  to  elections  to  fill  vacancies,  wliile  near  Goldsboro, 
in  the  spring  of  1862,  a  vacancy  occurred  in  the  office  of  Second 
Lieutenant  of  Company  G.  Orders  came  from  headquarters  one 
afternoon  to  hold  an  election  to  fill  the  vacancy.  Colonel  Meares, 
after  reading  the  order,  passed  it  to  Lieutenant-Colonel  DeRosset, 
with  the  instruction  that  he  should  see  that  the  order  was  carried 
out.  Not  seeing  his  way  clear,  but  knowing  the  feelings  of 
Colonel  Meares  as  to  permitting  elections,  DeRosset  walked  off 
in  the  direction  of  the  camp  of  that  company,  hoping  for  some 
solution  of  the  problem.  Fortunately  he  found  Lieutenant 
Quince  of  that  company  in  charge,  the  captain  being  absent 
from  camp.  Quince  had  been  educated  as  a  soldier  in  the  ranks 
of  the  Wilmington  Light  Infantry,  and  DeRosset  knew  he 
could  be  depended  upon.  At  once  handing  the  order  to  Quince, 
he.  Quince,  threw  up  his  hands  with  horror  at  being  called  upon  to 
be  the  instrument  in  carrying  out  such  an  order.  DeRosset  replied 
that  the  opinions  of  all  the  regimental,  field  and  staff,  as  well  as 
most  of  the  line  officers,  were  well  known  to  be  against  such  a 
system,  but  the  order  was  imperative,  and  must  be  obeyed.  Re- 
maining in  hearing,  and  feeling  that  fun  was  ahead,  DeRosset, 
standing  behind  the  captain's  tent,  heard  the  following,  almost 
literally  related: 

Lieutenant  Quince — "Sergeant,  make  the  men  fall  in 
with  arms."  This  was  done  quickly,  and,  addressing  the  men, 
he  read  the  order,  and  remarked :  "  Men,  there  are  two  candi- 
dates for  the  office,"  naming  them,  "and  there  is  but  one  of 
them  worth  a  d — n,  and  I  nominate  him.    All  who  are  in  favor 

of  electing    Sergeant   ,    come   to   a    shoulder.     Company^ 

shoulder  arms ! "  Then,  turning  to  the  Orderly  Sergeant,  re- 
marked: "Sergeant,  take  charge  of  the  company  and  dismiss 

Inside  of  fifteen  minutes  from  the  time  the  order  was  handed  the 
Colonel,  Lieutenant  Quince  handed  in  his  report:  "That  an  election 
had  been  held  in  accordance  with  Special  Order  No.  — ,  and  that 

222  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Sergeant had  been  unanimously  elected."     This  put  a  stop 

to  all  talk  about  elections  for  some  time,  and,  after  Craig's  pro- 
motion, the  subject  was  never  again  mentioned. 

Ripley  lay  in  camp  for  several  weeks,  while  details  were  made 
to  work  on  the  intrenchments  in  our  front  and  for  several  miles 
down  towards  the  Chickahominy,  while  other  details  gathered 
arms  from  the  several  battlefields. 

Up  to  this  time  the  Third  was  armed  principally  with  smooth- 
bore muskets,  but  with  the  ample  supply  of  the  Springfield 
rifled  muskets  gathered  from  the  field  and  captured,  there  was 
enough  to  supply  our  whole  army  with  the  improved  gun. 
Orders  came  from  headquarters  that  all  muskets  should  be  turned 
in  and  the  troops  armed  with  the  rifles.  Colonel  DeRosset 
believed  firmly  in  the  great  efficiency  of  the  smooth-bore  with 
buck  and  ball  cartridges,  and,  after  a  consultation  with  General 
Ripley,  secured  a  modification  of  the  order  as  applying  to  the 
Third  North  Carolina,  and  was  allowed  to  retain  muskets  for 
eight  companies,  arming  the  two  flank  companies  with  the  rifles. 
He  always  insisted  that  it  was  owing  to  the  good  use  of  the  buck 
and  ball  at  close  range  at  Sharpsburg  that  the  Third  were  enabled 
to  do  so  much  damage,  and  to  hold  their  position  after  advancing 
for  so  long  a  time. 

In  the  latter  part  of  July,  Colonel  DeRosset  returned  from 
Raleigh  and  brought  with  him  four  hundred  conscripts,  who 
were  at  once  divided  into  small  squads,  and,  under  command  of 
non-commissioned  officers,  were  drilled  several  hours  daily.  This 
not  only  helped  to  discipline  the  raw  levies,  but  hardened  them 
somewhat,  thus  enabling  them  the  better  to  stand  the  strains  inci- 
dent to  the  march  into  Maryland,  which  soon  followed. 

During  this  period,  awaiting  marching  orders,  the  first  execu- 
tion under  sentence  of  a  military  court  took  place  in  the  brigade 
on  the  person  of  an  Irishman  who  had  deserted  and  was  captured 
in  his  effiDrts  to  reach  the  enemy's  lines.  He  belonged  to  Cap- 
tain Dudley's  company,  of  the  First  North  Carolina,  and  the 
■firing  party  was  from  his  own  company,  who  did  their  sad  duty 
like  true  soldiers. 

Third  Regiment.  223 

About  the  time  that  Jackson  was  lookiug  for  Pope's  "  head- 
quarters," from  Culpepper  to  Manassas,  Ripley  received  march- 
ing orders,  and  the  brigade  went  by  rail  to  Orange  Court  House. 
Here  the  brigade  bivouacked  for  several  days,  ofiBcers  and  men 
wondering  why  we  were  held  back,  when  it  was  evident  that 
hard  work  was  going  on  at  the  front.  However,  marching 
orders  came  at  last,  and  after  much  time  given  to  preparation, 
we  finally  took  the  road  for  Culpepper  Court  House,  thence  in  a 
northerly  direction  to  the  Alexandria  and  Luray  pike,  striking 
that  road  about  sundown  at  a  point  called  Amisville.  To  the 
amazement  of  the  field  and  line  officers,  instead  of  marching 
toward  Warrenton,  where  it  was  generally  understood  Lee  had 
passed,  the  head  of  the  column  was  changed  to  the  left.  One  of 
the  officers  here  rode  up  to  the  head  of  the  column,  and  accosting 
General  Ripley,  asked  if  he  had  any  objection  to  saying  where 
we  were  marching  to.  His  reply  was:  "I  am  going  to  see  my 
sweetheart  at  Luray."  He  thereupon  ordered  a  halt,  and  to  go 
into  bivouac  at  once  and  prepare  rations  as  issued,  having  just 
received  by  courier  orders  from  General  Lee  to  march  at  once, 
and  quickly,  to  Manassas  Junction.  Next  morning,  after  a 
deliberate  breakfast,  the  column  counter-marched  and  reached 
Warrenton  about  2  or  3  o'clock  P.  M.  The  General  repaired  to 
a  private  house  for  refreshments,  directing  the  command  to  pro- 
ceed to  a  point  a  mile  or  two  out  on  the  Manassas  road  and 
bivouac,  with  special  instructions  to  the  officers  left  in  command 
to  have  the  column  drawn  up  in  line  on  the  road  ready  to  march 
at  4  o'clock  A.  M.  next  day,  but  not  to  move  until  he  came  up. 
The  command  was  on  time,  and  stood  in  a  drenching  rain  until 
about  7  o'clock,  when  Ripley  appeared,  and  the  column  moved 
on.  Arriving  at  the  Junction  about  3  or  4  o'clock  p.  M.,  in  full 
hearing  of  the  desperate  conflict  going  on  a  short  distance  ahead 
of  us,  we  were  deliberately  filed  off  the  road  in  an  opposite 
direction  and  halted,  bivouacked  there  that  night  and  next 
morning  crossed  Bull  Run  at  Sudley's  Ford,  having  passed  over 
perhaps  the  bloodiest  portion  of  the  field,  where  the  dead  and 
many  wounded  still  lay  in  the  sun.     Marching  through  a  country 

224  jSTorth  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

entirely  destitute  of  water  for  several  miles,  we  finally  reached 
the  Alexandria  and  Leesburg  pike,  where  a  halt  was  made  to 
allow  the  men  to  drink  and  fill  their  canteens.  Moving  on  in 
the  direction  of  Alexandria,  which  point  was  understood  to  be 
Lee's  objective  point,  we  came  up  while  the  battle  of  Ox  Hill 
was  being  fought,  and  were  held  in  reserve  until  its  close,  falling 
back  next  morning  to  a  beautiful  country-seat  known  as  Chan- 
tilly,  where  we  bivouacked  for  several  days. 

The  march  into  Maryland  then  commenced,  and  we  moved 
towards  Leesburg,  where  we  received  rations  again  and  prepared 
them  for  another  march ;  bivouacked  there  for  twenty-four 
hours,  and  then  taking  a  road  direct  to  the  Potomac,  crossed  at 
Point  of  Rocks ;  thence  moving  down  the  bank  of  the  river  along 
the  canal  to  Point  of  Rocks,  where,  taking  our  last  view  of  old 
Virginia,  we  took  the  road  for  Frederick  City  direct,  halting 
there  for  two  or  more  days. 

The  army  moved  westwardly  along  the  Great  Western  turn- 
pike, crossing  the  mountains,  and  bivouacked  that  night  a  little 
beyond  Boonsboro.  On  the  evening  of  Saturday,  September  13, 
1862,  the  brigade  was  counter-marched  toward  the  mountain  and 
placed  in  line  of  battle  on  the  north  side  of  the  pike,  near  the 
fobt  of  the  mountain,  again  in  reserve.  Next  morning,  Sunday, 
Colonel  Doles,  with  the  Fourth  Georgia,  was  detached  and  or- 
dered to  take  position  in  a  gap  on  the  north  side  of  the  pike,  and 
the  other  three  regiments  were  moved  up  the  mountain,  and  just 
to  the  east  of  the  tavern  on  the  summit  filed  to  the  right,  and 
moved  along  the  summit  road,  having,  before  leaving  the  pike, 
passed  the  body  of  General  Garland,  who  had  just  been  slain  at 
the  head  of  his  command.  Leaving  this  road,  they  moved  by 
one  leading  diagonally  down  the  mountain,  and,  on  reaching  the 
foot,  were  halted  some  half  mile  to  a  mile  from  the  pike,  on  the 
south.  Here  General  Ripley  concluded  that  his  command  and 
that  of  General  George  B.  Anderson  were  cut  off  from  the  troops 
on  his  left,  and  assuming  command  of  the  division,  notified  Colo- 
nel DeRosset  to  take  command  of  the  brigade.  General  Ander- 
son seemed  to  have  moved  up  the  mountain  very  promptly,  and 

Third  Eegiment.  225 

Ripley  ordered  Colonel  DeRosset  to  do  likewise.  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Thruston  was  ordered  to  take  a  company  of  skirmishers, 
covering  the  front  of  the  brigade,  and  soon  reported  that  troops 
were  in  his  front,  and  later  that  General  G.  B.  Anderson  was 
moving  across  his  front.  General  Ripley,  remaining  at  the  foot 
of  the  mountain,  was  informed  of  the  situation,  and  at  once 
ordered  his  brigade  to  fall  back.  It  was  then  moved  by  the  left 
flank  up  a  road  leading  diagonally  up  the  mountain  and  halted, 
occupying  that  position  until  quietly  withdrawn  sometime 
between  9  o'clock  p.  m.  and  midnight. 

General  Ripley  again  assumed  command  of  his  own  brigade 
and  marched  by  a  road  leading  towards  the  Boonsboro  and  Sharps- 
burg  pike.  On  reaching  a  point  on  the  crest  of  the  hill,  just 
after  crossing  the  Antietam  on  the  stone  bridge,  the  command 
was  placed  in  line  of  battle  under  the  hill,  the  right  of  the  Third 
North  Carolina,  in  absence  of  the  Fourth  Georgia,  on  the  right 
of  the  brigade  and  resting  on  the  Boonsboro  pike.  This  was  on 
the  evening  of  the  15th,  and  the  brigade  remained  in  that  posi- 
tion until  the  evening  of  the  16th,  under  a  heavy  artillery  fire 
from  the  enemy's  guns  on  the  east  side  of  the  creek,  but  without 
loss,  being  well  protected  by  the  crest  of  the  hill  under  which 
he  lay. 

Meantime  the  battle  had  opened  on  our  left,  and  as  that  seemed 
to  be  the  point  at  which  McClellan  would  make  his  greatest 
effort.  General  Ripley  was  ordered  in  that  direction  and  biv- 
ouacked to  the  east  of  the  Hagerstown  pike,  directly  opposite  the 
Dunkard  Church  and  south  of  the  Mumma  farm  house,  which 
latter  was  destroyed  by  fire  early  next  morning. 

About  daylight  on  thfe  17th  the  Federal  artillery  opened,  and 
one  of  the  first  guns,  from  a  point  near  which  McClellan  made 
his  headquarters,  fired  a  shell  which  fell  just  in  front  of  the 
brigade,  wounding  some  sixteen  officers  and  men  of  the  Third. 
The  advance  was  soon  ordered,  and  the  enemy  was  first  encount- 
ered in  an  open  field  a  little  to  the  south  of  the  famous  corn  field 
near  the  East  Woods,  and  the  smooth-bore  muskets  with  the  buck 
and  ball  cartridges  did  most  excellent  service,  being  at  very  close 


226  NoETH  Caeolina  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

quarters,  not  over  one  hundred  yards  from  the  first  line  of  the 
three  lines  of  the  enemy. 

There  being  quite  a  gap  in  our  lines  on  Ripley's  right,  a 
change  of  front  was  made  to  meet  a  flank  attack  by  the  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-eighth  Pennsylvania,  a  new  and  large 
regiment,  and  the  Third  North  Carolina,  being  still  on  the  right, 
met  with  heavy  losses  from  this  attack  before  the  movement  could 
be  made  with  assured  safety.  General  Ripley  had  been  slightly 
wounded  in  the  throat  early  in  the  action  and  the  brigade  was 
now  under  the  command  of  Colonel  George  Doles,  of  the  Fourth 
Georgia,  the  ranking  officer. 

About  the  time  that  the  movement  in  changing  from  front  to 
rear  began,  Colonel  DeRosset  was  severely  wounded,  and  per- 
manently disabled.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Thruston  at  once  took 
command,  and  charged  the  enemy,  maintaining  his  advanced 
position  until  forced  back  by  mere  weight  of  numbers.  From 
this  time  the  Third  North  Carolina  was  under  the  command  of 
Colonel  Thruston,  who  succeeded  to  the  full  command  upon  the 
resignation  of  Colonel  DeRosset,  some  months  later,  when  it  was 
definitely  determined  that  the  wound  of  the  latter  had  disabled 
him  permanently  for  active  service.  There  were  few,  if  any, 
regimental  commanders  in  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  who 
were  the  superior  of  Colonel  Thruston,  if  his  equal,  in  all  that 
goes  to  make  up  an  intelligent,  able  and  successful  leader.  He 
was  painfully  wounded  during  this  action,  but  refused  to  leave 
the  field. 

Of  the  twenty-seven  officers  who  went  into  action  on  that 
memorable  morning  all  save  three  were  disabled  and  seven  killed. 
Captain  McNair,  Company  H,  was  badly  wounded  in  the  leg 
early  in  the  day,  but  refused  to  leave,  althougb  urged  to  do  so 
by  the  Colonel,  and  soon  after  gave  up  his  life-blood  on  his  coun- 
try's altar. 

The  official  report  of  the  division  commander  gives  the  loss 
in  the  Third  North  Carolina,  but  it  is  less  than  was  reported  at 
the  close  of  the  day  by  Lieutenant  J.  F.  S.  Van  Bokkelen,  Acting 

Thied  Regiment.  227 

Adjutant,  who  stated  that  of  the  five  hundred  and  twenty  carried 
into  action  only  one  hundred  and  ninety  could  be  accounted  for. 

Of  the  conscripts  who  were  enlisted  in  the  Third  North  Caro- 
lina about  one  hundred  succeeded  in  keeping  up  with  their 
comrades  and  taking  part  in  the  Sharpsburg  battle.  During 
this  engagement,  while  the  whole  line  was  busily  engaged  in  their 
deadly  work,  one  of  the  conscripts  was  observed  calmly  walking 
up  and  down  behind  his  company,  and  upon  being  asked  why 
he  was  not  in  ranks  and  firing,  replied :  "  I  have  seen  nothing 
to  shoot  at,  and  I  have  only  sixty  rounds  of  cartridges;  I  don't 
care  to  waste  them."  He  was  instructed  to  lie  down,  and  being 
shown  the  blue  breeches  under  the  smoke,  his  face  bright- 
ened up  at  once  as  he  began  firing.  Seldom  was  truer  cour- 
age displayed  than  by  this  man,  who,  under  his  first  experience  in 
battle,  having  evidently  been  left  behind  as  his  company  double- 
quicked  to  the  front,  came  up  after  the  smoke  from  the  first  volleys 
had  obscured  everything,  and  could  see  nothing  in  front.  It 
would  indeed  be  interesting  to  know  this  man's  name  and  fate^ 
but  such  cannot  be,  for  he  probably  sleeps  in  a  soldier's  grave 
in  the  famous  corn  field,  unhonored  and  unsung,  where  so  many 
comrades  lie  buried. 

Of  the  original  captains  of  the  Third  North  Carolina: 

Captain  Drysdale  died  in  winter  quarters  at  Acquia  Creek 
during  the  winter  of  1861-'62,'and  was  buried  in  Goldsboro.  He 
died  of  pneumonia  contracted  in  the  performance  of  his  duties. 

Captain  Thruston  held  each  office  in  succession  until  he  reached 
the  colonelcy.  He  lives  in  Dallas,  Texas,  and  is  an  honored 
member  of  the  medical  profession. 

Captain  Mallett,  having  been  appointed  conscript  officer  of  the 
State,  with  the  rank  of  Major  and  subsequently  Colonel,  resigned 
his  captaincy.     He  now  lives  in  New'  York. 

Captain  Savage,  afterwards  Lieutenant-Colonel,  resigned  after 
the  battles  around  Richmond.     He  now  resides  in  New  York. 

Captain  Redd  resigned  his  commission  in  the  early  part  of 
1862.     He  is  now  a  farmer  in  Onslow  county. 

Captain  Parsley,  rising  to  the  rank  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  of 

228  North  Caeolina  Teoops,  1861-65. 

his  regiment,  was  killed  only  three  days  before  the  surrender  at 
Appomattox,  respected  and  beloved  by  all. 

Captain  Rhodes  was  wounded  at  Sharpsburg,  and  as  he  has 
never  since  been  heard  of,  it  is  supposed  he  died  of  his  wounds. 

Captain  Sikes,  having  absented  himself  from  his  command 
during  the  seven  days'  fight,  and  gone  to  his  home  without  proper 
leave  of  absence,  was  allowed  to  resign. 

Captain  Carmer  resigned  his  commission  soon  after  the  battles 
around  Richmond. 

Captain  Williams,  known  by  his  men  as  "Pap,"  as  brave  a 
man  as  ever  lived,  was  disemboweled  by  a  rifle  shot  from  the 
enemy's  batteries  at  Sharpsburg,  and  sleeps  in  a  soldier's  grave, 
with  his  blanket  for  a  shroud,  in  the  front  yard  of  the  house  in 
rear  of  the  village,  which  was  used  as  a  field  hospital  near  the 
Shepherdstown  pike. 

W.  L.  DeRosset. 

Wilmington,  jST.  C, 

9th  April,  1900. 


1.  Eryan  Grimes,  Colonel.  a.  E.  A.  Osborne,  Colonel. 

2.  George  B.  Anderson,  Colonel.  C.  J.  E.  Stansill,  Major. 

3.  James  H.  Wood,  Colonel.  7.  J.  P.  Shaffner,  Chief  Surgeon. 

4.  John  A.  Young,  Lieut. -Colonel.  8.  Rev.  W.  A.  Wood,  Chaplain. 

9.    J.  M.  Iladley,  Assistant  Surgeon. 


By  colonel  E.  A.  OSBORNE. 

To  write  a  full  and  accurate  history  of  this  noble  body  of  n 
would  require  far  more  time,  ability  and  space  than  the  pres 
writer  can  command.  But  as  the  honor  and  distinction  of  wi 
ing  a  brief  sketch  has  fallen  to  my  lot,  I  cheerfully  and  gr£ 
fully  address  myself  to  the  task,  feeling  at  the  same  time  dee] 
conscious  of  my  unworthiness  and  inability  to  handle  suet 
theme.  I  cannot  conceive  of  a  braver,  truer,  nobler,  more 
voted  and  self-denying  body  of  men  than  was  this  splendid  re 
ment  of  North  Carolinians.  In  every  position,  under  the  m 
trying  circumstances  in  which  men  can  be  placed,  from  the  ca 
of  instruction  to  the  close  of  a  four  years'  war — a  war  that 
volved  more  hardships,  more  persevering  courage  and  fortitu 
more  self-denial,  more  devotion,  more  true  manhood  and  end 
ance,  more  love  of  home,  of  country  and  of  principle,  and  m 
true  heroism  on  the  part  of  the  men  of  the  South  than  has  b 
manifested  at  least  in  modern  times,  these  devoted  men,  e 
forgetful  of  self,  and  following  firmly  and  steadily  in  the  lead 
patriotic  duty,  without  pay,  and  suffering  for  the  bare  neces 
ries  of  life  most  of  the  time,  never  flinched  nor  murmured;  1 
endured  with  sublime  patience  and  fortitude  the  hardships 
the  camp,  of  the  march,  of  the  bivouac,  and  the  many  terri 
scenes  of  strife,  and  blood,  and  carnage,  through  which  tl 
passed  during  these  four  long  and  terrible  years  of  suffering  a 


In  writing  this  sketch  I  must  be  content  to  give  a  mere  outl 
of  actual  occurrences.  The  facts  simply  stated  speak  for  the 
selves.  They  need  no  embellishment  to  commend  their  act 
to  the  admiration  of  all  who  value  and  love  what  is  brave  i 

230  NoETH  Carolina  Tboops,  1861-'65. 

true  aud  manly.  The  UDvaruished  story  o^  these  brave  and  de- 
voted mea  who  gave  themselves  for  the  cause  they  loved  fur- 
nishes such  examples  of  heroic  valor,  unselfish  devotion  and 
unwavering  faithfulness  as  will  be  an  inspiration  and  an  honor 
to  their  countrymen  in  all  future  ages. 

The  Fourth  Regiment  of  North  Carolina  State  Troops  was 
organized  at  Camp  Hill,  near  Garysburg,  N.  C,  in  May,  1861. 
The  field  officers  at  first  were: 

George  Buegwyn  Anderson,  Colonel. 

John  Augustus  Young,  Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Bryan  Grimes,  Major. 

Dr.  J.  K.  King,  Surgeon. 

Dr.  B.  S.  Thomas,  Assistant  Surgeon. 

Captain  John  D.  Hyman,  Commissary. 

Captain  Thomas  H.  Blount,  Quartermaster. 

Thomas  L.  Perry,  Adjutant. 

Rev.  William  A.  Wood,  Chaplain. 

R.  F.  SiMONTON,  Commissary  Sergeant. 

F.  A.  Carlton,  Sergeant- Major. 

Elam  Morrison,  Quartermaster's  Sergeant. 

Fourth  Kbgiment.  231 


Company  A — Iredell  County — Captain,  A.  K.  Simonton; 
First  Lieutenant,  W.  L.  Davidson;  Second  Lieutenant,  W.  G. 
Falls;  Second  Lieutenant,  William  F.  McRorie. 

Company  B — Rowan  County — Captain,  James  H.  Wood; 
First  Lieutenant,  A.  C.  Watson;  Second  Lieutenant,  J.  F. 
Stancill;  Second  Lieutenant,  J.  fl.  Harris. 

Company  C — Iredell  County — Captain,  John  B.  Andrews; 
First  Lieutenant,  James  Rufus  lieid;  Second  Lieutenant,  W.  A. 
Kerr;  Second  Lieutenant,  Joseph  C.  White. 

Company  D — Wayne  County — Captain,  J.  B.  Whittaker; 
First  Lieutenant,  Alexander  D.  Tumbro;  Second  Lieutenant, 
J.  J.  Bradley;  Second  Lieutenant,  R.  B.  Potts. 

Company  E — Beaufort  County— Cn-piaan,  David  M.  Carter; 
First  Lieutenant,  Thomas  L.  Perry;  Second  Lieutenant,  E.  J. 
Redding;  Second  Lieutenant,  Daniel  P.  Latham. 

Company  F — Wilson  County — Captain,  Jesse  S.  Barnes; 
First  Lieutenant,  J.  W.  Dunham;  Second  Lieutenant,  P.  N. 
Simms;  Second  Lieutenant,  Thomas  E.  Thompson. 

Company  G — Davie  County — Captain,  William  G.  Kelley; 
First  Lieutenant,  Samuel  A.  Kelley;  Second  Lieutenant,  Thomas 
J.  Brown;  Second  Lieutenant,  Samuel  A.  Davis. 

Company  H — Iredell  County — Captain,  Edwin  Augustus 
Osborne;  First  Lieutenant,  John  Z.  Daiton;  Second  Lieutenant, 
Hal.  H.  Weaver;  Second  Lieutenant,  John  B.  Forcum. 

Company  I — Beaufort  County — Captain,  W.  T.  Marsh;  First 
Lieutenant,  L.  R.  Creekman;  Second  Lieutenant,  Noah  B. 
Tuten;  Second  Lieutenant,  Bryan  S.  Bonner. 

Company  K — Rowan  County — Captain,  F.  Y.  McNeely; 
First  Lieutenant,  W.  C.  Coughenonr;  Second  Lieutenant,  Mar- 
cus Hofflin;  Second  Lieutenant,  W^illiam  Brown. 

Promotions  in  Company  A  during  the  war — W.  L. 
Davidson  to  Captain,  W.  G.  Falls  to  Captain,  W.  F.  McRorie 
to  Captain,  W.  K.  Eliason  to  First  Lieutenant,  F.  A.  Carlton 
to  First  Lieutenant,  A.  S.  Fraley  to  Second  Lieutenant,  J.  Pink 

232  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Cowan  to  Second  Lieutenant,  T.  M.  C.  Davidson  to  Second 
Lieutenant,  W.  R.  INlcNeely  to  Second  Lieutenant. 

Non-commissioned  Officers  in  Company  A — E.  F.  Mor- 
rison, W.  T.  J.  Harbin,  W.  L.  Shuford,  D.  A.  Doherty,  E.  C. 
Rumple,  P.  A.  Siiafer,  C.  D.  Murdock,  J.  A.  Stikeleather. 

Promotions  in  Company  B  during  the  avae — J.  F. 
Stancill  to  Captain,  J.  H.  Hilliard  to  Captain,  T.  C.  Watson  to 
Captain,  J.  W.  Shinn  to  First  Lieutenant,  Joseph  Barber  to 
Second  Lieutenant,  Isaac  A.  Cowan  to  Captain,  James  P.  Burke 
to  Second  Lieutenant. 

Non-commissioned  Officers  in  Company  B — J.  W. 
Phifer,  E.  F.  Barber,  B.  Knox  Kerr,  Rufus  Mills,  M.  S.  Mc- 
Kenzie,  John  Hellers,  H.  C.  Miller,  "William  A.  Burkhead,  D. 
W.  Steele,  B.  A.  Knox. 

Promotions  in  Company  C  during  the  war — Claudius 
S.  Alexander  to  Captain,  W.  A.  Kerr  to  Captain,  G.  A.  Andrews 
to  Captain,  T.  W.  Stephenson  to  First  Lieutenant,  J.  C.  White 
to  First  Lieutenant,  J.  A.  S.  Feimster  to  Second  Lieutenant,  S. 
A.  Claywell  to  Second  Lieutenant,  John  C.  Turner. 

Non-commissioned  Officers  in  Company  C — James  A. 
Sommers,  J.  J.  Troutman,  S.  J.  Thomas,  A.  J.  Anderson,  J.  C. 
Norton,  D.  P.  Dobbin,  Edward  May,  John  C.  Turner,  A.  M. 
White,  J.  A.  Feimster,  F.  A.  Shuford,  R.  O.  Sinster. 

Promotions  in  Company  D  during  the  war — Alexander 
Tumbro  to  Captain,  M.  C.  Hazelle  to  Captain,  T.  G.  Lee  to 
Captain,  Lovett  Lewis  to  Captain,  R.  B.  Potts  to  First  Lieuten- 
ant, J.  B.  Griswold  to  Second  Lieutenant,  Cader  Parker  to  Second 

Non-commissioned  Officers  in  Company  D— Robert  A. 
Best,  James  C.  Cotton,  M.  C.  Hazelle,  John  Holmes,  James 
Brewer,  George  Casey,  J.  J.  Ellis,  R.  W.  Hodgins,  Robert  Peel, 
J.  H.  Pearsall,  J.  R.  Williams,  J.  W.  Harrison,  D.  L.  Howell, 
J.  R.  Tumbro. 

Promotions  in  Company  E  during  the  war — D.  G. 
Latham  to  Captain,  T.  M.  Allen  to  Captain,  J.  H.  Carter  to 
Captain,  C.  K.  Gallagher  to  Captain,  E.  L.  Redding  to  Second 

Fourth  Regiment.  233 

Lieutenaat,  S.  J.  Litchfield  to  First  Lieutenant,  M.  T.  William- 
son to  Second  Lieutenant. 

Non-commissioned  Officers  in  Company  E — J.  F. 
Lucas,  Joseph  Cutler,  Joseph  Whegget,  George  Litchfield,  S.  B. 
Whitley,  T.  R.  Petterton,  C.  E.  Perry. 

Promotions  in  Company  F  during  the  war — John  W. 
Dunham  to  Captain,  H.  M.  Warren  to  Captain,  T.  G.  Lee  to 
First  Lieutenant,  T.  F.  Thompson  to  Second  Lieutenant,  S.  Y. 
Parker  to  Second  Lieutenant,  W.  V.  Stevens  to  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, T.  B.  Stith  to  Second  Lieutenant,  J.  D.  Wells  to  Second 

Non-commissioned  Officers  in  Company  F — W.  R. 
Hamraell,  R.  B.  Lancaster,  W.  P.  Fitzgerald,  J.  B.  Farmer,  J. 
H.  Marshburn,  R.  H.  Watson,  W.  E.  Winstead,  W.  O.  Wootten, 
J.  L.  Burton,  J.  B.  Farmer. 

Promotions  in  Company  G  during  the  war — S.  A 
Kelley  to  Captain,  B.  J.  Smith  to  First  Lieutenant,  D.  J.  Cain  to 
First  Lieutenant,  D.  G.  Snioot  to  Second  Lieutenant,  C.  A. 
Guffy  to  Second  Lieutenant,  W.  B.  Jones  to  Second  Lieutenant. 

Non-commissioned  Officers  in  Company  G — R.  D. 
Brown,  B.  B.  Williams,  P.  P.  Haynes,  L.  S.  Millican,  C.  A. 

Promotions,  in  Company  H  during  the  war — John  B. 
Forcum  to  Captain,  A.  M.  D.  Kennedy  to  First  Lieutenant,  Julius 
A.  Summers  to  First  Lieutenant,  J.  B.  Stockton  to  Second  Lieu- 

Non-commissioned  Officers  in  Company  H — J.  M. 
Albea,  H.  H.  James,  S.  H.  Bobbit,  I.  P.  Maiden,  H.  P.  Wil- 
liams, T.  M.  Ball,  J.  A.  Holmes,  John  A.  Feimster,  Stark  Gra- 
ham, A.  L.  Summers,  John  Barnett. 

Promotions  in  Company  I  during  the  war — Edward 
S.  Marsh  to  Captain,  B.  T.  Bonner  to  First  Lieutenant,  N.  B. 
Tuten  to  Second  Lieutenant,  T>.  C.  Styron  to  Second  Lieutenant, 
C  A.  Watson  to  Second  Lieutenant,  Edward  Tripp  to  Second 
Lieutenant,  James  A.  Herrington  to  Second  Lieutenant. 

Non-commissioned  Officersof  Company  I — C.  C.  Archi- 

234  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

bald,  Charles  Tripp,  Zack  B.  Caraway,  B.  B.  Ross,  R.  R.  Tuten,- 
Henry  L.  Clayton,  Charles  Tripp. 

Promotions  In  Company  K  during  the  war — W.  C. 
Coughenour  to  Captain,  Marcus  Hofflin  to  Captain,  Moses  L. 
Bean  to  Captain,  William  Brown  to  Second  Lieutenant,  Hamil- 
ton Long  to  Second  Lieutenant,  A.  N.  Wiseman  to  Second  Lieu- 

Non-commissioned  Officers  of  Company  K — W.  C.  Fra- 
ley,  James  Bowers,  John  E.  Renter,  John  L.  Lyerly,  James 

Number  of  Privates  in  the  Fourth  Regiment — Com- 
pany A,  153;  Company  B,  109;  Company  C,  170;  Company  D, 
98;  Company  E,  172;  Company  F,  109;  Company  G,  108;  Com- 
pany H,  246;  Company  I,  82;  Company  K,  129.     Total,  1,376. 

The  following  persons  composed  the  regimental  band,  which 
was  a  most  efficient  body  of  men,  always  at  the  post  of  duty, 
and  during  1864-'65  acting  as  litter-bearers  and  hospital  nurses 
in  time  of  engagements:  E.  B.  Neave,  Chief  Musician;  W.  R. 
Gorman,  John  Y.  Barber,  Thomas  Gillespie,  John  T.  Good- 
man, W.  A.  Moose,  J.  C.  Steel,  Nat.  Raymer,  Charles  Heyer, 

M.  J.  Weant,  Green  Austin,  Brawley,  E.  B.  Stinson, 


The  regiment  was  ordered  to  leave  camp  Hill,  near  Garys- 
burg,  N.  C,  and  proceed  to  Richmond  Va.,  on  the  20th  of  July, 
1861,  where  we  remained  until  the  29th  of  July,  when  we  were 
sent  to  Manassas  Junction,  Va.,  arriving  there  some  days  after 
the  bloody  engagement  which  was  the  first  great  battle  of  the  war. 
Here  we  remained  doing  post  and  fatigue  duty  and  drilling  dur- 
ing the  summer  and  winter.  Colonel  Anderson  having  been  as- 
signed to  the  command  of  the  post. 

While  at  Manassas  the  men  suffered  fearfully  with  sickness, 
and  many  valuable  young  men  succumbed  to  the  various  forms 
of  disease  that  assailed  us  there.  There  were  many  other  troops 
there,  and  almost  every  hour  in  the  day  the  funeral  dirge  could 
be  heard  and  the  firing  of  the  doleful  platoon  sounded  out  upon 
the  air  almost  continually,  reminding  us  that  death  was  busy  in 

FouETH  Eegiment.  235 

*the  camp;  and  almost  every  train  that  left  the  station  carried  the 
remains  of  some  soldier  boy  back  to  his  friends  at  home.  But 
when  the  winter  came  the  men  regained  their  health,  and  having 
become  inured  to  camp  life,  and  accustomed  to  taking  care  of 
themselves,  they  were  soon  in  fine  spirits.  In  fact,  when  we  left 
Manassas  Junction  on  the  8th  of  March,  1862,  they  had  the 
appearance  and  bearing  of  regular  troops,  and  were  in  a  measure 
prepared  for  the  terrible  ordeals  through  which  they  were  des- 
tined to  pass  in  the  course  of  the  next  few  months.  The  brigade 
was  now  composed  of  the  Forty-ninth  Virginia,  the  Twenty- 
seventh  and  Twenty-eighth  Georgia,  and  the  Fourth  North 
Carolina  Regiments,  and  was  under  the  command  of  Colonel 
Anderson,  and  the  regiment  in  command  of  Major  Grimes,  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Young  having  been  sent  to  Richmond  to  attend 
to  business  connected  with  the  command.  After  a  march  of 
several  days,  we  went  into  camp  at  Clark's  Mountain,  near 
Orange  Court  House  and  about  three  miles  from  the  Rapidan 
River.  Here  we  remained  until  the  8th  of  April,  when  we  were 
ordered  to  Yorktown.  At  this  place  we  had  our  first  experience 
in  contact  with  the  enemy — doing  picket  duty  and  having  some 
skirmishes  with  his  pickets.  We  also  were  subjected  to  the 
fire  of  their  gun-boats  on  the  river. 


On  the  night  of  the  4th  of  May,  1862,  Yorktown  was  evacu- 
ated. Major  Grimes  was  now  in  charge  of  the  picket-line,  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Young  in  command  of  the  regiment,  and  Colonel 
Anderson  still  in  command  of  the  brigade.  Major  Grimes  held 
the  picket-line  until  the  troops  had  gotten  under  way,  and  then, 
about  daylight,  he  withdrew  and  joined  the  regiment  about  noon. 
The  next  day  the  enemy  attacked  the  Confederate  forces  at 
Williamsburg.  Our  brigade  had  passed  through  the  town,  but 
upon  hearing  the  firing  in  the  rear,  we  quickly  faced  about  and 
marched  in  the  direction  of  the  engagement.  The  rain  was  pour- 
ing and  the  streets  of  the  town  covered  with  mud.  The  doors, 
yards  and  balconies  were  crowded   with  women  and  children 

236  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

wild  with  excitement,  waving  handkerchiefs  and  banners,  and* 

urging  us  on  to  the  conflict.  We  passed  a  number  of  wounded 
men,  some  streaming  with  blood  and  pale  with  exhaustion,  be- 
ing borne  upon  litters  or  supported  by  comrades.  The  excite- 
ment and  enthusiasm  of  the  mem  became  intense.  The  air  rang 
with  shouts  as  we  pressed  forward,  eager  for  the  fray.  We 
marched  directly  to  the  field  of  battle  and  -were  formed  in  line. 
The  air  was  alive  with  the  roar  of  artillery  and  musketry  and 
the  shouts  and  shrieks  of  men,  some  in  tones  of  triumph  and 
others  in  cries  of  pain.  The  balls  flew  thick  around  us,  and  a 
few  of  our  men  were  wounded;  but  we  were  not  actively  en- 
gaged. The  day  was  far  spent,  and  the  mists  of  night  soon 
gathered  over  the  field  and  put  an  end  to  the  strife.  We  passed 
the  night  on  the  field,  wet  and  faint  with  hunger  and  fatigue. 
The  night  was  cold;  no  fires  were  allowed,  and  the  men  suffered 
greatly.  Some  would  have  died  if  they  had  not  kept  in  motion 
by  stamping,  marking  time,  or  crowding  together  in  groups  to 
keep  each  other  warm. 

This  was  the  5th  of  May;  a  day  long  to  be  remembered  as  the 
first  actual  experience  we  had  on  the  field  of  battle,  and  wit- 
nessed the  dire  results  of  war.  All  night  long  we  could  hear 
the  cries  and  groans  of  some  wounded  men  in  our  front,  and  an 
occasional  shot  from  the  picket-line  told  of  the  presence  of  the 
foe,  which  would  not  permit  them  to  be  taken  care  of. 

The  next  day  we  resumed  the  line  of  march  towards  Rich- 
mond. The  roads  were  muddy  from  the  rains  and  stirred  up 
by  the  artillery  and  baggage  trains.  The  men  literally  waded 
almost  knee-deep  in  mud  most  of  the  day.  Their  rations  were 
exhausted,  and  that  night  each  man  received  an  ear  of  hard  corn 
for  his  supper;  but  not  a  murmur  did  I  hear.  The  boys  parched 
their  corn  and  ate  it  with  the  best  grace  they  could  command, 
and  were  glad  to  rest  quietly  for  the  night.  The  next  day  we 
were  supplied  with  rations. 

On  the  13th  of  May  we  came  to  the  Chickahominy  E.iver, 
where  we  remained  until  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines,  or  Fair 

Fourth  Eegiment.  237 


The  day  before  this  bloody  engagement  was  hot  and  sultry. 
The  regiment  was  kept  under  arms  all  day,  and  frequently  changed 
its  position  as  if  expecting  an  engagement.  About  sunset  we 
went  into  bivouac  and  were  ordered  to  prepare  rations  for  the 
next  day.  The  men  were  stirring  until  late  at  night,  and  then, 
tired  and  jaded,  they  sought  repose.  But  soon  a  most  terrible 
thunder-storm  came  down  upon  us.  -It  seemed  as  if  heaven  and 
earth  were  being  torn  to  pieces,  while  the  rain  came  down  in 
torrents  upon  the  men,  who  were  poorly  sheltered,  some  with 
little  fly  tents  and  many  with  only  a  single  blanket  on  a  pole 
instead  of  a  tent.  But  towards  morning  the  storm  passed  away, 
leaving  the  air  cool  and  bracing;  and  the  men  slept.  The  31st 
was  a  lovely  May  morning,  and  the  sun  rose  bright  and  clear. 
The  men  were  full  of  life  and  the  woods  resounded  with  their 
voices  and  movements.  Breakfast  was  soon  dispatched  and  the 
order  16  "fall  in"  was  given. 

The  regiment  was  in  fine  condition.  Twenty-five  commissioned 
officers  and  five  hundred  and  twenty  men  and  non-commissioned 
officers  reported  for  duty  on  the  morning  of  the  31st  of  May, 
1862;  and  as  they  filed  out  and  moved  off  toward  the  battlefield 
of  Seven  Pines  they  presented  a  splendid  picture  of  manhood, 
energy  and  courage.  The  brigade  was  still  under  command  of 
Colonel  Anderson,  the  regiment  under  Major  Grimes,  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  J.  A.  Young  having  been  sent  home  on  special  duty. 
Early  in  the  afternoon  we  were  drawn  up  in  front  of  the  enemy's 
works  near  the  Williamsburg  road,  under  cover  of  a  heavy  forest, 
within  one-fourth  of  a  mile  of  the  enemy's  batteries  and  redoubts. 
A  formidable  abatis,  formed  by  felling  a  dense  grove  of  old  field 
pines  and  cutting  the  limbs  partly  off  so  as  to  form  obstructions 
to  our  approach,  lay  between  us  and  the  enemy's  works.  The 
ground  was  also  covered  with  water  in  many  places — from  six 
inches  to  waist-deep.  The  Fourth  Regiment  was  to  the  left  of 
the  stage  road,  the  right  being  near  the  road,  which  ran  diagonally 
across  our  front,  crossing  the  enemy's  line  a  little  to  the  left  of 
the  front  of  the  Fourth  Regiment.     A  very  heavy  redoubt  was 

238  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

in  front  of  us,  bristling  with  artillery  supported  by  a  mass  of 
infantry  and  flanked  on  either  side  by  extensive  earth-works 
filled  with  men  supported  by  artillery.  We  had  not  been  in 
this  position  but  a  few  minutes  when  the  enemy  opened  on  us 
with  his  artillery.  A  fearful  storm  of  shot,  shell,  grape  and 
canister  tore  through  the  trees,  plowing  up  the  ground  on  every 
side  and  cutting  down  the  branches  and  saplings  around  us. 
Soon  the  order  was  passed  along  the  line  to  move  forward.  The 
men  sprang  to  their  feet  without  a  word  and  advanced  to  the 
assault.  For  many  rods  we  made  our  way  through  the  obstruc- 
tions above  mentioned,  under  a  terrible  fire  of  musketry  and 
artillery,  which  we  could  not  return  with  any  effect  on  account 
of  the  confusion  into  which  we  were  thrown  by  the  obstructions 
and  the  great  difiieulty  of  getting  over  them.  Heavy  musketry 
on  the  right  indicated  that  the  battle  was  raging  there  with  ter- 
rible fury.  Onward  moved  our  devoted  men,  until  at  last  the 
open  field  was  reached  within  one  hundred  yards  of  the  enemy's 
works.  The  men  quickly  resumed  their  places  in  line  of  battle 
and  opened  fire  upon  the  enemy  with  such  deadly  eScct  as  to 
cause  a  momentary  lull  in  the  storm  of  deadly  missiles  that  were 
assailing  us.  But  again  the  enemy  renewed  his  fire  with  redoubled 
fury.  Our  line  moved  on  to  within  fifty  or  sixty  yards  of  the 
enemy's  works.  The  men  were  falling  rapidly.  We  halted  near 
a  zigzag  fence  to  await  support  on  the  right,  which  had  failed  to 
come  up.  The  enemy's  fire  continued  with  unabated  fury,  and 
it  was  evident  that  the  regiment  could  not  remain  there  without 
being  utterly  destroyed.  The  writer  of  this  narrative  looked 
around  for  a  field  officer.  Major  Grimes  was  near,  sitting  calmly 
on  his  iron-gray  horse,  with  one  leg  thrown  over  the  saddle  bow, 
as  afterwards  so  often  seen  on  the  battlefield.  I  seized  his  leg  to 
attract  his  attention.  He  leaned  toward  me  with  his  ear  near  my 
face  to  hear  what  I  had  to  say.  "  Major,"  I  shouted,  "  we  can't 
stand  this.  Let  us  charge  the  works."  "All  right,"  said  the 
Major,  "Charge  them!  'Charge  them!"  I  rushed  back  to  the 
front  of  my  company,  leaped  over  the  fence,  and  waved  them 
forward  with  hat  and  sword.     My  company,  H,  rushed  forward, 

Fourth  Regiment.  239 

and  the  whole  regiment  instinctively  moved  with  them,  yelling 
and  firing  as  they  advanced.  In  front  of  our  left  was  a  field 
battery  which  was  instantly  silenced,  also  the  heavy  battery  in 
front  of  our  centre  and  right.  On  we  rushed  with  such  impetuos- 
ity and  determination  that  the  enemy  abandoned  everything  and 
retired.  We  captured  the  works  and  six  pieces  of  artillery. 
But  again  we  had  to  halt  to  await  necessary  support  on  the  right 
and  left.  The  writer  of  this  sketch  was  wounded  at  this  point 
within  a  few  rods  of  the  breastworks.  After  the  works  were 
captured  in  the  first  assault  the  line  retired  to  the  fence  from 
which  we  had  made  the  charge,  to  await  re-inforcements,  which 
arrived  in  a  few  minutes,  when  the  whole  line  advanced  and 
drove  the  enemy  entirely  away. 

When  the  second  charge  was  ordered  the  regiment  passed  over 
the  same  ground  over  which  they  had  charged  but  a  little  while 
before.  It  was  appalling  to  see  how  much  the  line  had  been 
reduced  in  numbers.  The  heavy,  compact,  orderly  line  of  half 
an  hour  previous  was  now  scarcely  more  than  a  line  of  skirmish- 
ers, but  they  moved  with  the  same  boldness  and  determination 
as  before.  The  ground  was  literally  covered  with  the  bodies  of 
their  dead  and  wounded  comrades,  yet  they  moved  steadily  for- 
ward, directing  their  fire  with  telling  efiPect  until  within  a  few 
paces  of  the  fortifications,  when  the  enemy  again  retired  from  his 

Of  the  twenty-five  commissioned  officers  and  six  hundred,  and 
fifty-three  men  and  non-commissioned  officers  every  officer  except 
Major  Grimes  was  killed,  wounded  or  disabled,  while  of  the  men 
seventy-four  were  killed  and  two  hundred  and  sixty-five  were 
wounded.  Major  Grimes  had  a  horse  killed  under  him  in  the 
charge.  His  foot  was  caught  under  the  horse,  and  it  was  with  much 
difficulty  that  he  was  extricated  from  his  helpless  condition.  While 
on  the  ground  and  unable  to  rise,  he  waved  his  sword  and  shouted : 
"Go  on,  boys !  Go  on !"  Upon  regaining  his  feet  he  saw  that 
his  color-bearer,  James  Bonner,  of  Company  K,  was  killed,  when 
he  seized  the  flag  himself  and  rushed  forward,  waving  his  men 
on  to  the  charge.     After  the  works  were  captured  John  A.  Stike- 

240  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65 

leather,  of  CompaDy  A,  asked  to  be  allowed  to  carry  the  flag; 
and  from  that  day  to  the  close  of  the  war,  except  when  necessarily 
absent  for  a  short  time,  he  bravely  bore  the  regimental  colors. 

A  few  minutes  after  the  -enemy  was  driven  from  his  works 
he  began  to  rally  in  rear  of  his  tents.  Major  Grimes  order- 
ed his  regiment  into  a  piece  of  woodland  near  by,  and  opened 
fire  upon  him.  In  moving  at  double-quick  across  the  open  field, 
to  seek  the  cover  of  the  woods,  he  discovered  that  the  enemy 
was  throwing  up  breastworks  on  his  right.  He  charged,  driv- 
ing him  away  and  taking  a  number  of  prisoners.  The  night 
was  spent  upon  the  field.  The  men  being  worn  out,  were  glad 
to  stretch  themselves  upon  the  ground  and  rest,  surrounded,  as 
they  were,  by  dead  and  wounded  men  and  animals,  while  the  air 
was  filled  with  cries  and  groans  of  the  wounded  and  dying. 

The  conduct  of  the  officers  and  men  in  this  notable  conflict 
was  splendid  beyond  description.  Their  coolness  and  delibera- 
tion in  making  their  way  through  the  abatis,  under  the  most 
galling  fire  at  short  range;  the  firmness  and  calmness  with  which 
they  reformed  their  weakened  and  disordered  line  and  awaited 
orders  in  the  open  field  within  seventy-five  yards  of  the  enemy's 
works,  under  the  same  awful  and  destructive  fire;  the  coolness 
and  precision  with  which  they  delivered  their  fire  under  all  these 
trying  conditions;  the  irresistible  firmness  and  determination 
with  which  they  made  that  wonderful  and  heroic  charge  in  the 
very  jaws  of  death;  the  calmness  and  sullenness  with  which  they 
retired  when  the  danger  of  being  flanked  was  apparent,  and  the 
grim  and  unwavering  determination  with  which  they  returned 
to  the  second  charge  and  continued  to  fight,  all  displayed  a 
spirit  of  courage  and  manliness  worthy  of  any  men  the  world 
has  ever  produced.  It  would  be  a  privilege  to  record  the  list  of 
the  gallant  men  who  fell  in  this  fight,  but  time  and  space  for- 
bids. Their  names  may  not  be  known  to  history  or  to  fame,  but 
their  comrades  knew  them  and  loved  them.  We  believe  the 
world  is  better  and  humanity  is  honored  and  ennobled  by  the 
lives  of  such  men,  and  that  both  are  the  poorer  by  their  un- 
timely loss. 

Fourth  Regiment.  241 

The  figures  in  regard  to  the  number  of  the  men  engaged  and 
of  those  killed  and  disabled  are  taken  from  Colonel  G.  B. 
Anderson's  ofificial  report  of  the  battle.  In  all  this  carnage 
these  heroic  men  never  for  an  instant  wavered  or  showed 
the  slightest  trepidation.  It  was  as  if  some  superhuman  spirit 
had  been  infused  into  them,  and  nothing  but  death  itself 
could  stop  them.  The  writer  shall  never  forget  his  feelings 
as  he  lay  upon  that  bloody  field  wounded  and  helpless,  and 
saw  those  brave  men  pressing  on  in  the  face  of  that  death- 
dealing  fire.  On  they  went,  their  ranks  growing  thinner  and 
thinner,  until  within  a  few  paces  of  the  enemy's  works,  be- 
hind which  masses  of  bayonets  were  gleaming.  Surely  they  will 
all  be  made  prisoners.  But  no.  The  forest  of  gleaming  steel 
begins  to  waver,  and  then  to  move  away  in  confusion;  and  the 
works  are  ours!  Three  color-bearers  were  among  the  killed, 
and  Major  Grimes  then  took  the  flag  and  carried  it  through  the 
remainder  of  the  fight. 

It  may  be  proper  to  say  a  word  in  regard  to  the  absence  of 
Lieutenant-Colonel  John  A.  Young  from  the  regiment  at  this 
battle  and  thereafter.  He  had  been  for  some  time  before  the 
war,  and  at  its  beginning,  a  manufacturer  of  woolen  cloth;  and 
had  been  sent  home  to  procure  clothing  for  the  men  of  the  regi- 
ment, which  he  abundantly  supplied.  Colonel  Young  was  also 
afflicted  with  a  distressing  and  incurable  disease,  which  rendered 
him  unfit  for  active  military  service.  This  was  a  great  sorrow 
to  him,  as  he  was  a  devoted  patriot  and  naturally  of  a  military 
spirit.  But  being  assured  that  he  could  serve  his  country  more 
effectually  at  home  than  in  the  army,  he  at  the  earnest  request  of 
Governor  Vance,  as  well  as  of  friends  in  the  army  and  at  home, 
resigned  his  commission  and  devoted  himself  to  manufacturing 
clothing  for  the  soldiers.  This  he  did  at  much  pecuniary  sacri- 
fice to  himself,  insomuch  that  the  close  of  the  war  found  him 
almost  a  bankrupt  in  estate.  He  devoted  himself  specially  to 
supplying  the  wants  of  the  Fourth  Regiment,  at  one  time  sup- 
plying every  member  in  the  regiment  with  a  uniform  and  cap  at 
his  own  individual  cost,  and  his  enterprise,  industry  and  munifi- 

242  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

ceuce  contributed  greatly  to  the  comfort  and  welfare  of  North 
Carolina  soldiers  generally. 

After  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines,  until  the  26th  of  June,  we 
were  mainly  occupied  in  resting,  drilling  and  recruiting  the 


On  the  26th  of  June  we  crossed  the  Chickahominy  River  and 
joined  the  troops  about  to  engage  in  the  battle  of  Mechanicsville. 
Soon  the  regiment  was  under  heavy  fire,  which  lasted  for  several 
hours,  in  that  most  trying  of  all  positions,  supporting  other 
troops  who  were  actively  engaged  in  battle.  There  was  a  bat- 
tery in  front  of  us  doing  great  damage  to  our  troops.  General 
D.  H.  Hill  ordered  Major  Grimes  to  charge  this  battery  with 
his  regiment,  the  Fourth.  Major  Grimes  informed  him  that  he 
had  only  a  mere  skeleton  of  a  regiment,  and  that  the  attempt 
would  be  futile,  as  there  were  not  more  than  one  hundred  and 
fifty  men  and  officers  for  duty.  The  General  then  ordered  him 
to  hold  himself  in  readiness  to  make  the  charge  in  case  others 
who  had  been  ordered  forward  should  fail  to  take  the  battery. 
The  charge  was  made  by  the  other  troops  and  the  enemy  driven 
away.     We  then  resumed  our  position  on  the  right  of  the  brigade- 

cold  harbor. 

For  some  time  the  enemy  seemed  to  be  retiring  before  us. 
After  a  great  deal  of  marching  and  manoeuvering,  we  came  within 
sight  of  the  retreating  foe.  The  men  raised  a  shout  and  set 
out  at  double-quick  in  pursuit.  Major  Grimes  took  the  flag  and 
rode  forward,  leading  the  charge,  the  men  following  in  good 
order.  Suddenly  a  volley  from  the  enemy's  guns  admonished  us 
that  there  was  serious  work  at  hand.  Hitherto  we  had  been 
moving  in  column.  Line  of  battle  was  quickly  formed.  The 
brigade  recoiled  for  a  moment,  but  soon  recovered,  and  stood 
their  ground  like  men.  The  firing  of  musketry  in  our  front 
was  very  heavy  and  incessant.  We  were  ordered  to  change  our 
position  to  a  piece  of  woodland  on  the  left,  where  we  remained 

Fourth  Regiment.  243 

for  some  time,  while  the  battle  raged  with  fury  in  our  front  and 
on  our  right.  We  were  then  ordered  forward  in  line  of  battle 
across  an  open  field,  after  crossing  which  we  passed  through  a 
piece  of  woods,  when  suddenly  we  encountered  a  line  of  battle 
concealed  in  the  underwood  in  front  of  us.  They  opened  fire 
on  us.  Our  line  halted  and  poured  a  volley  into  their  ranks. 
Volley  after  volley  followed  as  our  men  steadily  advanced.  Soon 
the  enemy  gave  way.  We  now  had  a  little  time  to  rest  and  reform 
our  line.  Soon  we  heard  heavy  firing  in  front  and  to  the  right, 
when  it  was  discovered  that  some  of  our  troops  were  pressing 
down  upon  the  enemy's  left.  In  front  of  us  was  an  open  field 
with  a  ridge  extending  across  parallel  with  our  line,  towards 
which  we  advanced.  On  reaching  the  top  of  the  ridge  the  enemy 
was  seen  lying  in  an  old  road,  seeking  shelter  behind  its  banks 
and  other  objects  that  afforded  him  protection.  The  order 
was  given  to  charge,  and  the  men  responded  with  a  shout,  rush- 
ing across  the  field  in  the  face  of  a  furious  fire.  The  scene  was 
terrific  beyond  description.  The  yells  of  our  men,  the  roar  of 
musketry,  the  thunder  of  artillery,  the  shrieks  of  the  wounded 
and  dying,  the  screaming  of  shells,  with  the  loud  commands  of 
the  officers,  all  combined  to  excite  and  stimulate  the  men,  who 
rushed  across  the  field,  closing  up  their  ranks  as  their  comrades 
fell,  cut  down  by  the  enemy's  fire,  who  held  their  ground  stub- 
bornly until  we  were  almost  near  enough  to  cross  bayonets  with 
him,  when  he  gave  way  and  fled  in  confusion.  It  was  now 
night,  and  the  men,  exhausted  with  the  terrible  efibrts  of  the  day, 
were  glad  to  unroll  their  blankets  and  rest  upon  the  ground. 

Such  was  the  part  borne  by  the  Fourth  Regiment  in  the  battle 
of  Cold  Harbor.  We  lost  heavily  in  proportion  to  our  numbers. 
Of  one  hundred  and  fifty  men  eight  were  killed  and  fifty  wound- 
ed. Among  the  wounded  was  the  brave  and  faithful  soldier, 
Captain  John  B.  Andrews,  who  died  afterwards  from  his  wounds. 
Colonel  Grimes  had  a  horse  killed  under  him,  and  led  his  men 
on  foot  until  another  was  captured,  which  he  rode  the  balance  of 
the  day.  John  A.  Stikeleather,  our  color-bearer,  acted  with  such 
coolness  and  bravery  as  to  elicit  the  public  commendation  of  the 

244  North  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

regimeDtal  commander.  Many  instances  of  individual  bravery 
might  be  mentioned  if  time  and  space  would  permit.  Among 
the  killed  in  this  battle  was  the  brave  and  gallant  Captain  Blount, 
who,  though  Quartermaster  of  the  regiment,  and  not  bound  to 
go  into  danger,  was  acting  as  volunteer  aid  to  General  Anderson 
that  day,  and  was  shot  while  carrying  the  flag  of  one  of  the 

Major  Grimes  was  made  Colonel  of  the  regiment.  Captain 
Carter  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Captain  James  H.  Wood,  Major. 
Colonel  Carter's  wound  disabled  him  to  such  an  extent  that  he 
was  retired  to  light  duty,  and  Major  "Wood  was  made  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  in  his  place  and  Captain  Osborne  promoted  to  Major. 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Wood's  wound  was  also  of  a  very  stubborn 
character,  and  rendered  it  necessary  for  him  to  be  put  upon  light 
duty  for  many  months. 

The  regiment  participated  in  other  movements  of  the  army 
around  Richmond,  engaging  in  various  skirmishes  during  the 
memorable  campaign  of  the, seven  days'  fight.  Together  with 
the  Fifth  North  Carolina  Regiment  it  was  detailed  to  bury  the 
dead  and  both  thus  escaped  the  disastrous  assault  at  Malvern 
Hill  on  the  2d  of  July.  The  brigade  was  reorganized  so  as  to 
consist  of  the  Second,  Fourteenth,  Thirtieth  and  Fourth  North 
Carolina  Regiments,  and  with  the  rest  of  Lee's  army  moved  into 
Maryland,  passing  over  the  battlefield  known  as  Second  Manas- 
sas, crossing  the  Potomac  near  Leesburg.  We  encamped  near 
Frederick  City,  and  theuce,  crossing  the  Blue  Ridge,  encamped 
near  Boonsboro. 


On  the  14th  of  September  we  took  part  in  what  is  known 
as  the  battle  of  Boonsboro,  or  South  Mountain.  We  had 
marched  a  few  miles  beyond  the  mountain  pass,  where  we 
spent  the  night  of  the  13th  of  September  in  camp.  Early 
on  the  morning  of  the  14th  we  were  ordered  back  to  the  pass  at 
double-quick.  Soon  we  heard  cannonading  and  musketry,  indi- 
cating that  a  battle  was  in  progress.     When  we  reached  the 

Fourth  Regiment.  245 

summit  of  the  mountain  we  found  the  enemy  in  heavy  force 
pressing  our  men.  The  brigade  under  General  Anderson  was 
divided,  he  taking  the  Fourteenth  and  Thirtieth  North  Carolina 
Regiments  to  the  left,  or  north  of  the  pass,  and  directing  Colonel 
Tew  to  take  the  Second  and  Fourth  to  the  south  of  the  road,  or 
to  the  right,  facing  Frederick  City.  Filing  some  half  mile  to 
the  right,  we  formed  line  of  battle  and  moved  in  the  direction  of 
the  firing;  but  when  we  approached  the  scene  of  action  the  firing 
ceased,  and  we  found  that  the  enemy  had  been  repulsed  by  Gen- 
eral Garland's  Brigade,  but  at  the  cost  of  the  life  of  that  gallant 
and  faithful  soldier,  whose  lifeless  form  was  borne  past  us  before 
we  reached  the  scene  of  action.  We  then  took  position  on  the 
brow  of  the  ridge.  While  iu  this  position  the  writer  heard  firing 
in  front  of  our  line,  and  started  to  make  a  reconnaissance  to  ascer- 
tain the  cause.  He  cautiously  crossed  the  stone  fence  behind 
which  we  lay  and  started  to  follow  a  wooden  fence  joining  it  at 
a  right  angle,  when  a  shower  of  bullets  clattered  against  the  stone 
fence,  admonishing  him  that  his  njovements  were  being  closely 
observed  by  deadly  foes.  He  quickly  sought  shelter  behind  the 
wall  from  which  he  had  ventured,  satisfied  with  his  advanture, 
and  thankful  to  escape  unhurt.  The  regiment  was  then  ordered 
to  make  a  reconnaissance  to  the  front  and  right,  through  the 
woods.  Company  H,  under  command  of  Captain  Osborne,  was 
deployed  as  skirmishers,  with  instructions  to  move  slowly  and 
silently  through  the  thick  forest  and  dense  underwood  in  front 
of  the  regiment.  Our  progress  was  necessarily  very  slow,  as  the 
woods  were  very  dense  and  the  ground  very  rugged  and  moun- 
tainous. We  moved  toward  the  south  and  swung  around 
gradually  toward  the  east,  marching  about  three-fourths  of  a  mile, 
when  we  discovered  a  heavy  force  of  the  enemy  in  a  field  on  the 
crest  of  the  ridge,  with  a  battery  of  field  artillery.  I  at  once 
reported  this  fact  to  General  Anderson,  who  had  now  come  up 
with  the  regiment,  and  quickly  returned  to  the  front,  and  was 
surprised  to  find  the  whole  force  of  the  enemy  moving  down  upon 
us  in  line  of  battle.  They  opened  upon  us  a  heavy  fire.  Our 
men  received  them  firmly,  returning  their  fire  with  spirit.     We 

246  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

had  the  advantage  of  shelter  in  the  dense  woods,  while  the  enemy- 
was  in  the  open  field,  and  must  have  suffered  severely;  but  soon 
night  drew  on  and  put  a  stop  to  the  engagement.  We  then 
returned  to  the  road  from  whence  we  had  started  early  in  the 
afternoon.  Thus  ended  one  of  the  most  trying  and,  in  some 
respects,  one  of  the  most  splendid  days  of  the  war.  General  D. 
H.  Hill  had  with  the  small  force  of  about  five  or  six  thousand 
men  bafiled  and  held  in  check  all  day  long  a  force  of  probably 
ten  times  as  many  men,  and  enabled  General  Lee  to  get  his 
forces  together  at  Sharpsburg.  The  men  bore  themselves  with 
much  coolness  and  courage  throughout  the  entire  day.  Oar  loss 
in  killed  and  wounded  was  small,  but  among  them  some  of  our 
best  men.  At  night  the  army  was  withdrawn  and  moved  to  the 
vicinity  of  Sharpsburg,  where  we  arrived  at  11  o'clock  on  the 
15th  and  remained  in  line  of  battle  most  of  the  time  until  the 
morning  of  the  17th.  The  regiment  was  now  under  command 
of  Captain  W.  T.  Marsh,  Colonel  Grimes  having  been  com- 
pelled to  retire  from  the  fieid  on  account  of  an  injury  received 
on  the  morning  of  the  14th  at  Boonsboro. 


Wednesday,  the  17th  of  September,  1862,  was  a  day  that  will 
go  down  in  history  as  having  witnessed  one  of  the  great  battles 
of  the  war.  Anderson's  Brigade  had  been  on  the  right  of  the 
division  from  the  14th  until  the  morning  of  the  17th,  when  it 
was  moved  to  the  old  road,  afterwards  known  as  the  "Bloody 
Lane."  The  Fourth  Regiment  was  commanded  by  Captain 
Marsh,  the  Second  by  Colonel  Tew,  the  Thirtieth  by  Colonel 
Parker,  the  Fourteenth  by  Colonel  Bennett,  the  brigade  by 
General  George  B.  Anderson,  General  D.  H.  Hill  having  com- 
mand of  the  division.  The  Thirtieth  was  on  the  right  of  the 
brigade,  the  Fourth  next,  then  the  Fourteenth,  and  the  Second 
was  on  the  left.  About  an  hour  after  sunrise  the  enemy  came 
in  sight  and  began  the  attack  at  once.  Anderson's  Brigade  was 
partially  protected  by  the  bank  of  the  old  road  above  mentioned, 
which  ran  parallel  with  the  line  of  battle  in  rear  of  the  crest  of 

Fourth  Regiment.  247 

a  ridge  which  concealed  our  men  from  the  enemy's  sight  until 
they  were  within  seventy-five  or  eighty  yards  of  us. 

About  nine  o'clock  the  enemy's  line  of  battle  appeared,  mov- 
ing in  magnificent  style,  with  mounted  officers  in  full  uniform, 
swords  gleaming,  banners,  plumes  and  sashes  waving,  and  bayo- 
nets glistening  in  the  sun.  On  they  came  with  steady  tramp 
and  confident  mien.  They  did  not  see  our  single  line  of  hungry, 
jaded  and  dusty  men,  who  were  lying  down,  until  within  good 
musket  shot,  when  we  rose  and  delivered  our  fire  with  terrible 
effect.  Instantly  the  air  was  filled  with  the  cries  of  wounded 
and  dying  and  the  shouts  of  brave  officers,  trying  to  hold  and 
encourage '  their  men,  who  recoiled  at  the  awful  and  stunning 
shock  so  unexpectedly  received.  Soon  they  rallied  and  advanced 
again ;  this  time  more  cautiously  than  before.  Our  men  held 
their  fire  until  they  were  within  good  range  again,  and  again  they 
rose  to  their  feet  and  mowed  them  down,  so  that  they  were  com- 
pelled to  retire  a  second  time;  but  they  rallied  and  came  again, 
and  the  battle  now  became  general  all  along  the  line.  The  roar 
of  musketry  was  incessant  and  the  booming  of  cannon  almost 
without  intermission.  Occasionally  the  shouts  of  men  could  be 
heard  above  the  awful  din,  indicating  a  charge  or  some  advantage 
gained  by  one  side  or  the  other.  Horses  without  riders  were 
rushing  across  the  field,  occasionally  a  section  of  artillery  could 
be  seen  flying  from  one  point  to  another,  seeking  shelter  from 
some  murderous  assault,  or  securing  a  more  commanding  posi- 
tion. Soon  Captain  Marsh  was  mortally  wounded  and  borne 
from  the  field.  The  command  of  the  regiment  then  devolved 
upon  Captain  Osborne,  who  in  turn  was  wounded  and  borne 
from  the  field.  One  by  one  the  other  company  officers  fell, 
either  killed  or  wounded,  until  Second  Lieutenant  Weaver,  of 
Company  H,  was  in  command  of  the  handful  of  men  who  were 
left,  and  then  he  was  killed  bearing  the  colors  of  the  regiment 
in  his  hand.  The  regiment  was  left  without  a  commissioned 
officer;  but  the  men  needed  none,  except  for  general  purposes. 
There  were  not  more  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  men  for  duty, 
every  one  of  whom  seemed  to  realize  his  own  value,  and  to  act 

248  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

with  that  cool  and  determined  courage  which  showed  that  he 
understood  the  emergency,  and  was  determined  to  do  his  best. 
All  day  long  the  battle  raged  with  almost  unabated  fury  and 
with  varying  results,  sometimes  one  side  gaining  the  advantage 
and  then  the  other. 

As  the  day  wore  away  the  contest  seemed  to  gather  new  force. 
The  enemy  renewed  their  efforts  to  gain  what  they  had  failed  to 
achieve  during  the  day,  while  the  Confederates  were  equally 
determined  to  defeat  their  aims.  The  flower  of  the  two  great 
armies  had  met  in  open  field,  and  neither  was  willing  to  leave 
the  other  in  possession.  The  Northern  troops  displayed  wonder- 
ful courage  and  obstinancy  during  the  entire  day,  while  our  men 
held  their  ground  with  equal  courage  and  determination.  Gen- 
eral Anderson  and  Colonel  Parker  were  wounded.  Colonel  Tew 
was  killed,  and  Colonel  Bennett  had  command  of  the  brigade. 
The  men  of  different  regiments  became  mixed  with  each  other 
so  that  all  distinct  organization  of  regiments  was  broken  up,  and 
all  identity  lost — still  the  men  maintained  their  positions  in  line, 
and  fought  like  heroes.  General  Hill  was  with  his  men  all  day 
long,  encouraging  and  cheering  them  by  his  presence  and  by  his 
cool  and  fearless  bearing.  On  two  occasions  the  enemy  approach- 
ed to  within  about  thirty  yards  of  our  line,  but  each  time  they 
were  forced  to  retire. 

Late  in  the  day  the  enemy  forced  his  way  beyond  the  right  of 
the  brigade,  and  Colonel  Bennett  found  it  necessary  to  retire  from 
the  "Bloody  Lane."  This  he  did  in  good  order,  and  in  doing 
so  passed  within  sixty  yards  of  the  right  flank  of  the  enemy's 
line;  but  they  were  so  hotly  engaged  with  one  of  our  lines  in 
front  that  they  did  not  observe  the  Colonel's  movement  until  he 
had  extricated  his  men  from  their  dangerous  position,  and  passed 
some  distance  to  the  enemy's  front  and  left.  Finding  a  piece  of 
artillery  which  had  been  abandoned,  the  Colonel  manned  it  and 
opened  fire  upon  the  enemy's  line.  Captains  Harney  and  Beall 
with  Sergeant  P.  D.  Weaver,  all  of  the  Fourteenth,  were 
the  men  who  manned  the  gun.  In  this  movement  the  Fourth 
Regiment  lost  a  number  of  men  from  companies  I  and  K,  on 

Fourth  Regiment.  249 

the  left,  who  were  taken  prisoners:  being  separated  from  the 
right  by  a  little  hillock,  they  did  not  know  the  retreat  had  taken 
place  until  they  were  in  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  This  new 
position  was  held  during  the  rest  of  the  day.  The  command 
remained  on  the  field  until  night,  when  the  battle  ended.  They 
then  bivouacked  in  a  grove  near  by. 

The  next  day  the  brigade  was  commanded  by  Major  Collins, 
Colonel  Bennett  having  been  disabled.  The  Fourth  Regiment 
was  commanded  by  Orderly  Sergeant  Thomas  W.  Stephenson,  of 
Company  C.  General  Hill  had  the  brigade  formed,  and  made  a  lit- 
tle speech  to  them,  calling  them  "the  faithful  few,"  warmly  com- 
mending their  courage  and  fortitude  during  the  fearful  conflict 
of  the  day  before. 

In  this  battle  General  George  B.  Anderson,  who  commanded 
the  brigade,  was  wounded.  His  wound  proved  fatal,  and  the 
Confederacy  lost  one  of  its  noblest  defenders.  He  was  the  first 
Colonel  of  the  Fourth  Regiment.  The  writer  of  this  sketch 
knew  him  well  and  loved  him  much.  He  was  a  perfect  speci- 
men of  a  man  in  every  way.  A  graduate  of  West  Point,  a 
devoted  Churchman,  a  pure  and  chivalrous  gentleman,  as  modest 
and  chaste  as  a  woman,  as  brave  and  daring  as  a  man  could  be. 
His  was  a  very  great  loss. 

The  18th  day  of  September  was  spent  near  the  hard  fought 
field  of  the  day  before,  in  constant  expectation  of  another  engage- 
ment, while  details  were  occupied  in  burying  the  dead  and  caring 
for  the  wounded;  our  own  wounded  being  sent  across  the  river 
to  the  Virginia  side.  At  night  all  remaining  baggage  and  troops 
crossed  over;  the  writer  of  this  narrative  being  left  at  the  house 
of  Mrs.  Boteler,  in  Shepherdstown,  Va.,  where  he  lay  for  six 
weeks  in  a  most  helpless  and  precarious  condition  from  the 
wound  received  on  the  17th,  and  where  he  received  every  atten- 
tion that  human  kindness  could  provide  on  the  part  of  the  mem- 
bers of  the  family,  and  also  from  Mr.  Darnell,  a  faithful  nurse 
detailed  from  the  hospital,  to  whom  he  is  indebted  for  his  life. 
He  would  also  mention  with  gratitude,  his  faithful  negro  servant, 
Gus,  who  remained  with  him  during  the  time  in   spite  of  the 

250  North  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

efforts  that  were  made  to  induce  him  to  go  away  with  the  North- 
ern troops,  who  held  the  town  where  we  were. 

On  the  20th  of  September  the  regiment  took  part  in  the  attack 
that  was  made  on  the  Northern  troops  who  had  crossed  the  river 
near  the  town.  This  engagement  proved  disastrous  to  the  enemy, 
many  of  them  being  killed,  and  many  drowned  in  the  river  as 
they  retreated  across.  Afterward  the  command  was  removed  to 
the  neighborhood  of  Fredericksburg,  where  it  spent  the  winter 
doing  picket  duty  and  recruiting  its  numbers.  The  writer  hav- 
ing been  captured  while  wounded,  in  Shepherdstown,  was  not 
exchanged  until  after  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg. 


On  the  13th  of  December  our  brigade  was  placed  in  position 
to  support  the  artillery,  preparatory  to  the  battle  of  Fredericks- 
burg, which  took  place  on  the  15th.  We  were  held  in  reserve 
until  after  the  enemy  had  made  the  first  charge,  when  the  brigade 
was  moved  forward  and  took  the  front  line,  which  it  held  the 
remainder  of  the  day.  Our  loss  in  this  engagement  was  but 
trifling,  as  we  were  protected  by  breastworks  most  of  the  time. 
Immediately  after  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg  we  went  into 
winter  quarters  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Rapidan  River,  where 
we  remained  for  the  balance  of  the  winter. 


On  the  1st  of  May,  1863,  the  enemy  bagan  to  make  demonstra- 
tions indicating  a  purpose  of  beginning  the  campaign.  We  now 
began  that  grand  movement  which,  but  for  the  untimely  wound- 
ing of  General  Jackson,  would  have  resulted  in  the  entire 
destruction  of  Hooker's  army.  The  brigade  was  commanded  by 
the  brave  and  gallant  Ramseur,  who  displayed  remarkable  cour- 
age and  skill  in  managing  it  during  this  campaign,  and  as  long 
as  he  continued  in  command.  The  regiment  was  commanded  by 
Colonel  Grimes.  After  much  skirmishing,  and  then  a  long  and 
circuitous    route,  we  found  ourselves  on  the  extreme  right  of 

Fourth  Eegiment.  251 

Hooker's  army.  This  was  the  2d  of  May.  Though  late  iu  the 
afternoon,  and  the  troops  much  fatigued,  line  of  battle  was 
formed,  and  the  attack  begun.  We  struck  the  enemy  squarely 
OH  the.  flank,  and  everything  gave  way  before  us  until  night  put 
a  stop  to  our  advance.  Many  prisoners  and  much  baggage  and 
stores  were  captured.  We  slept  on  the  field  that  night,  and  on 
the  3d  of  May  was  fought  th.e  battle  of  Chancellorsville. 

The  left  of  the  Fourth  Regiment  was  near  the  great  road 
which  ran  in  rear  of  the  enemy's  works  and  nearly  parallel  with 
them,  our  line  of  battle  extending  to  the  right  of  this  road  at 
right  angles  with  it.  At  daylight  the  battle  began,  Jackson's 
Corps,  now  under  Stuart,  attacking  the  enemy's  right,  while  other 
troops  engaged  their  front.  Ramseur's  Brigade  was  formed  in 
the  rear  of  Paxton's  brigade  that  held  a  line  of  breastworks  which 
we  had  captured  the  day  before.  This  brigade  was  ordered  to 
advance  and  charge  the  enemy  in  front,  but  they  failed  to  comply 
with  the  order,  whereupon  General  Ramseur,  who  was  present, 
and  heard  the  command,  offered  to  make  the  charge.  The  order 
was  then  given  in  the  presence  of  Colonel  Grimes,  when  they 
both  hurried  back  to  the  brigade  and  ordered  the  men  forward. 
When  the  breastworks  were  reached  the  men  who  occupied  them 
were  lying  down,  our  men  passing  literally  over  them  and  across 
the  works,  formed  line  of  battle  in  front  of  the  enemy,  in  the 
face  of  a  destructive  fire.  The  command  "Double-quick"  was 
given,  when  the  Fourth  Regiment,  under  Colonel  Grimes,  and 
part  of  the  Second,  under  Colonel  Cox,  moved  forward  and 
drove  the  enemy  from  their  works.  There  were  several  batteries 
on  the  hill  in  front,  but  when  the  infantry  left  the  works  the 
artillery  was  quickly  abandoned.  These  batteries  had  done  ter- 
rible havoc  among  our  troops  as  they  approached  the  enemy's 
lines.  Several  efforts  were  made  by  the  enemy  to  recover  their 
works,  but  they  were  driven  back  each  time  with  heavy  loss. 
Afterwards  they  extended  their  lines  and  came  down  upon  our 
right  flank,  threatening  to  cut  off  our  retreat,  when  we  were  com- 
pelled to  fall  back  and  rejoin  the  other  part  of  the  brigade,  which 
still  occupied  the  line  from  which  the  charge  had  been  made. 

252  NoKTH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Colonel  Grimes  received  a  severe  contusion  in  this  part  of  the 
engagement,  and  when  he  reached  the  breastworks  referred  to 
he  fell  fainting  to  the  ground.  He  soon  revived  and  was  ready 
for  action  again.  Meanwhile  General  Rodes  came  up  and 
ordered  the  troops,  who  had  refused  to  charge,  to  move  forward, 
when  the  whole  line,  thus  re-inforced,  returned  and  captured  the 
entire  line  of  works.  Our  loss  was  very  severe.  Forty-six 
oiScers  and  men  were  killed  outright,  fifty-seven  wounded,  and 
fifty-eight  captured,  out  of  three  hundred  and  twenty-seven 
officers  and  men  who  went  into  the  engagement. 

General  Cox,  in  his  address  on  the  "Life  and  Character  of 
General  Ramseur,"  gives  a  copy  of  a  letter  from  General  Lee  to 
Governor  Vance,  in  which  he  speaks  in  terms  of  high  praise  of 
the  conduct  of  Ramseur  and  his  brigade  in  this  engagement, 
and  states  that  General  Jackson  had  sent  him  a  message  to  the 
same  effect,  after  he  was  wounded,  in  reference  to  his  conduct 
the  day  before.     General  Ramseur  in  his  official  report  says : 

"  The  charge  of  the  brigade,  made  at  a  critical  moment,  when 
the  enemy  had  broken  and  was  hotly  pressing  the  centre  of  the 
line  in  front  with  apparently  overwhelming  numbers,  not  only 
checked  his  advance,  but  threw  him  back  in  disorder  and  pur- 
sued him  with  heavy  loss  from  his  last  line  of  works.  Too 
high  praise  cannot  be  accredited  to  officers  and  men  for  their 
gallantry,  manly  courage  and  fortitude  during  this  brief  but 
arduous  campaign. 

"  The  advance  of  the  line  on  Friday  was  made  under  the  eyes 
of  our  departed  hero  (Jackson)  and  of  General  A.  P.  Hill, 
whose  words  of  commendation  and  praise  bestowed  on  the  field 
we  fondly  cherish.  And  on  Sunday  the  magnificent  charge  of 
the  brigade  upon  the  enemy's  last  and  most  terrible  stronghold 
was  made  in  view  of  General  Stuart  and  General  Rodes,  whose 
testimony  that  it  was  the  most  glorious  charge  of  that  most 
glorious  day,  we  are  proud  to  remember  and  report  to  our  kindred 
and  friends.  All  met  the  enemy  with  unflinching  courage;  and 
for  privation,  hardships  and  splendid  marches,  all  of  which  were 

Fourth  Regiment.  253 

cheerfully  borne,  they  deserve  the  praise  of  our  beautiful  and 
glorious  Confederacy." 

The  victory  was  complete,  and  we  were  left  in  undisputed 
possession  of  the  field.  Nothing  could  surpass  the  dashing  skill 
and  courage  of  the  brilliant  and  accomplished  Ramseur  on  this 
occasion,  and  the  day  before,  while  the  intrepid  Grimes  shone 
with  magnificent  splendor  by  his  side.  They  were  like  two  lion- 
hearted  brothers,  while  the  gallant  Cox,  heroic  Parker  and  the 
brave  and  sturdy  Bennett,  always  in  the  thickest  of  the  fight, 
and  where  duty  called,  constituted  a  galaxy  that  any  country 
might  well  be  proud  to  own.  It  was  a  dearly  bought  victory — 
many  of  our  best  young  men  laid  down  their  lives  that  day. 
After  a  few  weeks'  rest  and  recuperation  the  command  was  again 
on  the  move, 


On  the  9th  of  June  we  supported  the  Confederate  cavalry  at 
Brandy  Station.  Though  under  fire,  we  were  not  actively 
engaged.  We  then  went  to  the  Valley  and  assisted  in  driving 
the  enemy  from  Berryville  and  Martinsburg,  and  on  the  15th  of 
June  crossed  into  Maryland  with  Lee's  airmy  and  participated  in 
the  Gettysburg  campaign.  The  conduct  of  the  men  on  this 
march  through  the  enemy's  country  was  orderly  and  gentlemanly 
in  the  highest  degree.  There  was  no  straggling,  no  disorder  and 
no  plundering.  The  only  disturbance  of  the  property  of  the 
country  the  writer  saw  was  the  men  helping  themselves  to  the 
splendid  supplies  of  cherries  that  grew  along  the  lanes  through 
which  we  passed. 


On  the  1st  of  July,  1863,  we  moved  off  about  sunrise  toward 
Gettysburg.  About  3  o'clock  p.  m.  we  arrived  at  the  scene  of 
action.  The  battle  bad  begun,  as  was  apparent  from  the  roar 
of  artillery  and  musketry  in  our  front  and  to  the  right.  The 
Fourth  Regiment  was  on  the  left  of  the  brigade,  under  Colonel 
Grimes.     We  were  ordered  forward  in  advance  of  the  main  line 

254  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

of  battle.  We  had  only  moved  a  few  paces  when  our  direction 
was  changed  by  the  right  flank.  Marching  a  few  hundred  yards, 
we  were  recalled  by  General  Rodes  and  formed  on  a  hill,  in 
connection  with  the  Second  Regiment,  to  repel  an  attack  that  was 
threatened  from  that  quarter.  In  a  few  minutes  a  brigade  of 
Federals  appeared  in  our  front,  moving  obliquely  to  the  left 
instead  of  advancing  towards  us.  Genera!  Rodes  then  ordered 
the  Second  and  Fourth  Regiments  to  advance  upon  them.  Soon 
we  were  exposed  to  a  severe  fire,  enfilading  our  lines  from  the 
woods  on  the  right,  which  caused  Colonel  Grimes  to  change  front 
to  the  right.  We  then  advanced  upon  the  enemy,  and  being 
joined  by  the  other  two  regiments  of  the  brigade,  we  drove  them 
before  us  in  much  confusion,  capturing  a  large  number  of  prison- 
ers. We  were  the  first  to  enter  the  town  of  Gettysburg,  and 
halted  to  rest  on  the  road  leading  out  toward  the  west.  Here 
we  remained  until  night,  when  we  were  ordered  to  make  a  night 
attack;  but  after  approaching  within  a  short  distance  of  the 
enemy's  lines  the  order  was  countermanded,  and  we  returned  to 
the  position  first  occupied.  On  the  3d  of  July  we  were  under 
heavy  firing  from  the  enemy's  guns,  but  only  a  few  men  were 
hurt,  as  we  were  protected  by  a  ridge.  We  lost  some  valuable 
men  in  this  battle,  among  whom  was  Lieutenant  John  Stockton, 
of  Company  H.  He  was  a  brave,  modest,  conscientious,  Christian 
soldier,  just  in  the  beginning  of  his  manhood.  The  regiment 
behaved  splendidly  in  this  battle.  In  fact,  the  men  had  become 
so  much  accustomed  to  marching  and  fighting  that  we  never 
thought  of  their  doing  otherwise. 

On  the  5th  of  July,  Ewell's  Corps  began  the  retreat  from 
Gettysburg,  and  the  regiment  formed  part  of  the  rearguard  of 
the  army,  which  position  it  occupied  until ^  the  army  recrossed 
the  Potomac  at  or  near  Hagerstown.  The  men  bore  the  hard- 
ships and  privations  of  this  most  trying  campaign  with  remarka- 
ble cheerfulness  and  fortitude.  After  crossing  the  Potomac  into 
Virginia,  we  went  to  Orange  Court  House,  where  we  remained 
doing  picket  duty  until  about  the  middle  of  November,  when 
we  went  into  winter  quarters  some  eight  miles  from  that  town, 

Fourth  Eegiment.  255 

and  spent  the  winter  doing  picket  duty  on  the  Eappahannock, 
participating  in  the  skirmish  at  Kelley's  Ford,  and  also  at  Mine 


On  the  5th  of  May,  1864,  General  Grant  began  his  movement 
toward  Richmond,  having  crossed  the  Rapidan  with  more  than 
a  hundred  thousand  men.  From  that  day  until  the  close  of  the 
campaign  the  regiment  was  actively  engaged  almost  every  day. 
On  the  8th  of  May  two  companies  of  the  regiment  were  detailed 
to  strengthen  the  line  of  sharp-shooters  commanded  by  Major 
Osborne,  now  numbering,  so  re-inforced,  some  three  hundred 
men.  After  manoeuvering  for  some  time  with  the  enemy,  Gen- 
eral Ramseur  rode  to  the  front  and  ordered  a  charge.  The  men 
moved  off  in  a  double-quick,  crossing  a  field  some  two  hundred 
and  fifty  yards  wide,  and  driving  the  enemy's  skirmishers  before 
us.  We  encountered  a  line  of  battle  on  the  top  of  the  ridge. 
With  a  shout,  the  men  pushed  forward,  and  the  enemy's  line  gave 
way,  leaving  their  baggage  in  heaps  where  they  had  piled  it  pre- 
paratory to  an  engagement. 

On  the  9th  of  May  we  had  a  sharp  encounter  with  the  enemy 
in  force.  After  some  twenty  minutes  fighting,  we  advanced 
upon  them,  when  they  retired.  On  the  lOth  and  11th  our  sharp- 
shooters were  actively  engaged,  day  and  night,  and  the  regiment 
kept  in  line  of  battle  most  of  the  time.  On  the  evening  of  the 
11th  an  attack  was  made  upon  our  right,  breaking  the  line. 
General  Battle's  (Alabama)  Brigade  rushed  in  and  supported  the 
line  that  had  been  driven  back,  and  with  the  aid  of  our  brigade, 
which  charged  the  enemy's  right  flank,  they  were  driven  back 
and  the  line  was  restored  after  a  most  stubborn  and  determined 
resistance  on  the  part  of  the  foe.  On  the  morning  of  the  12th 
of  May  the  euemy  made  a  furious  assault  upon  General  Edward 
Johnston's  line,  half  a  mile  to  our  right,  breaking  the  line  and 
capturing  many  men.  Rodes'  Division  was  ordered  to  retrieve 
the  loss.  The  fate  of  the  army  was  at  stake.  Ramseur,  with 
his  brigade,  led  the  charge,  and  in  the  face  of  the  most  murderous 
fire  drove  back  the  foe  and  restored  the  broken  line.     Ramseur 

266  jSToeth  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

was  wounded  in  this  charge  when  near  the  retaken  works.  Colo- 
nel Grimes  took  command  of  the  brigade  for  the  remainder  of 
that  day  and  for  some  days  after.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Wood 
was  now  in  command  of  the  regiment,  and  continued  in  com- 
mand until  his  death.  He  was  a  most  faithful,  brave  and  consci- 
entious Christian  soldier;  a  lovely  gentleman  and  skillful  officer. 
The  broken  line  was  retaken  after  a  most  fearful  encounter,  and 
held  until  after  2  o'clock  at  night,  during  which  time  we  repelled 
more  than  twenty  distinct  and  desperate  attempts  of  the  enemy 
to  retake  the  works  we  had  recaptured  in  the  morning. 

Speaking  of  the  battle  of  the  12th  of  May,  an    army  cor- 
respondent of  the  London  Herald  says : 

"Ramseur's  Brigade  of  North  Carolina  Troops  being,  ordered 
to  charge,  were  received  by  the  enemy  with  stubborn  resistance. 
The  desperate  character  of  the  struggle  along  that  brigade  was 
told  terribly  by  the  rapidity  of  its  musketry.  So  close  was  the 
fighting  there  for  a  time,  that  the  fire  of  friends  and  foe  rose  up 
rattling  in  one  common  roar.  Ramseur's  North  Carolinians 
dropped  thick  and  fast,  but  he  continued  with  glorious  constancy 
to  gain  ground,  foot  by  foot.  Pressing  under  a  fierce  fire  reso- 
lutely on,  on,  on,  the  struggle  was  about  to  become  one  of  hand- 
to-hand,  when  the  Federalists  shrank  from  the  bloody  trial, 
driven  back,  but  not  defeated.  They  bounded  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  earth-works,  placing  them  in  their  front,  and  renew- 
ed the  conflict.  A  rush  of  an  instant  brought  Ramseur's  men 
to  the  side  of  the  defenses;  and  though  they  crouched  close 
to  the  slopes  under  an  enfilade  from  the  guns  of  the  salient  their 
musketry  rattled  in  deep  and  deadly  fire  on  the  enemy  that  stood 
in  overwhelming  numbers  but  a  few  yards  from  their  front. 
Those  brave  North  Carolinians  had  thus,  ih  one  of  the  hottest 
conflicts  of  the  day,  driven  the  enemy  from  the  works  that  had 
been  occupied  during  the  previous  night  by  a  brigade  which 
until  May  the  12th,  had  never  yielded  to  a  foe — '  The  Stonewall.'  " 
**  *****^ 

Ramseur,  though  suffering  much  from  the  wound  in  his  hand 
would  not  leave  the  field  until  the  fight  was  over,  and  soon 


1.  W.  C.  Cougliinoiir,  Captain,  Co.  K. 

a.  William  F.  Kelly,  Captain,  Co.  G. 

3.  S.  A.  Kelly,  Captain,  Co.  G. 

4.  Jesse  S.  Barnes,  Captain,  Co.  F. 

5.  John  B.  Andrews,  Captain,  Co.  C. 

0.  H.  M.  Warren,  Captain,  Co.  F. 

7.  M.  L.  Bean,  Captain,  Co.  K. 

8.  Tliomas  M.  Allen,  Captain,  Co.  E. 

Fourth  Regiment.  257 

afterwards  resumed  the  command  of  his  brigade  with  his  arm  in 
a  sling. 

This  was  one  of  the  most  splendid  achievements  of  the  war, 
and  was  accomplished  in  magnificent  style.  Ramseur,  on  his 
fiery  steed,  looked  like  an  angel  of  war.  Grimes,  too,  was  on 
his  horse,  the  very  picture  of  coolness,  grira  determination  and 
undaunted  courage,  while  Wood  and  the  other  officers  and  men 
moved  into  the  horrible  conflict  like  men  of  iron  and  steel.  The 
enemy,  flushed  with  their  temporary  success,  stood  their  ground 
with  persistent  and  stubborn  firmness,  and  poured  into  our  ranks 
a  destructive  fire.  But  onward  moved  our  lion-hearted  men, 
closing  up  their  rapidly  thinning  ranks,  and  pouring  a  continuous 
storm  of  leaden  hail  into  the  enemy's  ranks,  as  he  slowly,  but 
stubbornly  retired,  until  he  reached  the  line  of  works,  as 
described  above,  from  which  he  was  driven  almost  at  the  very 
point  of  the  bayonet.  The  pits  at  the  breastworks  were  filled 
with  water  from  recent  rains;  many  dead  and  wounded  from 
both  sides  were  lying  in  the  pits  when  we  reached  them.  The 
water  was  red  with  human  gore.  The  bodies  of  the  dead  were 
dragged  out,  and  the  men  took  shelter  in  their  places,  which  they 
held  for  the  balance  of  the  day.  The  writer  received  a  painful 
contusion  from  a  ball  that  passed  through  a  heavy  canteen  of 
water  which  he  carried,  and  which  no  doubt  saved  his  life. 
After  recovering  from  the  temporary  shock,  he  resumed  his  place 
in  line  of  battle,  where  he  remained  the  rest  of  the  day.  After 
the  battle  General  Rodes  thanked  the  brigade  in  person,  saying 
they  deserved  the  thanks  of  the  country,  and  that  they  had  saved 
Ewell's  Corps.  General  Early  also  made  a  similar  statement  in 
regard  to  this  occasion.  Our  loss  included  some  of  the  best  of 
our  brave  and  well  tried  men.  Among  the  number  was  Cap- 
tain William  McRorie,  of  Company  A,  as  brave  and  gallant  a 
youth  as  ever  drew  a  sword.  About  2  o'clock  in  the  morning 
we  changed  our  position  to  one  more  advantageous,  which  we 
held  until  the  19th  of  May.  The  position  occupied  by  the 
brigade  was  just  to  the  left  of  "the  bloody  angle,"  the  right  of 
the  Fourth  Regiment  extending  to  within  a  few  rods  of  the 

258  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

angle,  where  the  trees  were  literally  cut  down  by  minie- balls 
from  the  enemy's  guns.  This  was  one  of  the  most  prolonged 
and  stubbornly  contested  engagements  of  the  war.  It  began 
about  halfpast  ifive  in  the  morning  and  lasted  until  near  two 
o'clock  the  next  morning,  and  the  enemy  made  very  many  assaults 
upon  the  lines  during  the  time,  but  without  avail. 

On  the  19th  of  May  we  made  a  flank  movement  upon  the  left 
of  Grant's  army,  which  resulted  in  a  heavy  engagement.  Here 
we  met  the  enemy  in  the  open  field,  without  breastworks  on 
either  side.  Both  sides  were  determined  to  do  their  best,  and 
displayed  the  most  undaunted  courage.  Night  put  an  end  to  the 
engagement,  and  the  next  morning  found  both  armies  some  dis- 
tance from  the  scene  of  the  engagement.  Our  loss  was  sixty- 
five  men  killed  and  wounded.  Among  the  former  was  the  brave 
and  gallant  Christian  soldier,  Augustus  Byers,  and  among  the 
latter  the  writer  of  this  narrative. 

In  speaking  of  this  engagement  of  the  19th  of  May,  General 
Grimes  in  his  notes  says:  "Two  of  the  'Old  Guard'  killed — 
Gus  Byers  .  and  Taylor.  The  old  Fourth  lost  sixty-five 
killed  and  wounded."  The  regiment  was  under  the  command 
of  Colonel  Wood,  and  acted  with  its  usual  courage  and  firmness 
under  a  very  trying  ordeal,  being  at  one  time  completely  flanked 
by  the  enemy ;  but  by  a  skillful  movement  we  changed  front  to 
the  left  and  met  the  foe  in  good  order.  This  was  an  open  field 
engagement,  and  both  sides  deported  themselves  with  much 
courage  and  determination.  After  this  the  command  was  kept 
continually  on  the  move  until  the  army  reached  the  vicinity  of 
Richmond ;  in  fact,  for  the  rest  of  the  summer  and  fall. 

On  the  22d  of  May  we  reached  Hanover  Junction,  after  much 
manoeuvering  and  skirmishing,  the  enemy  endeavoring  to  flank 
us.  On  the  25th  a  severe  fight  came  ofi",  and  again  on  the  30tb, 
in  both  of  which  the  enemy  was  repulsed.  Our  loss  in  these 
engagements  was  small.  Again  on  the  3d  of  June  a  fierce  and 
bloody  engagement  occurred,  in  which  the  enemy  again  retired. 
This  was  one  of  the  bloodiest  fights  of  the  campaign,  and  the 
enemy's  loss  was  very  heavy. 

Fourth  Regiment.  259 

On  the  13th  of  June  the  division  moved  in  the  direction  of 
South  Anna  River  to  meet  the  reported  advance  of  General  Hun- 
ter. General  Grimes  was  now  in  command  of  the  division,  in 
the  absence  of  General  Rodes. 

On  the  4th  of  July  Harper's  Ferry  was  captured  with  con- 
siderable stores  and  a  number  of  prisoners.  This  was  a  gala 
day  for  the  Confederates.  The  enemy  had  prepared  a  sumptuous 
feast,  and  was  celebrating  the  day,  when  our  men  made  the 
attack,  drove  him  out  of  the  town,  and  captured  everything 
just  as  he  was  about  to  begin  the  feast.  Of  course  our  hungry 
and  thirsty  men  enjoyed  the  booty  to  the  fullest  extent. 

On  the  6th  of  July  the  command  crossed  the  Potomac  at 
Shepherdstown,  Va.,  and  on  the  7th  passed  through  Fredrick 
City,  going  towards  Washington  City,  meeting  with  slight 
resistance  from  the  few  troops  who  were  left  there.  At  the 
Monocacy  River  we  encountered  General  Wallace,  who  had  been 
sent  to  intercept  and  resist  our  advance.  His  troops  occupied 
the  east  bank  of  the  river,  but  his  skirmishers  were  on  the  west 
side.  These  were  driven  back,  and  after  a  short  engagement  the 
whole  Federal  force  gave  way,  leaving  the  field,  with  their  dead 
and  wounded,  in  our  hands,  with  five  or  six  hundred  prisoners. 
The  Federals  fought  well,  and  our  loss  was  severe;  but  the 
troops  were  in  good  spirits.  The  command  moved  on  to  Rock- 
ville  on  the  10th,  and  on  the  11th  reached  Eleventh  Street  Pike, 
which  leads  into  the  City  of  Washington,  and  advanced  to  the 
neighborhood  of  Fort  Stephens.  After  two  or  three  days  we  be- 
gan the  retreat  for  Virginia,  during  which  there  were  frequent 
skirmishes  but  no  important  engagements.  The  command 
recrossed  the  Potomac  at  Leesburg,  crossed  the  Blue  Ridge  at 
Snicker's  Gap  and  the  Shenandoah  at  Snicker's  Ford. 

snicker's  gap. 

On  the  18th  of  July  the  regiment  participated  in  a  fierce  and 
bloody  encounter  with  the  enemy  near  Snicker's  Gap.  Several 
brigades  of  Federal  troops  had  crossed  to  the  south  side  of  the 
Shenandoah,  leaving  a  considerable  force  on  the  north  bank  as  a 

260  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65.  ■ 

support  and  a  cover  for  their  movements.  This  force  could  not 
be  reached  by  our  men,  but  isept  up  an  annoying  fire  upon  us 
while  we  engaged  the  force  on  the  south  side  of  the  river.  Here 
occurred  one  of  the  most  exciting  scenes  of  the  war.  The  enemy 
pursuing  Ewell,  had  crossed  to  the  south  side  of  the  river.  Our 
men  hurried  back  to  meet  them,  and  when  they  came  in  sight  the 
enemy  had  formed  line  of  battle  parallel  with  and  on  the  south 
side  of  the  river.  Our  men  were  in  lineof  battle  on  the  ridge  several 
hundred  yards  to  the  south.  About  half  way  between  the  two 
lines,  in  the  valley,  was  a  stone  fence.  As  soon  as  this  was  seen 
our  men  made  a  dash  for  it.  The  Federals  seeing  this,  and 
knowing  the  value  of  such  a  defence,  made  a  dash  for  it  at  the 
same  time.  Away  went  both  lines  of  battle  at  full  speed  as  fast 
as  their  feet  could  carry  them,  scarcely  taking  time  to  fire  a  single 
shot,  both  lines  running  for  dear  life  to  gain  this  coveted  prize. 
But  our  men  had  the  advantage  of  down  grade,  and  gained  the 
wall,  while  the  enemy  was  some  fifty  or  more  yards  away,  and 
in  much  disorder.  He  instantly  faced  about  when  he  saw 
that  our  men  would  reach  the  wall  first,  and  beat  a  hasty  retreat, 
making  for  the  ford  at  which  he  had  crossed.  Our  men 
opened  fire  upon  him  and  he  suffered  heavily,  leaving  many 
of  his  men  and  three  regimental  flags  on  the  field.  The 
brigade  charged  the  enemy  and  drove  him  in  and  across  the 
river,  capturing  many  prisoners. 

Among  the  soldiers  who  fell  that  day  was  the  brave  and  gallant 
Colonel  James  H.  "Wood,  who  was  in  command  of  the  regiment 
at  the  time  he  fell.  No  better  man  died  during  the  warthan  this 
splendid  soldier.  He  was  a  Christian  gentlemen,  a  young  man 
of  much  promise,  and  a  rnodel  soldier;  brave,  gallant  and  faith- 
ful. He  died  at  the  post  of  duty,  giving  his  life  a  willing  sacri- 
fice for  the  cause  of  liberty,  which  he  loved  more  than  life  itself. 
At  this  engagement  also  fell  Colonel  W.  A.  Owens,  of  the  Fifty- 
third  (N.  C.)  Regiment,  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  W.  S.  Stallings, 
of  the  Second  (N.  C.)  Eegiment.  All  of  these  brave  and  gallant 
men  were  much  beloved  in  the  army  and  at  home,  and  in  their 
deaths  the  cause  lost  three  of  its  most  splendid  men. 

Fourth  Regiment.  261 

After  this  fight  the  enemy's  sharp-shooters  annoyed  our  men 
very  much  with  their  long-range  rifles,  firing  from  the  tree-tops. 
A  man  of  the  Fourth  Regiment,  whose  name  I  have  not  been 
able  to  learn,  discovered  one  of  these  sharp-shooters  in  the  top 
of  a  tree.  He  ran  from  tree  to  tree  until  within  range  of  his 
own  gun,  and  brought  him  down  the  first  shot.  The  enemy's 
men  ran  oiut  and  fired  upon  this  daring  Confederate,  while  our 
men  rushed  to  his  rescue;  but  they  could  not  save  him — he 
fell  pierced  with  bullets.  There  was  no  more  firing  from  the 
trees  at  that  place. 

The  command  of  the  regiment  now  devolved  upon  Captain 
S.  A.  Kelly,  of  Company  G,  who  continued  in  command  until 
wounded  and  captured  at  the  battle  of  Winchester,  when  Major 
Stansill  was  put  in  command,  which  he  retained  until  the  month 
of  March,  when  he  gave  it  up  on  account  of  a  wound,  and  Cap- 
tain Forcum  commanded  it  until  the  surrender.  The  brigade, 
under  command  of  General  William  R.  Cox,  was  kept  constantly 
on  the  move  in  the  neighborhood  of  Berry  ville,  Newtown,  Mid- 
dletown,  Strasburg,  Kearnstown  and  Bunker  Hill,  sometimes 
tearing  up  the  railroad  track ;  again  skirmishing  with  the  enemy, 
and  then  resting  for  a  few  days,  awaiting  orders;  at  one  time 
crossing  the  Potomac  and  going  as  far  as  Hagerstown,  Md. ;  then 
returning  rapidly  to  Bunker  Hill,  and  from  there  to  Winchester ; 
and  then  again  to  Strasburg  and  Harper's  Ferry.  The  health 
and  spirits  of  the  men  were  good,  and  they  were  always  pleased 
to  be  in  motion,  even  if  it  involved  a  skirmish  with  the  enemy. 
At  Stevenson's  Depot  and  Berryville  there  was  considerable 
fighting,  with  variable  results;  sometimes  retreating,  and  some- 
times advancing ;  but  most  generally  the  latter,  as  the  enemy's 
forces  were  at  that  time  usually  small,  and  they  not  much  dis- 
posed to  make  a  stubborn  fight. 


On  the  19th  of  September  the  brigade  was  under  arms  at  an 
early  hour.  About  10  o'clock  a.  m.  line  of  battle  was  formed 
by  three  brigades   of  the  division.   Grimes  (Rodes')   on  the 

262  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65.    « 

right,  Cox  in  the  center  and  Cooke  on  the  left.  Our  command 
was  on  the  left  of  the  Winchesler  and  Martinsburg  road.  ^  We 
soon  engaged  the  enemy,  who  had  approached  near  our  position, 
and  who  after  a  short  encounter  gave  way.  Cox  pressed  him  vigo- 
rously through  an  open  field,  while  Grimes  drove  him  through  the 
woods,  Cooke  supporting  our  left.  At  this  point  General  Rodes 
was  killed,  but  the  men  did  not  observe  the  fact  at  the  time. 
So  they  pressed  on,  driving  everything  before  them,  and  captured 
a  number  of  prisoners  who  had  secreted  themselves  in  a  ditch. 
The  brigade  moved  on  to  the  crest  of  the  ridge  where  Grimes 
had  formed  his  line.  Here  General  Evans'  Brigade  was  driven 
back,  leaving  our  left  exposed.  A  battery  was  sent  to  our  relief 
and  the  advance  of  the  enemy  checked  at  this  point.  Between 
4  and  5  o'clock  we  fell  back  in  good  order,  as  the  enemy  had 
passed  our  left  and  threatened  our  rear.  Line  of  battle  was 
formed  upon  the  crest  of  some  hills,  from  which  we  advanced, 
again  driving  the  enemy,  but  being  outflanked,  we  had  to  retire 
again,  which  was  done  in  good  order.  The  whole  army  was 
now  in  retreat.  Our  division  held  the  enemy  in  cheek  until  the 
greater  part  of  our  men  had  withdrawn,  and  then  retreated  in 
column  for  some  distance,  when  the  brigade  formed  line  of  bat- 
tle and  protected  the  artillery  until  night.  We  then  continued 
the  retreat  until  we  came  to  Fisher's  Hill.  The  Fourth  Regi- 
ment was  actively  engaged  with  the  brigade  during  this  engage- 
ment and  suffered  considerably.  Among  the  killed  was  the 
brave  and  devoted  soldier.  Lieutenant  T.  W.  Stevenson,  of 
Company  C,  and  a  number  of  our  best  men  of  the  ranks. 

This  was  a  most  disastrous  day  for  the  Confederacy.  The 
brave  and  gallant  Rodes  and  many  valuable  officers  and  men 
were  killed.  The  battle  lasted  nine  hours,  and  the  men  were 
under  arms  for  forty-eight  hours,  with  but  little  chance  for  rest 
or  rations.  The  command  returned  to  Strasburg,  from  there  to 
New  Market,  fighting  much  of  the  way,  and  keeping  in  good 
order.  From  Port  Republic  we  marched  to  Weir's  Cave,  thence 
to  Waynesboro,  Mt.  Sidney,  Harrisonburg,  and  back  again  to 
New  Market. 

Fourth  Eegiment.  263 


Our  next  encounter  with  the  enemy  was  at  Cedar  Creek.  By  a 
well  planned  flank  movement,  after  marching  all  night,  we  attack- 
ed the  enemy  at  daylight  on  the  19th  of  October,  1864.  The 
surprise  was  complete,  and  the  enemy  fled  from  his  tents  without 
arms,  and  many  of  the  men  in  their  night  clothes.  So  completely 
were  they  demoralized  that  a  whole  division  fled  before  our  little 
brigade,  having  made  but  slight  resistance.  Some  six  thousand 
prisoners  and  much  artillery  and  baggage  were  captured.  Until 
3  o'clock  everything  was  ours.  But  between  3  and  4  o'clock 
p.  M.  the  enemy  rallied  under  the  direction  of  General  Sheridan, 
who  met  the  retreating  columns  about  that  time,  turned  them 
back,  and  wrested  most  of  the  fruits  of  the  victory,  except  the 
prisoners,  from  our  grasp.  Ramseur,  the  brave  successor  of  the 
gallant  Rodes,  was  mortally  wounded,  and  our  command  barely 
escaped  being  captured.  As  an  evidence  of  the  severity  of  this 
i5ght,  there  stands  a  marble  shaft  on  the  field  with  an  inscription 
which  states  that  it  marks  the  place  where  the  Eighth  Vermont 
Regiment  fought  that  day,  and  that  of  one  huodred  and  sixty- 
four  men  and  sixteen  officers  they  lost  one  hundred  and  ten  men 
and  thirteen  officers  killed  and  wounded.  The  loss  of  the  Fourth 
Regiment  in  this  fight  was  comparatively  small,  but  among  the 
number  was  the  brave  and  gallant  Lieutenant  William  Richard 
McNeely,  of  Company  A,  than  whom  a  better  soldier  never 
drew  a  sword.  Among  the  wounded  was  John  A.  Stikeleather, 
the  faithful  standard-bearer  of  the  regiment,  who  soon  recovered, 
however,  and  bore  the  colors  of  the  Fourth  Regiment  until  the 

When  Ramseur  fell.  General  Grimes,  our  former  Colonel,  took 
command  of  the  division,  which  he  retained  until  the  close  of 
the  war.  This  was  a  sad  day  for  our  cause.  We  were  simply 
overpowered  by  numbers,  the  enemy  having  about  five  men  to 
our  one.  As  it  was,  our  division  held  its  own,  or  rather  was 
victorious,  until  the  troops  on  the  left  gave  way  about  4  o'clock 

264  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

in  the  afternoon,  and  then  it  was  compelled  to  retire,  but  retained 
its  organization  and  saved  the  army  from  a  complete  rout. 


On  this  campaign  occurred  one  of  those  most  trying  experi- 
ences to  a  soldier's  nerves,  namely,  a  night  attack.  It  was 
known  that  the  enemy  was  in  the  neighborhood.  After  night 
the  men  were  ordered  to  lay  aside  everything  that  could  make  a 
noise,  such  as  canteens,  tin  cups,  pans,  etc.  At  a  late  hour,  when 
all  was  quiet,  an  order  was  passed  down  the  line  in  a  whisper 
to  move  slowly  and  stealthily  forward.  After  going  considerable 
distance  and  approaching  near  the  enemy's  line,  some  one  stepped 
on  a  rail,  or  a  pole,  which  broke  with  a  loud  report.  Instantly 
every  man  fell  with  his  face  to  the  ground.  A  stream  of  fire 
blazed  out  along  the  enemy's  line,  and  a  shower  of  bullets 
whistled  over  their  heads.  The  next  instant  the  men  were  on 
their  feet  firing  and  yelling  as  they  advanced.  The  lines  were 
so  near  and  the  movement  of  our  men  so  rapid  that  the  Federals 
could  not  reload  their  guns,  so  they  fled  through  the  woods  in 
the  dark,  and  our  men  were  glad  to  rest  until  morning. 

On  the  23d  of  November  the  command  was  marched  from 
New  Market  to  meet  a  heavy  force  of  cavalry  that  approached 
Rood's  Hill.  After  considerable  fighting  the  enemy  was  routed 
and  driven  away.  The  ground  was  covered  with  snow,  and  the 
men  suffered  much  from  cold  and  exposure.  On  the  13th  of 
December,  1864,  the  command  went  to  Petersburg,  where  they 
spent  the  winter,  sharing  the  dangers  and  hardships  of  the  seige. 
On  the  25th  of  March,  1865,  General  Grimes  made  an  attack 
upon  the  enemy's  works  at  Petersburg,  capturing  a  number  of 
prisoners  and  twelve  pieces  of  artillery;  but  the  Fourth  Regiment 
did  not  participate  in  this  affair,  as  the  courier  got  lost  in  the  dark 
and  failed  to  deliver  the  orders  to  the  officer  in  command.  The 
1st  of  April,  1865,  the  enemy  attacked  the  line  on  our  right  and 
left,  bat  did  not  molest  our  brigade.  The  fight  at  Fort  Gregg 
was  very  fierce,  and  the  men  of  our  command  saw  the  fall  of 
that  stronghold,  but  could  afford  no  assistance,  as  their  own  front 

Fourth  Eegxment.  265 

would  have  been  exposed  had  they  left  their  position.  On  the 
6th,  Grimes'  Division  was  covering  Lee's  retreat,  when  a 
determined  stand  was  made  at  Sailor's  Creek  and  the  enemy 
held  in  check  until  both  flanks  of  the  division  were  turned  by 
supsrior  numbers,  and  the  command  was  saved  from  capture  by 
a  rapid  retreat.  Grimes  staid  with  his  men  until  all  were  over 
the  creek  and  the  bridge  destroyed,  then  plunging  his  horse, 
Warren,  into  the  water,  crossed  over  under  a  perfect  storm  of 
bullets  and  made  his  escape. 

On  the  7th  of  April  Cox's  Brigade,  with  two  others,  under 
General  Grimes,  formed  line  of  battle  and  hurried  to  the  relief 
of  General  Mahone,  whose  line  was  giving  way  before  the  enemy. 
A  charge  was  made  and  the  enemy  driven  back  and  a  large  num- 
ber of  prisoners  captured.  General  Lee  complimented  the  men 
in  person  for  their  gallantry  on  this  occasion.  On  the  8th  the 
men  marched  all  day,  hungry,  tired  and  sore,  but  cheerful  and 
brave.  About  9  o'clock  that  night  heavy  firing  was  heard  in 
front,  when  the  men  were  ordered  forward,  and  marched  most  of 
the  night,  passing  through  the  town  of  Apporaatox  Court  House 
before  day,  Sunday  morning,  the  9th,  and  engaged  in  the  fight 
which  occurred  near  that  place.  The  enemy  was  repulsed  and 
the  men  were  withdrawn  after  driving  the  enemy  from  his  posi- 
tion, and  the  division  started  to  rejoin  the  main  body  of  Gordon's 
Corps.  General  Grimes  rode  forward  and  asked  General  Gordon 
where  he  should  form  his  men.  The  general  answered,  "Any- 
where you  please."  Struck  by  this  answer.  Grimes  asked  for 
an  explanation,  when  he  was  told  that  the  army  had  been  sur- 
rendered by  General  Lee. 

I  close  this  part  of  this  sljetch  with  the  following  quota- 
tion from  an  address  delivered  by  Henry  A.  London,  Esq.,  of 
Pittsboro.  After  telling  how  General  Grimes  had  planned 
and  carried  out  successfully  the  last  fight  made  by  any  part 
of  General  Lee's  army  on  the  9th  of  May  at  Appomattox 
Court  House,  and  had  driven  the  enemy  away  from  General 
Lee's  front,  driving  them  for  nearly  a  mile,  he  continues: 
"General    Grimes  then  sent  a  messenger  to  General  Gordon, 

266  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

annouDcing  his  success,  and  that  the  road  to  LyDchburg  was  now 
open  for  the  escape  of  the  wagons.  Then,  to  his  great  surprise, 
he  i-eceived  orders  to  retire,  which  he  declined  to  do,  thinking 
that  General  Gordon  did  not  understand  the  commanding  posi- 
tion held  by  him.  General  Gordon  still  continued  to  send  orders 
to  withdraw,  which  General  Grimes  continued  to  disregard,  still 
thinking  that  General  Gordon  was  in  ignorance  of  his  position, 
until  finally  an  order  came  from  General  Lee  himself,  and  then 
slowly  and  sullenly  our  men  began  to  retrace  their 'Steps  over  the 
ground  from  which  they  had  so  successfully  driven  the  enemy. 
This  withdrawal  was  conducted  in  an  orderly  manner,  although  in 
the  immediate  front  of  a  greatly  superior  force.  At  one  time  the 
enemy,  with  loud  cheers,  made  a  sudden  rush  as  if  to  overwhelm 
our  little  band ;  but  the  brigade  of  General  W.  R.  Cox  ( which 
was  bringing  up  the  rear)  faced  about,  and  with  the  steadiness 
of  veterans  on  parade,  poured  such  a  sudden  and  deadly  volley 
into  the  astonished  Federals  that  they  hastily  retired  in  confusion. 
This  was  the  last  volley  fired  at  Appomattox,  and  the  last  ever 
fired  by  the  grand  old  Army  of  Northern  Virginia." 


Colonel  George  B.  Anderson  has  been  spoken  of.  He  was  a 
remarkable  man.  He  had  a  handsome  figure,  was  a  fine  horse- 
man; a  splendid  tactician;  had  a  clear,  musical  voice;  a  mild 
blue-gray  eye;  a  fine  golden  beard,  long  and  flowing,  and  a  very 
commanding  presence.  His  discipline  was  mild,  but  firm;  and 
his  courage  and  patriotism  of  the  very  highest  order.  He  was 
a  firm  believer  in  God  and  a  devout  Churchman. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  John  Augustus  Young  has  also  been 
mentioned.  He  was  a  gentleman  of  the  olden  type;  a  Christian 
of  a  high  order,  and  a  devoted  patriot;  kind  and  genial  in  his 
nature;  and  a  devoted  Southern  man.  If  he  had  been  permitted 
to  remain  with  the  regiment  he  would  no  doubt  have  proved 
himself  a  worthy  successor  to  the  peerless  Anderson. 

Colonel  Bryan  Grimes  was  a  soldier  of  a  very  high  order. 
His  coolness  and  unwavering  courage,  as  well  as  his  judgment 

Fourth  Regiment.  267 

and  skill,  commanded  the  confidence  and  respect  of  all  who  knew 
him,  and  he  was  widely  known.  He  was  a  most  conscientious, 
man,  and  a  firm  believer  in  the  Gospel  of  Christ. 

Colonel  James  H.  Wood  was  cut  down  in  the  beginning  of  a 
most  promising  career.  He  was  a  true  and  faithful  soldier. 
Cool,  dashing  and  skillful.  A  man  who  feared  God  and  eschewed 
evil.  His  loss  was  most  deeply  felt  in  the  regiment.  He  was 
not  quite  twenty-four  years  old. 

Major  A.  K.  Simonton  fell  just  in  the  beginning  of  the  war. 
He  was  a  prominent  figure  in  the  regiment,  and  gave  promise  of 
a  most  brilliant  career.  He  was  a  soldier  by  nature,  and  a  gen- 
tleman in  every  sense  of  the  word. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  David  M.  Carter  was  a  prominent  lawyer 
before  and  after  the  war.  He  was  a  brave  and  sturdy  soldier. 
Being  permanently  disabled  by  a  wound  received  at  Seven  Pines, 
he  was  assigned  to  duty  as  Judge  Advocate  of  the  General  Court- 
martial,  where  he  continued  until  the  close  of  the  war. 

Captain  F.  Y.  McNeely  resigned  early  in  the  war  on  account 
of  bad  health.  He  was  killed  by  the  enemy  in  the  raid  that 
was  made  upon  Salisbury  at  the  close  of  the  war. 

Captain  Jesse  S.  Barnes  was  killed  at  Seven  Pines.  He  was 
a  splendid  young  officer  of  great  promise;  a  most  intelligent, 
genial  and  promising  man;  a  man  of  education,  young  and 
talented  ;  a  good  soldier,  and  very  highly  esteemed  in  the  regi- 

Captain  William  T.  Marsh  was  mortally  wounded  at  Sharps- 
burg.  He  was  standing  within  two  feet  of  the  writer  of  this 
sketch  when  stricken.  He  was  a  man  of  education,  intelligence 
and  great  force  of  character  and  a  good  soldier. 

Major  John  W.  Dunham  was  also  a  prominent  character  in 
the  Fourth  Regiment.  He  was  a  gallant  soldier,  and  a  man  of 
unusual  promise.  His  wound,  received  early  in  the  war,  dis- 
abled him  for  life,  and  finally,  after  untold  suffering,  caused  his 

Captain  W.  C.  Coughenour  was  also  a  striking  figure  in  the 
Fourth  Regiment.     He  entered  the  service  as  First  Lieutenant  of 

268  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Company  K,  and  was  in  all  the  engagements  with  the  regiment 
but  one;  and  was  twice  wounded.  He  was  Brigade  Inspector 
under  Generals  Eamseur  and  Cox,  and  in  1865  was  made 
Inspector-General  of  Dearing's  Cavalry  Brigade,  afterwards  Gen- 
eral Roberts'  Brigade.     As  good  and  true  a  man  as  ever  lived. 

Major  J.  F.  Stansill  did  good  service  in  the  Fourth  Regiment. 
He  was  in  most  of  the  battles  with  the  regiment,  and  was  five 
times  wounded.  He  was  a  man  of  courage  and  always  at  the 
post  of  duty. 

Captain  John  B.  Andrews  was  a  man  much  beloved  in  the 
Fourth  Regiment.  As  gentle  and  modest  as  a  woman,  yet  a  brave 
and  faithful  soldier.  He  was  wounded  at  Cold  Harbor,,  from 
which  he  died. 

Captain  John  B.  Forcum,  of  Company  H,  was  one  of  the 
faithful  men  of  the  regiment.  Seldom  sick  or  wounded,  he  was 
always  at  his  post,  and  was  in  command  of  the  regiment  at  the 

Conspicuous  among  the  officers  of  the  regiment  were  the  mem- 
bers of  the  medical  staff.  Dr.  J.  K.  King  was  a  very  striking 
man  in  person,  character  and  ability.  He  soon  resigned  on 
account  of  bad  health. 

Chief  Surgeon  J.  F.  Shaffner,  M.  D.,  was  a  young  man  of 
splendid  ability ;  a  man  of  education  and  fine  attainments,  and 
always  faithful  to  the  important  task  committed  to  him. 

Assistant  Surgeon  J.  M.  Hadley,  M.  D.,  was  also  a  man  of 
€ducation,  talent  and  ability,  ever  working  in  harmony  with 
his  chief. 

Hospital  Steward,  Dr.  J.  W.  Guffy,  was  also  a  most  excellent 
man,  and  as  fuithful  to  his  duty  as  a  man  could  be.  The  patient 
and  untiring  devotion  of  these  gentlemen  to  the  interest  and 
welfare  of  the  men  of  the  regiment  won  for  them  the  undying 
gratitude  of  us  all. 

Captain  Thomas  H.  Blount  and  Captain  John  D.  Hyman  were 
Quartermaster  and  Commissary  of  the  regiment.  Both  were 
men   of  education   and    ability.     Though    non-combatants,   yet 

Fourth  Regiment.  269 

both  volunteered  as  aids  to  General  Anderson.     The  former  was 
killed  and  the  latter  permanently  disabled. 

Captain  W.  G.  Kelly  commanded  the  regiment  in  the  battle 
of  Fredericksburg,  after  which  he  resigned,  and  his  brother.  Cap- 
tain S.  A.  Kelly,  was  appointed  in  his  place.  The  latter  bravely 
led  his  company  through  many  trying  and  bloody  campaigns, 
and  was  for  some  time  in  command  of  the  regiment.  He  was 
wounded  and  captured  at  Winchester  in  1864. 

Captain  W.  S.  Barnes  was  for  two  years  Adjutant  of  the  regi- 
ment. But  when  Colonel  Grimes  was  promoted  he  was  made 
Captain  and  given  a  place  on  his  staff,  where  he  continued  till  the 
close  of  the  war.     All  know  how  true  and  faithful  he  was. 

No  better  man  ever  wore  the  gray  than  Captain  Marcus  Hofflin. 
He  was  transferred  to  light  duty  on  account  of  lameness  in  his 
feet,  after  he  had  seen  much  hard  service  and  suffered  very  much. 

Captains  C.  S.  Alexander,  W.  G.  Falls  and  William  McRorie 
were  a  splendid  trio — school-mates  of  the  writer.  Alexander 
and  Falls  fell  at  Chancellorsville  and  McRorieat  Spottsylvania. 
He  fell  within  two  feet  of  the  writer,  and  expired  without  a 

Lieutenant  W.  R.  McNeely,  who  fell  at  the  battle  of  Cedar 
Creek,  was  one  of  Iredell  county's  heroes.  He  was  senior  officer 
on  the  left  of  the  regiment  when  he  fell,  and  his  loss  was  a  serious 
one  to  his  command.  He  was  a  cool  and  skillful  officer  and  a 
good  man. 

Lieutenants  James  Rufus  Reid  and  Joseph  C.  White  were  two 
shining  lights  in  the  regiment.  The  former,  though  scarcely 
seventeen  years  old,  a  man  in  character,  and  much  beloved  by 
liis  seniors  and  subordinates,  fell  a  victim  to  disease  early  in  the 
war.     The  latter  was  killed  at  Seven  Pines. 

Lieutenants  Watson,  Cowan,  Barber  and  Burke,  of  Company 
B,  were  all  good  men,  and  did  their  duties  well  while  in  the  war. 

Lieutenant  Thomas  J.  Brown  was  a  good  soldier.  He  was 
transferred  to  the  Forty-second  Regiment  and  became  its  Ma- 
jor. Lieutenants  F.  A.  Carlton  and  A.  S.  Fraley  were  good 
soldiers  and  an  honor  to  the  cause.    W.  K.  Eliason  was  assigned 

270  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

special  duty  and  also  J.  A.  Cowan.  Captains  W.  A.  Kerr  and  G. 
A.  Andrews  were  most  excellent  men;  both  were  delicate  m 
constitution.  The  former  resigned  early  in  the  war  and  the 
latter  was  permanently  disabled  by  a  wound  and  died  soon  after 
the  war.  Lieutenant  J.  Pink  Cowan,  of  Company  A,  was  a 
brave  and  gallant  soldier.     He  was  killed  at  Chancellorsville. 

Lieutenant  Thomas  L.  Perry,  of  Company  E,  was  a  most 
gallant  soldier ;  a  man  of  education  and  intelligence,  and  faith- 
ful to  his  duties.     He  was  mortally  wounded  at  Seven  Pines. 

Private  William  M.  Durell,  of  Company  K,  was  a  good  soldier. 
He  was  a  Northern  man,  but  devoted  to  the  cause  of  the  South, 
and  fought  through  the  war  as  a  matter  of  principle. 

Captain  E.  S.  Marsh  was  a  good  soldier  and  a  worthy  suc- 
cessor of  his  brother,  the  gallant  and  devoted  soldier.  Captain 
William  T.  Marsh,  who  was  mortally  wounded  at  Sharpsburg. 
He  was  appointed  Major  of  the  regiment,  permanently  disabled 
by  a  wound,  and  put  upon  light  duty. 

Lieutenant  Hamilton  C.  Long  was  wounded  at  Seven  Pines, 
and  resigned. 

Lieutenant  J.  W.  Shinn  was  a  talented  and  noble  soldier,  deli- 
cate in  health,  but  always  at  his  post.     He  fell  a  prey  to  disease. 

Lieutenant  John  Z.  Dalton  resigned  early  in  the  war. 

There  was  no  better  soldier  and  no  stronger  character  in  the 
regiment  than  Captain  H.  M.  Warren,  of  Company  F.  W.  O. 
Wootten,  of  the  same  company,  was  a  good  soldier.  Also,  Cap- 
tain T.  M.  Allen,  who  was  wounded  and  captured.  He  was  a 
good  soldier. 

The  writer  remembers  Lieutenants  Creekman,  Tuten,  Bonner 
and  Styron,  of  Company  A,  as  good  representative  men  of  their 

We  were  blessed  in  having  two  good  and  faithful  men  of  God 
as  chaplains.  The  first  was  the  Rev.  William  A.  Wood.  He 
soon  resigned  on  account  of  ill  health,  and  was  succeeded  by  the 
Rev.  Robert  B.  Anderson.  Both  were  men  of  ability  and  did 
good  service  in  their  holy  calling. 

The  survivors  of  the  Fourth  Regiment  will  no  doubt  remem- 


1.  W.  S.  Barnes,  Ordnance  Sergeant. 

2.  James  Rufiis  Reid,  Ist  Lieut.,  Co.  C. 

3.  J.  D.  Wells,  1st  Lieut.,  Co.  F. 

4.  William  Richmond  McNeely,  IstLieut., 

Co.  A. 

John  A.  Stikeleather,  Ensign,  Co.  A. 
John  G.  Young,  Sergeant-Major. 
Ben  Allen  Knox,  Sergeant,  Co.  B. 
A.  Friedhiem,  Corporal,  Co.  K. 
Henry  C.  Severs,  Private,  Co.  K. 

Fourth  Regiment.  271 

ber  James  Stinson  and  Mr.  Bagley,  the  two  faithful  couriers,  who 
were  always  conspicuous  figures  in  time  of  battle. 

John  G.  Young,  the  Sergeant-major  of  the  regiment,  was  also 
a  well  known  character  in  the  regiment.  He  volunteered  in 
1863,  when  about  sixteen  years  of  age;  was  for  a  time  drill-mas- 
ter, having  been  a  cadet;  was  never  sick^  wounded,  nor  absent 
until  the  surrender.  He  asked  leave  to  bring  home  the  flag  of 
the  Fourth  Regiment,  but  was  not  allowed  to  do  so.  Henry 
Severs  was  another  brave  Mecklenburg  boy  of  about  the  same 
age.  He  was  with  General  George  B.  Anderson  when  he  was 
wounded,  and  assisted  in  helping  that  noble  hero  from  the  field 
of  Sharpsburg. 

Private  Augustus  Byers,  of  Company  A,  was  a  representa- 
tive Southern  man.  A  man  of  education  and  considerable 
means,  he  chose  to  serve  as  a  soldier,  and  was  killed  near  Chan- 
cellorsville,  the  19th  of  May,  1864.  He  was  a  splendid  man 
and  a  good  soldier. 

Many  members  of  the  regiment  were  transferred  and  given 
offices  in  other  commands.  Among  the  number  were  the  gallant 
Lieutenant-Colonel,  J.  McLeod  Turner,  of  the  Seventh  North 
Carolina,  and  Major  T.  J.  Brown,  of  the  Forty-second  North  Caro- 
lina, before  mentioned.  Colonel  H.  C.  Jones,  of  the  Fifty-seventh 
Regiment,  was  at  one  time  a  member  of  Company  K,  though  I 
believe  this  was  before  the  Fourth  Regiment  was  organized. 

Lieutenants  Lee,  Parker,  Stith,  Stevens  and  Thompson,  all  of 
Company  F,  made  good  soldiers  and  received  promotion. 

Lieutenant  T.  M.  C.  Davidson,  of  Company  A,  was  pro- 
moted from  the  ranks.     He  was  a  good  soldier. 

Lieutenant  Thomas  W.  Stephenson,  of  Company  C,  was  a 
fine  specimen  of  a  soldier.  Always  ready  for  duty,  and  never 
flinching  from  danger.  The  same  may  be  said  of  J.  A.  S.  Feims- 
ter  and  S.  A.  Claywell  of  the  same  company. 

Captains  Latham  and  Gallagher,  of  Company  E,  were  good 
soldiers.  The  former  was  retired  on  account  of  wounds  received 
in  battle.  The  latter  took  his  place  in  1863,  and  served  till  the 
end  of  the  war.    Lieutenants  Litchfield  and  Williamson  sustained 

272  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

themselves  well  as  soldiers,  and  were  highly  esteemed  in  the 
regiment.  Lieutenant  Litchfield  was  killed  in  1864,  at  or  near 
Cold  Harbor. 

Captain  I.  H.  Carter,  of  Company  E,  was  a  brave  soldier. 
He  was  killed  at  Fredricksburg  in  1863.  Lieutenant  Guffy,  of 
Company  G,  was  a  first-rate  man.  Lieutenants  Smith,  Cain, 
Smoot  and  Jones,  of  the  same  company,  all  stood  well. 

Lieutenant  Edward  Tripp,  of  Company  E,  was  a  brave  and 
faithful  soldier,  who  had  command  of  the  company  for  quite  a 
while,  and  was  wounded  and  captured  in  1864. 

Lieutenants  Kennedy,  Summers  and  Stockton,  of  Company 
H,  were  good  representative  men  of  Iredell  county.  Lieuten- 
ant Summers  was  badly  wounded  at  Chancellorsville  while  act- 
ing as  Adjutant  of  the  regiment,  and  forced  to  accept  light  duty 
during  the  balance  of  the  war.  Weaver,  of  the  same  company, 
died  a  glorious  death  at  Sharpsburg,  as  has  been  told,  and  Stock- 
ton at  Gettysburg. 

Lieutenant  A.  N.  Wiseman,  of  Company  K,  was  a  model 
soldier.  As  Orderly  Sergeant  of  his  company  he  had  no  superior, 
and  as  a  commissioned  officer  he  was  all  that  could  be  desired. 
He  received  a  mortal  wound  at  Winchester  in  1864.  Cap- 
tain C.  A.  Hunt,  of  Lexington,  was  with  him  in  his  last 

Captain  M.  L.  Bean,  also  of  Company  K,  was  a  true  and  gal- 
lant officer.  He  and  A.  C.  Carter,  of  Company  K,  volunteered 
to  make  a  bold  reconnaissance  at  Gettysburg  to  ascertain  the 
enemy's  position,  and  saved  the  regiment  from  what  might  have 
been  a  fatal  surprise,  such  as  befell  one  of  our  brigades  the  same 

Lieutenant  E.  J.  Redding,  of  Company  E,  a  bold  and  gallant 
youth,  fell  at  the  post  of  duty  in  the  bloody  conflict  at  Seven 

Ben  Allen  Knox,  Sergeant  in  Company  B,  was  a  gallant 
soldier,  serving  throughout  the  war  with  courage  and  fidelity. 

In  looking  over  the  list  of  officers  and  men  of  the  grand  old 
regiment,  the  writer  is  reminded  that  it  would  take  a  volume  to 

Fourth  '  Eegimbnt.  273 

mention  what  might  be  said  of  hundreds  whose  names  I  would  be 
happy  to  mention,  who  are  equally  as  deserving  as  those  I  have 
named.  A  few  have  been  selected  here  and  there  as  represen- 
tative men  among  the  others.  A  list  of  the  privates  if  it  could 
be  printed  with  this  sketch  would  be  a  memorial  of  as  brave  and 
true  men  as  the  world  has  ever  known. 

The  survivors  of  the  Fourth  Regiment  will  no  doubt  remem- 
ber three  figures  that  would  not  be  out  of  place  in  a  complete 
picture  of  the  regiment,  and  will,  therefore,  permit  me  to  men- 
tion Colonel  Grimes'  negro  boy,  Polk,  Captain  Carter's  man, 
Jim,  and  the  writer's  boy,  Gus  :  Polk,  the  typical  mulatto,  Gus, 
the  ignorant,  but  loyal  African,  and  Jim,  the  devoted  and 
faithful  slave. 


It  is  a  grateful  privilege  to  mention  the  great  kindness  bestowed 
upon  the  members  of  the  Fourth  Regiment,  as  well  as  upon 
the  Confederate  soldiers  generally,  by  the  people  of  Virginia 
during  the  war.  Their  hospitality  and  kindness  were  unceasing 
and  almost  unbounded.  Conspicuous  among  those  with  whom 
we  came  in  contact  was  Mr.  George  S.  Palmer,  of  Richmond. 
His  name  is  a  synonym  for  all  that  is  generous,  kind  and 
hospitable.  The  writer  was  a  partaker  of  his  kindness,  and  that 
of  his  noble  wife  and  daughters  on  many  occasions — once  when 
sick,  and  three  times  when  wounded.  The  writer  also  remem- 
bers one  occasion  when  there  were  some  eighteen  wounded  offi- 
cers of  the  Fourth  Regiment  in  the  house  of  Mr.  Palmer.  This 
was  just  after  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines.  He  was  a  man  ot 
ample  means,  his  heart  and  soul  were  in  the  cause  of  the 
South,  and  it  was  his  delight  to  spend  and  be  spent  for  that 

On  the  20th  of  May,  1864,  the  writer  having  been  wounded 
the  day  before,  was  placed  in  an  ambulance  with  Colonel  F.  M. 
Parker,  of  the  Thirtieth  Regiment,  a  most  gallant  and  faithful 
soldier,  who  also  had  been  wounded  and  was  very  weak.  Cap- 
tain   Fred.   Philips,    since   Judge    Philips,    of    Tarboro,    had 


274  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

charge  of  the  wagon  train,  and  took  the  best  of  care  of  us  as  we 
were  conveyed  towards  Richmond  with  the  other  wounded  men. 
The  day  was  hot  and  we  were  parched  with  fever  and  thirst; 
but  he  supplied  us  from  time  to  time  with  refreshing  draughts 
of  buttermilk  and  ice  which  the  good  people  of  the  country  gave 
him.  It  was  served  in  a  horse-bucket;  but  never  was  sweeter 
or  more  refreshing  draughts  served,  nor  men  more  grateful  than 
we  were. 

In  one  of  the  iights  in  the  Valley  campaign  of  1864,  private 
McCanless,  a  gallant  member  of  Company  K,  was  captured  by 
a  Federal  soldier,  who  was  marching  him  through  the  woods, 
when  they  came  upon  another  man  of  the  same  company,  who 
was  separated  from  his  command,  and  making  his  way  back  as 
fast  as  he  could  run.  "Halt!"  shouted  the  Federalist;  but 
instead  of  halting  the  man  increased  his  speed.  "Halt!!  Halt!!!" 
shouted  the  Union  soldier  again,  and  bang  went  his  gun.  But 
his  aim  was  bad,  and  the  man  escaped.  "Now,"  said  McCan- 
less, "  you  may  help  yourself;  I,  too,  am  going  back,"  and  with 
that  he  departed  through  the  woods,  leaving  his  captor  standing 
with  his  empty  gun  in  his  hand,  and  made  his  escape. 

On  the  19th  of  May,  1864,  as  we  were  preparing  to  attack  the 
enemy's  flank  and  rear.  General  Ramseur  sent  Captain  Jenkins, 
of  the  Fourteenth  Regiment,  to  capture  what  was  supposed  to 
be  a  squad  of  pickets.  The  Captain  divided  his  squad  of  sharp- 
shooters in  order  to  make  a  dash  from  opposite  sides  upon  an  old 
house  where  the  supposed  pickets  were  thought  to  be.  At  the 
signal  agreed  upon  the  men  rushed  upon  the  house,  but  instead 
of  a  few  pickets  a  whole  regiment  of  Federals  rose  up  and  fired 
upon  the  Captain's  little  band.  The  Captain,  of  course,  beat  a 
hasty  retreat,  and  joined  the  command;  and  soon  the  whole 
line  was  engaged.  General  Ewell  had  his  horse  killed  in  this 
engagement.  It  fell  on  the  General's  wooden  leg,  pinning  him 
to  the  ground.  G.  D.  Snuggs,  of  Company  K,  and  Sergeant 
Barnett,  of  Company  H,  assisted  in  extricating  the  General  from 
his  difficulty.  As  soon  as  he  was  relieved  he  called,  out:  "Men, 
are  we  driving  them?     Are  we  driving  them?" 

FoxTETH  Eegiment.  275 

In  passing  through  Lexington,  Va.,  on  the  21st  of  June,  1864, 
General  Rodes  directed  Colonel  Wood,  of  the  Fourth  Regiment, 
to  lead  the  column  with  his  regimental  band  playing  a  funeral 
march  as  they  passed  by  the  grave  of  Stonewall  Jackson.  It 
was  a  very  impressive  scene  as  the  brave  old  veterans  of  so  many 
battles  filed  slowly  and  sadly  by  the  last  resting-place  of  their 
departed  hero. 

On  the  retreat  from  Fisher's  Hill,  the  22d  of  September,  1864, 
where  Ewell's  forces  were  badly  demoralized,  and  the  loss  of  the 
whole  command  seemed  imminent.  General  Ramseur  called  on 
his  old  brigade  to  hold  the  enemy  in  check  and  protect  the 
retreating  Confederates.  General  Cox,  who  was  in  command, 
did  this  in  splendid  style,  held  the  enemy  in  check  until  night, 
and  then  continued  the  retreat  up  the  Valley.  This  retreat 
was  made  in  two  lines  of  battle,  parallel  with  each  other, 
some  half  mile  apart,  in  which  order  General  Ewell  moved  his 
entire  corps  all  the  next  day,  stopping  occasionally  to  offer  bat- 
tle when  the  enemy  approached  too  near. 

On  the  9th  of  April,  General  Grimes  had  been  fighting  the 
enemy  with  his  division  up  to  the  very  hour  of  the  surrender,  and 
some  say  until  it  had  actually  taken  place j  and  the  Fourth  and 
Fourteienth  Regiments  were  the  last  of  his  division  that  were 
engaged,  so  the  men  of  these  regiments  say. 

At  Gettysburg,  when  we  started  to  make  the  night  attack, 
Colonel  Grimes,  who  could  not  see  very  well  at  night,  sent  for 
Corporal  Friedheim,  of  Company  K,  to  guide  him  and  be  with 
him  in  that  trying  ordeal.  He  knew  full  well  that  he  could 
trust  this  man ;  for  there  was  no  braver  or  truer  soldier  in  the 
army  than  A.  Friedheim. 

General  Grimes  told  the  writer  of  one  of  his  men  who,  on 
the  9th,  hearing  something  said  about  General  Lee's  surrender, 
came  to  him  and  asked  if  the  report  was  true.  "Yes,"  said  the 
General,  "it  is,  I  am  sorry  to  say,  too  true."  Whereupon  the 
poor  fellow  burst  into  tears,  and  cried  out:  "Blow,  Gabriel, 
blow,  I  do  not  want  to  live  another  day." 

Another  one,  a  member  of  Company  K,  Fourth  Eegiment, 

276  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

whose  name  I  cannot  remember,  set  hia  gun  down  at  the  sur- 
render with  a  sigh,  saying:  "Sit  there,  Betsy,  you've  made  many 
of  them  bite  the  dust." 

At  Seven  Pines  the  writer  was  shot  through  the  thigh.  While 
lying  on  the  field  a  Federal  soldier  came  along  with  his  gun. 
As  he  approached  near  where  the  writer  lay  he  covered  him  with 
his  pistol  and  ordered  him  to  halt,  throw  down  his  gun  and 
come  to  him.  The  soldier  obeyed,  and  was  made  to  assist  him 
from  the  field.  In  the  same  battle  the  writer  saw  a  Confederate 
soldier  get  into  a  panic  and  run  with  all  his  might  to  the  rear, 
but  recovering  his  self-possession,  he  returned  to  the  line  as 
i%pidly  as  he  had  fled,  and  went  on  through  the  battle;  he  was  never 
known  to  flinch  after  this,  and  was,  after  going  through  many  bat- 
tles, killed  in  an  act  of  conspicuous  bravery.  He  did  not  know 
that'  the  writer  saw  him,  nor  was  he  ever  told  that  any  one  saw' 

In  the  battle  of  Spottsylvania  Court  House,  on  the  12th  of 
May,  1864,  private  Thomas  Sprinkle,  of  Company  H,  was 
detailed  to  furnish  the  men  with  ammunition  during  the  fight. 
This  was  a  peculiarly  dangerous  duty  at  any  time,  but  never 
more  so  than  in  this  fight,  as  the  approach  to  the  line  from  the 
rear  was  through  a  perfect  storm  of  bullets  aimed  at  the  men 
behind  the  fortifications.  But  for  hours  the  brave  boy  with 
ruddy,  beardless  face,  continued  to  bring  the  needed  supplies, 
but  late  in  the  afternoon  he  failed  to  reach  the  line,  and  was 
never  seen  again.  Walker  Anderson,  the  Ordnance  Officer 
of  the  brigade,  was  killed  the  same  day.  It  was  at  this  battle 
that  several  trees,  from  twelve  to  fourteen  'inches  in  diameter, 
were  shot  until  they  fell,  cut  down  with  minnie-balls.  They 
stood  at  the  angle  of  the  breastworks,  and  were  in  full  range  of 
the  enemy's  fire  from  front  and  both  flanks. 

At  Gettysburg,  as  we  entered  the  town  after  the  enemy  retired 
from  our  front,  Lieutenant  Harney,  of  the  Fourteenth  Regiment, 
was  carried  to  the  rear  mortally  wounded.  Passing  within  a  few 
feet  of  the  writer,  he  displayed  a  Union  flag  which  he  had  cap- 
tul-ed  on  the  heights,  where  he  had  gone  with  the  sharp-shooters. 

Fourth  Regiment.  277 

He  entreated  that  the  troops  would  advance  and  capture  the 
heights,  as  the  enemy  was  in  utter  confusion  and  helpless.  His 
dying  request  was  that  the  banner  should  be  sent  to  President 
Davis.  Lieutenant  Harney  was  a  splendid  soldier,  had  seen  ser- 
vice in  the  war  with  Mexico,  and  was  devoted  to  the  cause  of 
the  South. 

In  the  heavy  skirmish  which  took  place  near  Spottsylvania 
Court  House  on  the  8th  of  May,  1864,  the  regiment  advanced  upon 
the  enemy  about  sundown  and  threw  them  into  complete  disorder. 
We  pushed  on  until  dark,  when  we  were  compelled  to  halt,  as  we 
could  not  distinguish  friends  from  foes.  Private  Heilig,  of 
Company  K,  captured  a  Federal  colonel  and  brought  him  out. 
The  colonel  showed  fight,  but  was  induced  to  submit.  Colonel 
Grimes  gave  Heilig  the  colonel's  pistol  as  a  reward  for  his  cour- 
age. Poor  fellow,  he  was  not  permitted  to  enjoy  his  prize  "but 
a  little  while,  as  he  was  killed  on  the  12th. 

When  the  enemy  surprised  and  broke  the  line  of  General 
Doles  on  our  right  on  the  10th  of  May,  1864,  Major  Hardaway, 
of  Alabama,  stood  his  ground,  serving  one  of  his  guns  himself 
until  the  enemy  reached  the  breastworks.  One  of  them  mounted 
the  gun  the  Major  was  serving,  and  waved  his  hat  with  a 
triumphant  shout;  but  the  Major  knocked  him  off  with  his 
sword  and  sullenly  retired  with  his  face  to  the  foe,  until  Battle's 
Alabamians  and  the  Fourth  North  Carolina  came  to  the  rescue. 
He  went  back  with  the  infantry  and  was  the  first  to  reach  the 
line,  and  opened  fire  on  the  retreating  foe.  The  writer  saw  him 
a  few  minutes  later,  and  his  hat  and  clothes  were  riddled  with 
bullets.     He  was  a  grand  man. 

A  notable  experience  with  the  regiment  was  the  march  from 
Port  E,oyal  to  Fredericksburg  just  before  the  battle  in  Decem- 
ber, 1862.  The  weather  was  very  cold,  snow  was  on  the  ground 
and  the  roads  one  continuous  slush  from  six  to  twelve  inches 
deep,  and  blocked  with  wagons  and  artillery.  The  night  was 
pitch-dark,  there  being  neither  moon  nor  stars,  and  the  march 
continued  all  night  long.  The  men  were  compelled  to  remain 
on  their  feet  most  of  the  time,  as  there  were  few  places  to  rest 

278  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65 

upon  for  the  mud;  sometimes  marching  a  few  rods,  or  a  few 
hundred  yards,  and  then  waiting  fifteen,  twenty  or  thirty  minutes 
on  account  of  the  blocking  of  the  roads  by  the  stalling  of  teams 
and  wagons  in  front. 

During  the  skirmish  on  the  11th  of  May,  1864,  near  Spottsyl- 
vania  Court  House,  Sergeant  Houlshouser,  of  Company  K,  was 
sitting  with  his  back  against  a  good  sized  tree,  our  part  of  the 
line  not  being  then  engaged,  whfen  a  cannon-ball  struck  the 
opposite  side  of  the  tree,  killing  him  instantly  by  the  shock. 

On  the  5th  of  May,  1864,  as  General  Rodes'  Division  was 
moving  in  line  of  battle  so  near  the  enemy  as  at  one  time  to  com- 
pel Ramseur's  Brigade  to  take  position  in  rear  of  the  main  line 
to  avoid  exposure  to  the  enemy's  fire.  General  Ramseur  re- 
monstrated with  General  Rodes  on  account  of  being  placed  in 
the  rear.  General  Rodes  told  him  in  a  jocular  way  that  if  he 
"  would  move  those  Yankees  away  from  there  he  could  place 
his  brigade  in  line."  Whereupon  General  Ramseur  deployed  his 
men  and  made  a  rush  through  the  woods,  firing  and  yelling,  and 
soon  cleared  the  woods  of  the  enemy's  sharp-shooters;  when  he 
put  his  brigade  in  position  on  the  left.  It  should  be  borne  in 
mind,  however,  that  the  enemy  had  all  they  could  attend  to  in 
another  part  of  the  field  at  that  time. 

In  the  winter  of  1863  many  of  the  men  had  no  shoes  and 
were  suffering  much  from  cold  as  the  troops  were  on  the  march. 
General  Hill  ordered  that  every  man  who  had  no  shoes  should 
be  provided  with  raw  hide  moccasins.  Some  of  the  men  com- 
plied with  the  order,  but  soon  found  they  were  of  no  use  for  when 
the  sun  came  out  they  became  too  hard,  and  when  the  ground  was 
wet  they  could  not  keep  them  on  their  feet. 

When  James  Bowers,  of  Company  K,  fell  at  Seven  Pines 
with  the  flag  of  the  regiment  in  his  hand,  he  said  to  a  comrade: 
"Tell  Mr.  Bruner  (the  man  with  whom  he  had  lived)  that  I 
died  with  my  face  to  the  enemy." 

THE   LAST    SCENE    OF   THE    WAR. 

The  Fourth  Regiment  was  on  the  right  of  the  brigade  at 
Appomattox  on  the  9th  of  April,  1865,  and  was  the  first  in  the 

Fourth  Regiment.  279 

brigade  to  stack  arms.  When  this  was  done  General  Grimes 
called  them  to  "  attention  "  for  the  last  time,  and  had  them  to 
file  past  him  in  order  that  he  might  shake  hands  with  each  man, 
and  as  he  did  so,  with  streaming  eyes  and  faltering  voice,  he 
said:  "Go  home,  boys,  and  act  like  men,  as  you  have  always 
done  during  the  war." 


I  have  endeavored  to  give  a  faithful  sketch  of  this  grand  body 
of  men;  but  I  am  painfully  aware  of  having  failed  to  do  the 
subject  justice.  Thirty-five  years  of  labor  and  toil  have  effaced 
many  important  incidents  from  a  mind  constantly  crowded  with 
the  cares  and  duties  of  official  and  ministerial  life.  Besides,  I 
have  been  compelled  to  write  in  the  midst  of  many  pressing  cares 
and  labors,  and  to  procure  my  facts  from  other  sources  of  infor- 
mation than  my  own,  not  having  kept  a  record  of  the  events  as 
they  occurred.  And  here  I  wish  to  acknowledge  my  deep  indebt- 
edness to  Captain  John  A.  Stikeleather,  the  Rev.  W.  A.  Wood, 
D.  D.,  and  Mr.  Pulaski  Cowper  in  the  letters  of  General  Grimes, 
edited  by  him ;  to  Mr.  Nathanal  Raymer,  a  member  of  the  band 
of  the  Fourth  Regiment,  who  sent  me  his  letters  written  during 
the  war  under  the  signature  of  "Nat,"  in  The  Statesville  Ameri- 
can; for  the  notes  kept  by  Dr.  Shinn,  of  Company  B,  and  the 
note-book  of  Mr.  E.  B.  Stinson  of  the  band  of  the  Fourth 
Regiment.  Also,  for  many  items  of  interest  by  Mr.  G.  D. 
Snuggs,  a  gallant  member  of  the  Fourth  Regiment,  and  a 
splendid  member  of  the  corps  of  sharp-shooters.  And  last,  but 
by  no  means  least,  for  very  valuable  information  furnished  by 
Captain  W.  C.  Coughenour,  Dr.  J.  F.  Shaffner  and  Captain  M. 
L.  Bean.  I  have  also  received  valuable  items  from  Captain  H. 
M.  Warren  and  Sergeant-major  John  Graham  Young,  R.  O. 
Leinster,  Dr.  J.  C.  Hadley,  Mr.  Henry  C.  Severs,  Captain  S.  A. 
Kelley,  Major  Stansill  and  others,  for  all  of  which  I  am  very 

In  looking  over  the  history  of  the  Fourth  Regiment  the  writer 
is  reminded  of  many  facts  that  throw  light  upon  the  history  and 
character  of  the  organization.  A  marked  characteristic  of  our  men 

280  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

was  their  sobriety  and  piety.  The  writer  does  not  recall  a  half  dozen 
instances  of  drunkenness  in  the  regiment  during  the  war,  and 
but  few  of  gross  profanity  or  immorality.  They  were  a  pious  and 
orderly  set  of  men.  The  camps  often  resounded  with  hymns  and 
songs.  Among  the  latter  "Annie  Laurie  "  was  a  great  favorite;  also 
"  Dixie,"  and  "  My  Old  Cabin  Home."  Prayers  were  conducted  in 
many  of  the  tents,  and  religious  services  were  well  attended.  Pro- 
fanity amongst  the  officers  was  seldom  heard.  Colonel  Anderson's 
example  and  iniluence  in  this  respect  was  very  marked ;  also 
that  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Young,  and  Major  Grimes,  though 
of  a  quick  and  fiery  temper,  was  careful  never  to  take  the 
Holy  Name  in  vain.  They  were  all  God-fearing  men,  and  not 
given  to  loose  talking  nor  drink.  The  writer  never  heard  any 
conversation  at  headquarters  that  would  have  offended  the  most 
modest  and  religious  feelings.  The  company  officers  were  gener- 
ally of  high  moral  character,  and  many  of  them  were  Chris- 
tian men  whose  influence  was  felt  among  their  rank  and  file.  In 
fact  they  only  represented  the  men  of  the  ranks,  from  whence 
they  had  been  taken.  E.  A.  Osborne. 

Charlotte,  N.  C, 

April  9,  1900. 


1.  Duncan  K.  McRae,  Colonel.  3.    T.  M.  Garrett,  Colonel, 

2.  Jolin  W.  Lea,  Colonel.  4.    P.  J,  Sinclair,  Lieut.-Colonel. 

5.    John  C.  Badham,  Lieut.-Colonel. 



This  was  oue  of  the  tea  regiments  organized  under  the  act  of 
the  General,  Assembly  of  North  Carolina,  May  8th,  1861,  en- 
titled: "An  Act  to  Eaise  Ten  Thousand  State  Troops";  and  it 
is  to  be  distinguished  from  the  Fifth  Volunteers,  afterwards 
called  the  Fifteenth  North  Carolina  Regiment. 

It  was  formed  in  camp  of  instruction  at  Halifax  in  July,  1861, 
by  the  assignment  to  it  of  the  following  named  field  officers: 

Duncan  K.  MacRae,  Colonel;  Joseph  P.  Jones,  Lieutenant- 
Colonel;  John  C.  Badham,  Major;  Lieutenant  Isaac  A.  Jones, 
of  Company  H,  Acting  Adjutant;  Captain  John  Kirkland, 
Acting  Quartermaster;  Captain  James  M.  Jones,  Acting  Com- 
missary-Sergeant; Dr.  James  A.  MacRae,  Surgeon;  Dr.  John 
K.  Ruffin,  Assistant  Surgeon. 

It  was  composed  of: 

Company  A,  from  Cumberland,  Captain  P.  J.  Sinclair. 
Company  B,  from  Gates,  Captain  W.  J.  Hill. 
Company  C,  from  Johnston,  Captain  E.  D.  Sneed. 
Company  D,  from  Craven,  Captain  Jacob  Brookfield. 
Company  E,  from  Rowan,  Captain  Samuel  Reaves. 
Company  F,  from  Bertie,  Captain  Thomas  M.  Garrett. 
Company  G,  from  Wilson,  Captain  N.  A.  H.  Goddin. 
Company  H,  from  Gates,  Captain  S.  B.  Douge. 
Company  I,  from  Caswell,  Captain  John  W.  Lea. 
Company  K,  from  Rowan,  Captain  Ham.  C  Jones. 

While  these  companies  are  stated  to  be  from  certain  counties, 
they  were  enlisted  in  large  numbers  from  other  counties;  for 
instance,  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  men  of  this  regiment  were 

282     "         North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

from  Chatham;  and  later,  the  depleted  ranks  were  filled  with 
conscripts  from  different  parts  of  the  State. 

The  regiment  reached  Manassas  on  July  19th,  1861,  and  was 
attached  to  the  brigade  of  General  Longstreet,  and  participated 
in  the  battle  of  the  21st,  its  position  being  on  the  extreme  right; 
it  was  not  engaged  in  the  most  serious  conflict  of  that  day, 
although  being  exposed  to  the  enemy's  fire,  it  lost  several  men. 
It  was  in  the  advance  upon  the  retreat  of  the  Federal  army, 
which  it  assisted  in  driving  into  Washington. 

During  the  winter  of  1861-62,  having  been  .assigned  to 
Early's  Brigade,  it  was  stationed  at  Union  Mills  on  the  Orange 
&  Alexandria  Eailroad,  engaged  in  outpost  and  picket  duty  in 
front  of  the  Confederate  lines.  At  one  time  it  held  position  on 
Mason  Hill  in  sight  of  the  Capitol  at  Washington,  and  was  daily 
engaged  with  the  enemy's  skirmishers.  In  the  intervals  of  its 
outpost  duty  it  was  thoroughly  drilled  in  preparation  for  the 
arduous  work  in  store  for  it  in  the  near  future. 

During  this  winter,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Jones,  having  been 
assigned  to  other  duty,  resigned  his  position  in  the  regiment; 
Major  John  C.  Badham  was  appointed  Lieutenant-Colonel  and 
Captain  Peter  J.  Sinclair,  of  Company  A,  was  promoted  to 
Major;  Lieutenant  James  C.  MacRae,  of  Company  D,  was  made 
Adjutant;  Captains  Sneed  and  Goddin  resigned  and  Lieutenants 
Mullins  and  Thompson  were  made  Captains  in  their  stead  of 
Companies  C  and  G.  Dr.  MacRae  resigned  and  Dr.  Ruffin  was 
transferred  to  another  command,  and  Dr.  Wingfield  became 
Surgeon  of  the  regiment. 

On  the  change  of  front  to  meet  the  advance  of  McCIellan 
upon  Richmond,  Early's  Brigade  was  among  the  first  to  reach 
General  Magruder  on  the  Peninsular.  It  w^s  immediately  put 
in  position  in  the  defensive  works  near  Yorktown,  and  remained 
in  the  trenches,  constantly  on  duty,  until  the  evacuation  of  York- 
town  on  May  3,  1862,  being  the  last  of  the  Confederate  troops 
to  leave  the  works.  Passing  from  the  rearguard,  it  marched  up 
the  Williamsburg  road,  and  on  the  night  of  May  4,  1862, 
bivouacked  in  the  field  beyond  Williamsburg,  under  orders  to 

Fifth  Regiment.  283 

take  up  its  line  of  march  at  daybreak  in  the  direction  of  the 

Its  part  in  the  affair  at  Williamsburg  deserves  more  than 
casual  mention.  Owing  to  the  determined  pressure  of  the 
Federals  upon  the  rearguard  of  the  Confederates,  Early's  Brigade 
was  counter-marched  into  Williamsburg,  where  it  rested  in  the 
campus  of  old  William  and  Mary  College  during  the  morning, 
awaiting  orders.  The  battle  on  the  right  of  the  Confederates, 
below  Williamsburg,  was  very  severe  during  the  day,  and  the 
enemy  was  not  only  held  in  check  but  driven  back  with  great 
slaughter.  In  the  afternoon  it  was  found  that  the  Federal  troops 
had  taken  possession  of  an  old  abandoned  redoubt  on  the  extreme 
left,  and  somewhat  in  advance  of  the  other  works,  which  had 
been  erected  for  the  defense  of  Williamsburg,  and  was  seriously 
annoying  our  troops  by  an  enfilading  fire  from  its  batteries. 
Early's  and  Rodes'  Brigades,  under  command  of  Major-General 
D.  H.  Hill,  were  sent  to  the  left  of  the  Confederate  line  with 
orders  to  retake  this  redoubt  and  silence  its  batteries.  Under  the 
immediate  direction  of  General  Hill,  four  regiments  of  Early's 
Brigade  were  marched  to  the  left  and  disencumbered  of  all 
impedimenta  in  the  open  ground,  which  was  separated  from  this 
redoubt  by  thick  woods.  Of  the  four  regiments  to  compose  the 
attacking  party  the  Twenty-fourth  Virginia,  Colonel  Terry, 
led  by  General  Early  in  person,  was  on  the  left  and  covered  by 
woods,  immediately  opposite  the  redoubt.  The  Fifth  North 
Carolina  was  on  the  right  and  opposite  an  open  field  about  eight 
hundred  yards  from  the  redoubt  to  be  attacked.  At  the  word  of 
command  the  brigade  in  line  of  battle  passed  into  the  intervening 
woods,  from  which  this  regiment  soon  emerged  in  a  field  of  heavy 
plowed  ground,  in  full  view  of  the  enemy,  who  immediately 
opened  upon  it  with  artillery.  In  the  face  of  apparent  destruc- 
tion, but  in  obedience  to  direct  orders  from  the  Major-General 
commanding,  this  regiment  began  the  advance.  It  was  at  once 
necessary  to  change  front  forward  on  the  left  company,  and  the 
movement  was  made  with  precision  under  a  heavy  artillery  fire. 
On  account  of  the  continued  advance  of  the  left  company  and 

284  North  Caeolina  Tkoops,  1861-'65. 

the  heavy  condition  of  the  soil  the  right  of  the  line,  though  at 
a  double-quick,  was  delayed  in  reaching  its  alignment;  the  left 
companies  were  halted  to  give  time  for  the  balance  of  the  regi- 
ment to  reach  the  line,  when  the  whole  command  halted,  dressed 
upon  the  left,  and  at  the  word  of  command  pressed  forward  to 
the  attack,  marching  as  on  dress-parade,  without  firing  a  gun. 
In  front  of  the  redoubt  were  five  regiments  of  infantry,  sup- 
porting a  battery  of  ten  pieces  of  artillery,  with  clouds  of 
skirmishers  in  their  advance.  The  charge  of  the  Fifth  North 
Carolina  on  this  occasion  has  rarely  been  surpassed  in  the  history 
of  war  for  its  heroism  and  gallantry.  Pressing  on  from  the  first 
in  the  face  of  the  battery,  entering  into  the  plunging  fire  of  the 
infantry,  wading  into  a  storm  of  balls,  which  first  struck  the 
men  in  the  feet  and  rose  upon  their  nearer  approach,  it  steadily 
pressed  on.  The  Twenty-fourth  Virginia  had  now  emerged 
from  the  woods  at  a  point  on  the  left  and  nearer  the  enemy, 
driving  the  skirmishers  before  it.  From  the  thickness  of  the 
woods  in  their  front,  the  center  regiments  not  having  come  up, 
the  Fifth  Regiment  obliqued  to  the  left  to  touch  its  comrade, 
the  Twenty-fourth  Virginia,  when  all  pressed  forward,  driving 
the  enemy  before  them.  Not  until  within  close  range  was  the 
command  "Commence  firing"  given,  when  it  began  to  fire  and 
load  as  it  advanced.  The  enemy's  skirmishers  retired,  the  battery 
retreated  into  the  redoubt,  with  the  infantry  behind  it,  and 
opened  fire  again  from  the  intrenchments. 

Instances  of  individual  heroism  would  fill  a  volume.  The 
members  of  the  color-guard  were  shot  down  one  by  one,  and  as 
each  man  fell  the  battle  flag  was  passed  to  the  successor.  When 
the  last  sergeant  fell.  Captain  Benjamin  Robinson,  of  Company 
A,  took  it  and  bore  it  at  the  head  of  his  company  until  the  staff 
was  shot  to  pieces.  The  officers  and  men  were  falling  rapidly 
under  the  withering  fire  of  grape  and  canister  and  musketry. 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Badham  was  shot  in  the  forehead  and  fell 
dead ;  Major  Sinclair's  horse  was  killed  and  he  was  disabled ; 
Captain  Mullins,  of  Company  C,  received  his  mortal  wound  and 
fell  upon  the  field;  Captains  Garrett  and  Lea  and  Jones  were 

Fifth  Regiment.  285 

all  shot  down,  as  were  many  of  the  subalterns,  among  them 
Lieutenant  Thomas  Snow,  of  Halifax  (who  was  killed  far  in 
advance  of  his  company,  cheering  on  his  men);  Lieutenants 
Boswell,  of  Company  A;  Clark,  of  Company  G;  Hays  of  Com- 
pany F. 

In  fifty  yards  of  the  redoubt  this  regiment,  or  what  was  left 
of  it,  reached  a  small  fence  and  ditch  with  a  slight  embankment 
next  to  the  enemy.  Here  it  took  cover,  continuing  to  fire,  the 
Twenty-fourth  Virginia  on  its  left.  Victory  was  in  its  grasp, 
the  enemy  had  been  driven  to  his  intrenchment;  one  fresh  regi- 
ment was  all  that  was  needed  to  go  over  the  works,  but  none 
ever  came;  instead  thereof  an  order  to  retreat.  Too  few  in 
number  to  continue  the  attack  (at  the  beginning  of  the  fight 
these  two  regiments  did  not  number  a  thousand  men),  in  obedi- 
ence to  orders,  the  regiment  retired  to  the  cover  of  the  woods  on 
its  left,  leaving  a  large  majority  of  the  officers  and  men  dead 
and  wounded  on  the  field. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Badham  was  one  of  the  first  men  of  the 
State,  a  lawyer  by  profession  and  a  political  leader.  Had  he 
lived  he  would  have  had  all  its  honors. 

It  would  extend  this  sketch  too  much  to  mention  the  gallant 
boys  who  here,  at  the  threshold  of  the  conflict,  laid  down  their 
lives.  Four  hundred  and  fifteen  men  were  counted  as  they 
went  into  action ;  seventy-five  answered  to  the  roll-call  in  the 
morning,  and  nearly  all  of  the  missing  were  either  killed  or 
wounded.  General  Hancock,  who  commanded  the  Federals  in 
their  front,  said  of  the  Fifth  North  Carolina  and  Twenty-fourth 
Virginia:  "They  should  have  immortality  inscribed  on  their 

Next  morning  the  Confederate  army  resumed  its  march,  with- 
out further  opposition,  to  the  Chickahominy,  where  was  witnessed 
an  event  never  before  known  in  war — the  election  of  officers  for 
all  the  volunteer  regiments  from  North  Carolina  and  a  conse- 
quent reorganization,  in  face  of  the  enemy. 

General  Early  having  been  seriously  wounded  while  leading 
this  regiment,  the  command  of  the  brigade  devolved  upon  Colo- 

286  North  uaeolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

nel  MacRae,  whose  feeble  physical  frame  soon  succumbed  to 
severe  illness.  General,  Samuel  Garland  took  command,  Major 
Sinclair,  now  promoted  to  Lieutenant-Colonel,  commanding  the 
regiment.  The  depleted  ranks  soon  began  to  fill  up  with  con- 
valescents returned  from  the  hospitals,  for  there  had  been  much 
sickness  engendered  by  the  exposure  in  the  trenches  at  York- 
town.  By  the  battle  at  Seven  Pines  there  were  more  than  two 
hundred  men  for  duty.  Lieutenant  MacRae  had  then  been  pro- 
moted to  Captain  and  Acting  Adjutant-General,  and  Lieutenant 
F.  J.  Haywood  became  Adjutant.  In  this  battle  Colonel  Mac- 
Rae endeavored  to  take  command,  but  from  sheer  weakness  was 
unable  to  do  so.  Under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Sinclair  the  regi- 
ment, with  others  of  Garland's  Brigade  and  Hill's  Division, 
drove  the  enemy  from  its  position,  but  again  at  serious  loss  in 
officers  and  men.  One  of  the  killed  was  Lieutenant  Isaac  A. 
Jones,  of  Company  H,  who  for  a  time  acted  as  Ajutant.  Young, 
enthusiastic,  brave,  he  took  his  place  among  the  immortals  in 
the  hour  of  victory. 

Through  all  the  series  of  battles  around  Richmond  this  regi- 
ment followed  the  fortunes  of  Garland's  Brigade,  with  but  a 
handful  left  at  Malvern  Hill.  During  that  very  brilliant  series 
of  movements,  ending  in  the  utter  defeat  of  Pope  by  Jackson  at 
Second  Manassas,  the  division  of  D.  H.  Hill  remained  near 
Richmond  for  its  protection,  in  which  time  it  again  replenished 
its  ranks  with  the  return  of  those  who  had  recovered  from  their 
wounds  and  sickness  and  the  assignment  of  conscripts,  many  of 
whom,  though  late  in  joining  the  army,  were  first-rate  material 
and  made  good  soldiers.  Lieutenant  F.  J.  Haywood  was  made 
Ordnance  Officer  on  General  Garland's  staff. 

In  September,  1862,  the  regiment  marched  into  Maryland, 
stood  with  Hill  in  that  grand  stand  at  South  Mountain  which 
saved  the  army,  divided  as  it  was  in  the  face  of  vastly  superior 
forces,  the  other  half  assigned  to  capture  Harper's  Ferry,  and  re- 
combined  to  beat  double  its  number  at  Sharpsburg.  In  these 
magnificent  battles  it  lost  heavily  again.  Brave  Garland  fell.  Col- 
onel MacRae  taking  command,  was  himself  disabled  and  soon  after 

Fifth  Regiment.  287 

compelled  by  feeble  health  to  leave  the  army.  General  Iverson  be- 
came brigade  commander,  and  Captain  Thomas  M.  Garrett  suc- 
ceeded to  the  colonelcy.  The  resignation  of  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Sinclair  soon  followed;  Captain  John  W.  Lea  was  made  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel and  Captain  W.  J.  Hill  Major;  Lieutenant  Fab.  J. 
Haywood,  who  had  served  upon  the  staff  of  General  Garland, 
became  again  Adjutant  of  the  regiment.  It  was  now  attached  to 
Bodes'  Division,  Ewell's  Corps,  Array  of  Northern  Virginia. 

Returning  to  Virginia,  there  was  to  this  regiment  and  brigade 
a  season  of  comparative  rest  in  the  vicinity  of  Winchester,  and 
later  on  the  Opequon,  but  this  period  of  inactivity  was  short, 
for  in  December,  1862,  after  rapid  marching,  it  reached  its  place 
in  front  of  Fredericksburg  to  meet  the  advance  of  Hooker. 
Though  engaged  in  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg,  its  losses  were 
small,  the  regiment  and  brigade  not  being  greatly  exposed.  But 
at  Chancellorsville  it  bore  a  distinguished  part,  losing  heavily 
again  in  officers  and  men.  All  of  its  field  oflBcers  were  wounded, 
and  the  command  of  the  regiment  devolved  upon  that  brave  and 
capable  officer.  Captain  Speight  B.  West,  under  whom  it  served 
through  the  campaign  which  led  to  Gettysburg,  where  it  suf- 
fered severely  on  the  first  day's  fight,  its  four  captains  present — 
West,  Robinson,  Taylor  and  Jordan — all  being  wounded,  though 
two  of  them,  Robinson  and  Jordan,  reported  for  duty  again  the 
next  day.  It  lay,  unable  to  strike  a  blow,  under  a  tremendous 
fire  of  artillery  and  sharp-shooters,  during  the  fatal  battle  of  the 
third  day  at  Gettysburg.  Its  loss  at  Gettysburg  is  reported  in 
the  "Records  of  the  Rebellion"  at  thirty-one  killed  and  one 
hundred  and  twelve  wounded.  The  list  of  casualties  sent  with 
General  Iverson's  report  cannot  be  found.  A  large  majority  of 
the  officers  were  killed  or  wounded.  Adjutant  Haywood  was 
left  upon  the  field  severely  wounded.  From  Gettysburg,  Iver- 
son's Brigade  proceeded  by  forced  march  to  Hagerstown,  where 
it  had  a  brilliant  encounter  with  the  enemy's  cavalry,  driving 
them  out  of  the  town.  On  the  return  to  Virginia  it  was  engag- 
ed in  all  those  maneuvers  on  the  Rapidan  and  Rappahannock 
which  occupied  the  fall  of  1863. 

288  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

In  October,  at  Bristoe  Station,  under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lea, 
Colonel  Garrett  commanding  the  brigade,  it  crossed  Raccoon 
Ford  and  charged  the  enemy's  battery  near  Stevensburg,  driving 
him  across  the  Rapidan.  In  the  report  of  this  engagement, 
Captain  T.  N.  Jordan,  of  Company  F;  Lieutenant  C.  E.  C.  Rid- 
dick,  commanding  Company  B,  and  Corporal  A.  Overton,  of 
Company  F,  are  mentioned  as  having  exhibited  great  courage 
and  daring.  Colonel  Garrett's  good  conduct  was  especially 
mentioned  by  General  Fitzhugh  Lee. 

At  Mine  Run,  in  November,  Captain  Benjamin  Robinson, 
Company  A,  with  two  corps  of  sharp-shooters,  about  seventy- 
five  strong,  drove  in  the  One  Hundred  and  Fifteenth  Massa- 
chusetts Regiment,  killing  and  capturing  a  number  of  them, 
including  the  lieutenant-colonel.  Captain  Robinson  was  specially 
mentioned  by  General  Johnson  and  General  Rodes,  and  recom- 
mended for  promotion. 

The  regiment  remained  in  winter  quarters  on  the  Rapidan 
during  the  winter,  and  in  the  early  spring  was  sent  to  Taylors- 
ville,  a  station  on  the  Richmond,  Fredericksburg  &  Potomac 
Railroad,  about  twenty  miles  from  Richmond,  to  rest  and 
recuperate ;  but  it  went  to  the  front  at  the  opening  of  the  cam- 
paign in  the  early  days  of  May,  1864,  with  full  ranks,  its  field 
officers  all  present,  and  the  spirits  of  the  veteran  soldiers  good. 
By  forced  marches  (going  in  one  day  thirty-three  miles)  it 
went  from  Taylorsville  to  the  Wilderness,  reaching  the  latter  on 
the  afternoon  of  the  last  day  of  the  battle,  and  immediately 
went  into  action  as  a  part  of  the  force  with  which  General  Gor- 
don turned  the  right  flank  of  the  Federal  army.  This  engage- 
ment first  brought  Gordon  before  the  public  eye  as  a  soldier  of 
eminent  capacity.  The  regiment  greatly  distinguished  itself  in 
this  fight  and  in  the  quickly  following  battle  of  Spottsylvania. 
On  the  10th  of  May  the  brigade  was  sent  out  on  a  reconnaissance 
on  the  right  of  the  army,  where  it  became  engaged  with  Burn- 
side's  Corps,  and  after  a  stubborn  fight  was  compelled  to  retire. 
In  this  engagement  Captain  Robinson  and  also  Captain  Davis 
were   both  seriously  wounded.     On    the   11th,    with    Daniel's 


1.  Eayner  Erookfleld,  Captain,  Co.  C.  3.    Jacob  Brookfleld,  Captain,  Co.  D. 

2.  L.  M.  Davis,  Captain,  Co.  K.  4.     F.  J.  Haywood,  Jr.,  Adjutant. 

5.    Jos.  G.  Hayes,  1st  Lieut.,  Co.  F. 

Fifth  Eegiment.  289 

Brigade,  it  recaptured  a  battery  which  had  been  taken  by  a 
division  of  Federals  and  drove  back  the  Federal  troops  with 
great  slaughter.  In  this  fight  there  was  a  good  deal  of  bayonet 
fighting,  and  Colonel  Garrett  was  conspicuous  for  his  bravery. 
On  the  12th  came  the  great  battle  of  Spottsylvania.  In  the 
early  morning,  before  daylight,  the  brigade  was  awakened  by 
sharp  firiug  and,  hurrying  to  the  front,  found  that  the  entire 
division  of  General  Edward  Johnson  had  been  captured,  and 
that  the  brigade  was  expected  to  fill  the  gap  and  arrest  the 
onward  assault  of  the  enemy,  which  was  in  great  force,  being 
the  corps  of  General  Hancock.  This  was  in  the  "angle"  or 
"  horse-shoe,"  as  it  has  been  called  from  its  shape,  a  place  made 
memorable  by  the  fierceness  of  the  conflict  which  raged  there 
all  the  day.  Into  the  breach  the  brigade  went,  the  morning  fog 
being  so  thick  that  at  ten  paces  one  could  not  distinguish  friend 
from  foe,  and  was  subjected  to  an  enfilading  fire  from  right  and 
left.  In  less  than  fifteen  minutes  after  going  into  action  five 
officers  were  killed,  including  Colonel  Garrett,  shot  through  the 
head,  and  Lieutenant  Edward  Smedes,  a  gallant  young  officer 
from  Raleigh.  Colonel  Garrett  was  a  gallant  soldier  and  had 
won  for  himself  an  enviable  reputation  for  conspicuous  personal 
courage  and  capacity  for  commanding  troops.  Many  others 
were  killed  and  many  captured,  among  the  latter  being  Lieu- 
tenant Anderson,  of  Fayetteville,  and  Sergeant-major  Busbee, 
of  Raleigh.  During  the  day's  battle  the  regiment  bore  a  con- 
spicuous part  and  maintained  its  reputation  as  the  "Bloody 
Fifth."  It  carried  into  the  fight  about  four  hundred  and  fifty, 
and  at  the  evening  roll-call  only  forty-two  answered.  It  is  said 
that  in  this  battle  and  in  the  "horse-shoe"  the  fiercest  musketry 
fighting  of  the  war  occurred.  In  the  War  Department  at  Wash- 
ington, among  the  relics,  is  a  section  of  the  trunk  of  a  whiteoak 
tree  which  was  cut  down  in  this  fight  at  the  "angle"  by  minie- 
balls  alone. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  John  W.  Lea  now  became  Colonel  of  the 
Fifth.     Major  Hill  was  made  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Captain 
J.  M.  Taylor  acting  as  Major,  and  as  part  of  Johnston's  Brigade, 

290  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Ramseur's  and  then  Pegram's  Division,  Ewell's  Corps,  it  went 
to  the  Valley  to  its  old  commander.  Early,  made  the  brilliant 
advance  movement  across  the  Potomac,  was  with  Gordon  when 
he  drove  Lew  Wallace  from  Monocacy  into  Baltimore,  and  for  a 
second  time  stood  in  sight  of  the  Capitol  at  Washington;  but 
closer  approach  was  not  written  in  the  book  of  Fate,  and  Early 
turned  back  into  Virginia.  Then  began  the  series  of  reverses, cul- 
minating at  Fisher's  Hill,  which  called  forth  all  the  manhood  of 
Johnston  and  his  North  Carolinians,  whose  "thin  gray  line,"  as 
the  rearguard  of  Early's  army,  held  Sheridan  in  check. 

In  November,  1864,  Colonel  Lea  was  in  command  of  the 
brigade  and  Captain  Edward  M.  Duguid  of  the  regiment.  The 
winter  of  1864-'65  was  spent  on  the  banks  of  the  Staunton 
River,  the  regiment  being  scattered  along  that  stream  to  guard 
the  ferries  in  order  to  prevent  the  passage  of  deserters  from  Lee's 
army.  Toward  the  last  of  March  it  was  called  back  to  its  place 
at  the  front,  and  took  position  in  the  trenches  at  Petersburg,  its 
officers  and  men  living  in  holes  in  the  ground  just  in  rear  of  the 
trenches  which  they  were  guarding.  There,  in  repelling  attacks 
and  in  sorties  from  the  works,  it  filled  the  full  measure  of  its 
duty.  ■  In  the  battle  of  Fort  Steadman  it  bore  a  gallant  part. 
When  Petersburg  was  evacuated  the  regiment  constituted  part 
of  the  rearguard,  and  on  that  sad  retreating  march  from  Peters- 
burg to  Appomattox,  when  unceasing  fighting  by  day  and  hurried 
marching  by  night  fell  to  the  lot  of  those  brave  men  who  consti- 
tuted the  shattered  remnant  of  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  it 
bore  its  full  share  of  the  conflicts  and  held  its  honorable  record 
to  the  bitter  end.  Examples  of  sublime  personal  courage  were 
of  daily  occurrence,  notable  among  them  being  Lieutenant  Wal- 
ter R.  Moore,  Jr.,  commanding  the  sharp-shooters,  who  was 
killed  in  a  skirmish  near  the  town  of  Farmville.  At  Appo- 
mattox it  marched  through  the  little  town  under  the  fire  of  a 
Federal  battery  and  took  its  place  in  line  of  battle,  formed 
beyond  the  town,  to  charge  the  Federal  batteries  which  were 
opening  the  battle  to  the  left  and  front.  Awaiting  the  order  to 
advance,  the  firing  suddenly  ceased  and  down  the  road  came  a 

Fifth  Regiment.  291 

white  flag  in  charge  of  a  Federal  oflBcer,  soon  known  to  be  Gen- 
eral Custer.     The  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  had  surrendered ! 

The  history  of  the  Fifth  North  Carolina  Regiment  is  the 
history  of  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia.  It  joined  this 
army  at  First  Manassas  and  nev^er  left  it  until  "bugles  sang 
truce"  and  the  last  charge  was  arrested  at  Appomattox,  April 
9th,  1865.  Its  history  is  written  in  the  blood  of  its  officers  and 
men,  the  greater  part  of  whom  sleep  beneath  the  soil  of  Virginia, 
Maryland  and  Pennsylvania.  Among  all  the  heroic  commands 
forming  the  army  under  Lee,  no  regiment  has  a  more  honorable 
record,  and  at  the  end,  amid  the  Appomattox  hills,  a  few  worn 
men,  doing  their  duty  to  the  last,  were  all  that  was  left  of  the 
old  Fifth  North  Carolina,  the  regiment  which  had  so  early  earned 
and  so  long  maintained  a  title  to  immortality. 

Here  are  the  names  of  those  who  laid  down  their  arms  with 
Lee:  John  W.  Lea,  Colonel,  commanding  the  brigade;  J.  M. 
Taylor,  Captain  Company  G,  commanding  the  regiment;  George 
T.  Parker,  Captain  Company  H;  M.  T.  Hunt,  First  Lieuten- 
ant Company  E;  James  W.  Lea,  Second  Lieutenant  Company 
I ;  J.  N.  Pearson,  Surgeon ;  H.  W.  Williams,  Assistant  Surgeon ; 
Sergeant-major  C.  M.  Busbee,  Musician  J.  J.  Johnston. 

Company  A — Privates  Daniel  Albertini,  David  Ayres,  Abram 
Holder,  Jesse  Johnston,  Retus  Jones,  William  Sanders,  Andrew 

Company  B — Sergeant  Henry  Clay  Williams,  Private  Wil- 
liam Smith. 

Company  C — Sergeant  Jesse  K.  Whitley,  Corporal  K.  J. 
Ballard,  Privates  J.  W.  Barber,  Augustus  Corbit,  Nasoow 
Creech,  Josiah  Dean,  Jonas  Faulk,  J.  B.  Honeycutt  (Hunnicutt), 
J.  W.  Hines,  J.  A.  Lee,  Monroe  Lee,  Whitley  Messer,  Abram 
O'Neal,  Ransom  Penny,  Thomas  H.  Sasser,  W.  H.  Smith,  W. 
R.  Strickland,  Samuel  Strickland. 

Company  D — First  Sergeant  R.  L.  Willis,  Carporal  J.  R. 
Benson,  Corporal  Robert  Johnston,  Privates  J.  A.  Douglas, 
William  Young,  M.  A.  Kifenic,  J.  W.  Guilford. 

Company  E — Sergeant  W.  J.  Bond,  Corporal  G.  W.  Long, 

292  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Corporal  John  Soott,  Privates  John  Barringer,  E.  D.  Council, 
Stephen  Daves,  Jacob  Hartman,  Benjamin  Herndon,  D.  A. 
Holt,  J.  W  McCenney,  W.  L.  Parker,  Frank  Parnell,  Jacob 
Pense,  William  Williams. 

Company  F — Privates  W.  H.  Eady,  Preston  Lane,  Thomas 
Perry,  J.  C.  Treece. 

Company  G — Privates  W.  J.  Barringer,  A.  T.  Davis,  J.  T. 
Lamb,  Luther  Lentz,  J.  T.  Manning,  P.  J.  Pless,  W.  A.  Wil- 

Company  H — Privates  John  D.  Brice,  Elbert  Cross,  James 
D.  Johnson,  Tobias  Lentz,  Nathan  Morgan,  S.  R.  Starns,  Isaac 

Company  I — Sergeant  H.  C.  Hubbard,  Privates  Joseph 
Beaver,  A.  G.  Cash,  Absolom  Cress,  D.  W.  Leach,  Frank  Julian. 

James  C.  MacRab, 

Raleigh,  N.  C,  C.   M.   BuSBEE. 

April  9,  1900. 


1.    Charles  F.  FlBlier,  Colonel.  4.    R.  P.  Webb,  Colonel 

I'    T..^o'^Zt^^"'Z\      ,  '■    Samuel  McDowell  Tate,  Lieut-Colonel. 

3.    IsaaeErwm  Avery,  Colonel.  6.    Alphonso  C.  Avery,  Captain,  Co.  E. 

7.    C.  M.  Mobane,  1st  Lieut,  antl  Adjt. 


By  captain  NEILL  W.  RAY. 

When  the  country  was  passing  through  the  throes  of  the  early 
part  of  1861  the  writer  of  this  sketch  was  a  cadet  at  the  North 
Carolina  Military  Institute  at  Charlotte,  N.  C.  It  was  a  time 
of  great  excitement — stirring  events  of  great  import  were  fol- 
lowing each  other  in  rapid  succession,  and  every  mail  was  anx- 
iously waited  for.  State  after  State  was  seceding  from  the 
Union.  There  was  talk  in  the  U.  S.  Congress  of  coercing,  of 
subjugating,  and,  if  necessary,  exterminating  the  seceders.  A  war- 
cloud  was  looming  up  on  the  horizon ;  military  companies  were 
organizing;  an  army  had  been  gathered  at  Charleston;  all  eyes  were 
turned  toward  Fort  Sumter.  The  cadets  partook  of  the  general 
excitement,  and  as  the  operations  in  and  around  Charleston  became 
more  and  more  serious  they  became  restive.  Our  Superintendent, 
Major  (afterwards  General)  D.  H.  Hill,  went  down  there,  and 
when,  after  a  few  days'  stay,  he  returned  to  the  Institute,  the 
whole  corps  assembled  to  hear  him  tell  what  he  had  seen  and 
heard.  He  gave  a  full  account  of  what  was  being  done  by 
General  Beauregard  and  his  Confederates,  of  their  plans  for 
preventing  the  re-inforcement  of  Sumter,  and  for  capturing  it, 
by  bombardment,  if  necessary.  Several  of  the  cadets  expressed 
a  desire  to  go  at  once  to  the  seat  of  war,  for  fear,  as  they  said, 
Sumter  would  be  taken  and  the  war  be  over  before  they  could 
have  a  chance  to  see  anything  of  it.  To  them  Major  Hill  said, 
in  a  very  serious  manner :  "  Young  gentlemen,  if  there  be  one 
hostile  gun  fired  at  Sumter,  we  will  all  see  enough  of  it  before 
the  war  is  over."  Prophetic  words !  Soon  thereafter  that  gun 
was  fired,  and  its  booming  and  the  crashing  caused  by  its  shot 
echoed  and  re-echoed  far  and  wide. 

294  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

The  people  of  North  Carolina  had  appeared  to  hesitate  about 
withdrawing  from  the  Union,  but  it  was  not  because  of  their 
indifference  to  the  doctrine  of  "State  Rights"  and  "community 
independence."  In  the  matter  of  secession  they  showed  the 
same  conservatism  that  characterized  their  deliberations  whilst 
considering  the  Constitution  before  agreeing  to  become  one  of 
the  United  States.  They  cherished  a  hope  for  a  pacific  settle- 
ment of  the  questions  then  disturbing  the  country.  When  all 
overtures  for  peace  had  failed.  Fort  Sumter  was  bombarded 
and  taken,  and  thereupon,  the  President  of  the  United  States 
called  for  troops  to  put  down  the  rebellion — to  coerce,  to  subju- 
gate an  independent  State — then  all  the  people,  with  few  excep- 
tions, manifested  their  willingness  to  resist  any  such  attempt. 
North  Carolina  took  her  place  promptly  on  the  side  of  consti- 
tutional rights  and  civil  liberty,  and  most  nobly  did  she  main- 
tain and  hold  her  position  to  the  bitter  end. 

The  ofBcers  and  teachers  of  the  Institute,  being  military  men, 
promptly  offered  their  services  to  their  State.  It  was  soon 
apparent  that  the  school  could  not  be  continued.  Most  of  the 
cadets  went  to  their  homes  in  their  own  States  to  volunteer. 

Colonel  Charles  F.  Fisher,  then  President  of  the  North  Caro- 
lina Railroad,  in  pursuance  of  his  purpose  to  raise  a  regiment, 
brought  a  number  of  men  from  along  the  North  Carolina  Rail- 
road and  Western  North  Carolina  Railroad  and  quartered  them 
in  that  part  of  the  barracks  that  had  been  vacated,  and  he  asked 
that  those  cadets  who  were  still  remaining  should  drill  his  men. 
They  willingly  did  so,  and  some  of  them  were  offered  positions 
in  the  regiment.  In  that  way  the  writer  became  a  member  of 
Fisher's  Regiment.  It  was  soon  decided  that  a  better  place  for 
the  camp  of  instruction  would  be  Company  Shops.  So  all  were 
carried  down  there,  and  the  work  of  organization  and  instruction 
was  carried  on  as  rapidly  as  practicable.  The  camp  was  in  an 
old  field  along  the  railroad,  just  east  of  the  shops.  It  is  now  a 
part  of  the  town  of  Burlington.  Nearly  every  day  there  were 
train  loads  of  troops  passing  from  the  Southern  States  "on  to 

Sixth  Regiment.  295 

Virginia."  Their  clieers  were  greeted  with  hearty  responses  by 
our  men. 

The  few  pages  to  which  this  sketch  must  be  compressed  will 
not  admit  details  as  to  the  organization  of  the  diiferent  companies. 
For  a  roll  of  the  officers  and  men  at  the  organization,  and  for 
subsequent  changes  by  resignations,  promotions,  deaths  and  trans- 
fers, reference  must  be  had  to  the  "Roster  of  North  Carolina 
Troops,"  heretofore  published  by  authority,  from  which,  imper- 
fect though  it  be,  it  would  be  necessary  to  copy  in  order  to  give 
names.  For  casualties  in  battle,  deaths  from  wounds  and  disease, 
killed  and  captured,  reference  must  be  had  to  the  muster-rolls, 
morning  reports  and  other  records  on  file  in  the  proper  depart- 
ment, or  at  Washington,  where  the  "  Records  of  the  Rebellion  "  are 
being  compiled — access  to  which  is  to  me  at  present  impracticable. 
What  is  called  for,  as  I  understand  it,  is  a  short  summary  of  the 
part  performed  in  the  Confederate  war  by  each  of  the  seventy- 
five  regiments,  eleven  battalions  and  nine  independent  batteries 
of  North  Carolina  Troops — so  short  a  history  of  each  that  all 
can  be  published  in  two  or  three  volumes  of  convenient  size. 

Suffice  it  then  to  say,  as  to  the  organization,  that  the  Sixth 
North  Carolina  State  Troops  was  duly  organized  on  the  16th 
May,  1861,  at  Company  Shops,  with  C.  F.  Fisher  as  Colonel, 
W.  T.  Dortch  as  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  C.  E.  Lightfoot  as 
Major.  When  the  regiment  was  about  to  leave  for  Virginia, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Dortch,  on  the  death  of  Governor  Ellis, 
resigned  by  reason  of  his  office  in  the  Legislature.  Lightfoot 
was  made  Lieutenant-Colonel  and  Captain  Webb,  "of  Company 
B,  was  made  Major. 

CoMPAXY  A  was  first  commanded  by  Captain  R.  M.  McKin- 
ney,  who  had  been  one  of  the  Professors  at  the  North  Carolina 
Military  Institute.  Before  the  regiment  was  fully  organized  he 
was  made  Colonel  of  the  Fifteenth  Regiment  and  S.  S.  Kirkland 
was  made  Captain. 

Company  B,  Captain  R.  F.  Webb;  then  Captain  W.  K. 
Parrish.     The  men  were  mostly  from  Orange  county. 

Company  C,  Captain  W.  G.  Freeland,  from  Orange  county. 

296  North  Carolina  Troops,  ]861-'65. 

Company  T>,  Captain  S.  McD.  Tate.  The  men  were  mostly 
from  Bnrke  county,  some  from  Catawba  and  McDowell. 

Company  E,  Captain  T.  E.  Avery,  with  men  from  Burke, 
McDowell,  Mitc^hell  and  Yancey  counties. 

(Company  F,  from  Alamance,  Captain  J.  W.  Wilson. 

Company  G,  from  liowan,  C-aptain  J.  A.  Craige. 

Company  H,  from  Caswell,  Captain  A.  A.  Mitchell. 

Company  I,  from  Wake  and  Chatham,  Captain  R.  W.  York. 

Company  K,  from  Alamance,  Captain  J.  W.  Lea. 

iVfter  the  first  organization  many  changes  were  made,  and, 
from  time  to  time  during  the  war,  a  great  many  recruits  were 
enlisted  from  many  other  counties  and  assigned  to  the  diiferent 
companies;  and  it  is  su])posed  that,  from  first  to  last,  there  were 
perhaps  as  many  as  two  thousand  men  that  belonged  h)  the  regi- 
ment. The  men  were  all  mustered  in  for  the  war,  and  this 
regiment  was  organized  as  one  of  the  ten  regiments  called  for  to 
serve  during  the  war,  and  was  always  known  as  the  Sixth  North 
Carolina  State  Troops. 

When  the  regiment  was  reported  as  ready  for  service  a  day 
was  fixed  for  our  departure  for  the  seat  of  war.  On  the  appointed 
day  a  great  many  people  from  the  surrounding  counties  came 
in  to  bid  good-bye  to  their  sons,  their  brothers,  their  fathers, 
their  husbands.  It  was  a  sad  day — I  will  not  attempt  to  recall 
or  to  describe  its  scenes.  The  Southern  soldier  volunteer's  fare- 
well !  — no  artist  can  picture  it.  But,  trying  as  it  was  to  bid 
farewell  undfir  such  circumstances,  yet  not  one  of  the  thousand 
flinched.  When  the  roll-call  was  sounded  and  the  command 
"Fall  in"  was  given  the  tears  were  brushed  from  their  eyes; 
they  took  their  places  in  the  line,  and  as  their  uames  were  called 
each  one  firmly  answered  "Here!"  Here,  ready  to  leave  home 
and  dear  ones — ready  to  do,  to  dare,  to  suffer,  and,  if  need  be, 
to  die,  in  defense  of  the  rights  which,  by  the  Constitution^ 
belong  to  me  and  my  fellow-citizens,  and  to  my  State,  and  the 
States  that  are  confederated  with  her — ready  to  resist,  and,  if 
possible,  drive  back  the  armed  invasion  being  made  by  troops 

Sixth  Regdiest.  297 

from  Northern  States,  arrogating  to  themselves  that  they  are 
"the  United  States";  forgetting  that  by  the  terms  of  the  laws 
and  ordinances  by  which  they  came  into  and  adopted  the  Cons- 
titution of  the  United  States  their  States  had  no  right  to  attempt 
the  coercion  or  subjugation  of  any  other  States. 

With  such  convictions  and  such  patriotic  motives,  the  men  of 
the  Sixth  Regiment  North  Carolina  Troops  were  banded 
together;  and  assured  of  the  justness  of  thfir  cause,  confiding  in 
their  leaders,  and  with  well-grounded  hopes  of  success,  started 
in  for  the  war.  Taking  the  cars  at  Company  Shops,  we  were 
carried  to  Raleigh  and  stopped  there  for  a  few  days,  during 
which  we  were  called  on  to  act  as  escort  at  the  funeral  of  Gov- 
ernor Ellis.  Leaving  Raleigh,  we  were  carried  by  way  of  Wel- 
don  to  Petersburg  and  then  to  Richmond.  Vie  stopped  there 
for  a  day,  awaiting  transportation,  camping  at  the  old  Fair 
Ground.  President  Davis  reviewed  the  regiment,  making  a 
short  speech  to  us.  From  Richmond  we  were  carried,  by  Gor- 
donsville,  to  Manassas,  and  thence  by  way  of  the  Manassas  Gap 
Railroad  to  Strasburg;  from  which  point  we  marched  hurriedly 
to  Winchester.  Halting  for  a  short  while  in  the  streets  of  Win- 
chester, we  heard  all  sorts  of  rumors  as  to  the  expected  attack 
by  the  enemy. 

Here  our  men  first  experienced  that  kind,  patriotic  hospitality 
which  made  famous  the  noble  women  of  the  army-stricken  sec- 
tions of  our  country.  As  the  two  armies,  for  four  years,  swayed 
back  and  forth,  leaving  them  within  the  lines  of  first  one  and 
then  the  other  of  the  contending  armies,  they  were  always 
prompt  and  willing  to  help  fill  the  haversack  or  even  the  canteen 
of  the  Confederate  soldier,  after  their  homes  were  so  devastated 
that  they  could  furnish  nothing  but  cold  water. 

The  regiment  was  assigned  to  General  Bee's  Brigade,  and  we 
were  soon  hurried  out  and  given  a  place  on  the  extreme  left  of 
the  line  of  battle  which  General  Johnston  had  formed  to  meet 
the  expected  attack  from  the  enemy.  This  looked  more  like 
war  than  anything  we  had  seen.  Every  trooper  that  came  in 
from  the  front  was  anxiously  watched,  but  no  enemy  came. 

2:  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

On  the  18th  of  July  the  line  was  broken  and  we  were  marched 
back  through  Winchester,  and  then  eastward.  General  Beaure- 
gard's army  at  Manassas  was  threatened,  and  we  were  marching 
to  his  relief.  Wading  the  Shenandoah,  we  hurried  right  along 
up  the  mountain  at  Ashby's  Gap.  On  the  19th,  General  Bee 
complained  of  the  straggling,  but  we  were  urged  forward  by 
what  we  then  thought  was  a  forced  march — later  in  the  war  we 
would  not  have  thought  it  unusual.  During  the  night  of  the 
19th  our  regiment  was  halted  at  a  station  on  the  Manassas  Gap 
Railroad.  On  account  of  some  delay  in  getting  cars,  it  was  late 
in  the  evening  of  the  20th  that  we  were  counted  into  box-cars — 
so  many  on  top  and  so  many  inside.  There  were  ugly  rumors 
as  to  obstructions  placed  on  the  track,  evidently  intended  to 
impede  our  progress.  With  such  rumors,  with  a  train  of  box- 
cars full  of  sleepy,  tired  men,  inside  and  on  top,  in  the  night, 
and  through  a  mountainous  country,  it  was  a  dangerous  ride. 
We  safely  reached  Manassas  Junction  on  the  morning  of  the 
21st.  Disembarking  there,  we  could  hear  the  firing  of  guns — 
the  battle  had  begun — and  we  were  marched  off  hurriedly  in  the 
direction  of  the  firing.  As  we  neared  the  battlefield  we  could 
hear  the  rattling  musketry  and  exploding  shells.  We  began  to 
meet  wounded  men — we  saw  blood — the  war  was  a  reality. 
Some  of  the  wounded  were  badly  hurt,  whilst  others  had  slight 
wounds,  about  the  hands  for  instance,  and  some  of  our  men 
were  so  unsoldierly  as  to  envy  those  who  had  escaped  with  only 
such  slight  wounds  as  would  give  them  a  furlough.  We  were 
led  on,  avoiding  exposed  places  so  as  to  keep  out  of  sight  of 
the  enemy,  until  we  were  brought  up  in  front  of  what  is  known 
as  the  "  Henry  House,"  near  which  a  battery  of  artillery  was 
posted  and  throwing  its  deadly  missiles  into  the  Confederate 
lines.  This  was  Rickett's  Battery.  It  was  but  a  short  time — 
it  seemed  only  a  few  minutes — before  these  guns  were  silencQ,d 
and  captured.  But  in  those  few  minutes  Colonel  Fisher  and 
many  others  had  been  killed.  The  regiment  had  received  its 
baptism  of  blood.  The  enemy,  however,  was  still  extending 
their  right  beyond  our  left.     It  was  a  critical  time.     On   this 

Sixth  Regiment.  299 

ridge  or  plateau,  on  which  the  "Henry  House"  stood,  was  the 
hardest  fighting  of  the  day.  Here  it  was  that  General  Bee,  a 
short  while  before  he  was  killed,  bravely  calling  on  his  men  to 
stand  firm  against  the  heavy  columns  that  were  coming  against 
them,  pointed  down  the  line  to  General  Jackson,  saying:  "Look 
at  Jackson,  he  stands  like  a  stone  wall ! " — words  that  will  never 
die.  On  this  ridge,  the  turning  point  of  the  first  battle  of 
Manassas  Plains,  Generals  Jackson  and  Hampton  were  wounded, 
Generals  Bee  and  Bartow  and  Colonel  Fisher  were  killed,  together 
with  hundreds  of  others  whose  names  were  not  so  prominent, 
but  whose  conduct  was  as  heroic  and  whose  lives  were  as  precious 
to  their  country  and  kindred. 

Before  the  enemy  could  bring  up  their  fresh  columns  to  regain 
the  lost  position,  their  lines  on  the  extreme  right  began  to  waver. 
General  Kirby  Smith,  who  was  bringing  up  the  other  part  of 
the  Army  of  the  Shenandoah,  appeared  on  our  extreme  left,  and 
then  began  a  retreat,  which  soon  became  a  stampede,  which 
would  have  enabled  the  Confederates  to  have  gone  into  Wash- 
ington if  they  had  pressed  forward. 

Much  has  been  written  as  to  the  effect  of  this  first  great  battle 
of  the  war  on  the  two  sections  of  the  country.  The  Confeder- 
ates have  always  lamented  their  lost  opportunity  of  capturing 
Washington.  The  Federals  have  always  tried  to  believe  that 
their  defeat  was  a  blessing  in  disguise. 

Our  regiment  lamented  the  death  of  our  Brigadier-General, 
Bee,  who,  in  the  six  days  that  we  were  in  his  brigade,  had  won 
the  respect  and  confidence  of  all ;  and  among  our  many  dead  we 
especially  lamented  the  loss  of  Colonel  Fisher — noble,  true, 
brave,  almost  to  a  fault.  He  had  the  qualities  that  would  have 
made  him  most  useful  in  the  army.  No  better  provider  for  his 
men  could  be  found;  they  were  devoted  to  him. 

After  the  battle  our  brigade  was  commanded  by  General  W. 
H.  C-  Whiting,  and  was  known  as  the  Third  Brigade.  We  were 
camped  for  a  week  or  two  at  Bull  Run,  but,  to  be  in  a  healthier 
location,  we  were  moved  back  and  camped  near  Bristow  Station, 
a  place  that  afterwards  became  famous.     Whilst  here  Colonel 

300  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

W.  D.  Pender  came  to  us  and  took  command.  The  regiment 
suifered  severely  from  sickness  and  many  died  of  disease.  lu 
the  fall  of  1861  we  were  moved  down  near  Freestone  Point,  on 
the  Potomac,  above  Dumfries'.  There  we  staid  until  cold 
weather,  and  then  built  winter-quarters.  During  the  fall  and 
winter  we  took  our  turn  in  picketing  along  the  Potomac  and  on 
the  Occoquan,  and  in  guarding  the  batteries  that  were  intended 
to  command  the  river  at  Quantico  and  Evansport.  Sometimes 
there  would  be  alarms,  and  sometimes,  whilst  we  were  guarding 
these  batteries,  there  would  be  long-range  duels,  and  a  few  shells 
would  be  thrown  at  us,  but  we  had  no  serious  fighting. 

The  winter  1861-62  was  uneventful.  About  the  8th  of 
March,  1862,  in  accordance  with  orders,  we  burned  our  winter- 
quarters,  with  a  great  deal  of  our  baggage,  camp  supplies,  etc., 
and  marched  southward,  crossing  the  Rappahannock  at  Falmouth, 
and  pitched  our  camp  near-  Fredericksburg.  We  were  not 
pressed  or  hurried  in  the  retreat,  the  movement  seemed  to  be  a 
deliberate  one,  and  the  necessity  for  the  immense  destruction  of 
baggage  and  supplies  of  all  sorts,  which  took  place  by  order 
when  the  army  fell  back  from  Manassas,  has  never  been  made 

At  Fredericksburg  a  number  of  recruits  joined  the  regiment. 
Toward  the  latter  part  of  March  it  was  found  that  large  num- 
bers of  troops  from  McClellan's  army  were  being  transported 
down  the  Potomac.  We  were  ordered  to  move  again,  and,  leav- 
ing Fredericksburg,  we  took  the  road  towards  Richmond.  After 
marching  as  far  as  Wilford  Station,  we  were  placed  on  board  the 
cars,  but  were  stopped  at  Ashland.  After  a  few  days'  stay  there, 
we  started  again  in  light  marching  order  and  went  by  the  coun- 
try roads  to  Yorktown,  arriving  there  towards  the  last  of  April, 
and  were  camped  west  of  the  town  near  the  Williamsburg  road. 
During  our  stay  at  Yorktown  there  were  several  alarms,  and  we 
were  called  into  line  several  times,  but  the  enemy  did  not 
advance.  It  was  soon  evident  that  some  important  movement 
was  in  contemplation.  The  preparation  that  was  being  made 
seemed  to  be  for  fighting  the  enemy  there. 

Sixth  Regiment.  301 

On  the  morning  of  the  4th  of  May  we  were  called  quietly 
into  line,  and  our  regiment  was  formed  across  the  Williamsburg 
road,  facing  toward  Yorktown.  Regiment  after  regiment  filed 
by — that  movement  had  been  going  on  all  night — the  whole 
array-  was  falling  back,  and  we  were  assigned  the  post  of  honor, 
the  rearguard  on  that  road.  There  was  nothing  between  us  and 
McClellan's  advancing  array  but  a  few  cavalrymen.  Again  and 
again,  many  times  during  the  forepart  of  that  day,  as  our  army 
passed  on,  we  would  drop  back  and  reform  our  line  across  the 
road,  prepared  for  the  enemy's  advance,  but  we  had  no  fighting 
to  do.  When  we  got  in  sight  of  Williamsburg  and  the  forts 
and  earth-works  that  had  been  prepared  for  defense  there,  we 
expected  to  see  them  fully  manned  by  our  troops.  But  the 
troops  were  all  resting  around  promiscuously,  apparently  with- 
out any  expectation  of  an  enemy.  When  we  reached  the  earth- 
works we  were  not  halted,  but  were  marched  right  on,  and  after 
passing  through  the  town  we  took  the  road  that  bore  towards 
York  River.  That  night  when  the  camp-followers  and  strag- 
glers came  into  camp,  they  told  us  that  our  army  had  been  sur- 
prised at  Williamsburg,  and  that  many  men  were  killed.  That 
surprise  ought  not  to  have  taken  place.  Some  one  was  negligent. 
On  the  next  day  we  still  continued  in  our  march  to  lean  over 
towards  York  River.  General  Franklin,  with  a  large  force,  was 
going  up  the  river  on  transports,  escorted  by  gun-boats,  and  we 
were  to  prevent  him  from  getting  between  General  Johnston  and 
Richmond,  or  interfering  with  the  retreat.  We  had  quite  a  bat- 
tle near  Barhamsville,  or  Eltham's  Landing.  The  enemy  after- 
wards claimed  it  a  success.  We  thought  we  succeeded.  We 
did  not  drive  his  fleet  down  the  river,  he  had  too  many  gun- 
boats, but  we  prevented  his  coming  off  the  river  to  impede  the 
movements  of  our  army. 

The  army  was  now  well  on  its  way  on  the  retreat  from  the 
Yorktown  peninsula.  The  ordnance  stores  and  other  supplies 
that  had  been  abandoned  must  have  been  immense.  Some  of  it 
was  brought  down  to  the  lines  near  Yorktown  within  a  day  or 

302  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

two  before  the  retreat  began.     Was   that   good    manag-ement? 
Was  it  a  necessary  loss? 

The  march  back  towards  Richmond  was  very  disagreeable. 
There  had  been  a  great  deal  of  rain ;  the  roads  were  very  bad, 
muddy  and  miry.  We  got  separated  from  our  commissary 
wagons.     The  men  suffered  with  hunger. 

One  evening  when  the  regiment  was  filed  out  of  the  road  to 
camp — they  had  been  without  rations  and  none  were  in  sight — a 
wagon  came  along  loaded  with  corn  in  the  ear.  It  was  intended 
for  the  horses,  but  the  men  were  so  hungry  that,  upon  the  sug- 
gestion by  some  one  that  parched  corn  would  do  for  subsistence, 
they  rushed  for  the  wagon  and  would  have  emptied  it  but  for 
the  interference  of  the  guard,  who  told  them  that  the  commissary 
wagon  was  coming. 

When  the  army  got  within  the  lines  that  were  finally  chosen 
for  the  defense  of  Richmond  our  camp  was  north  of  the  city. 
On  the  29th  and  30th  of  May  we  had  heavy  rains.  A  fearful 
thunder-storm  passed  over  our  camp.  One  stroke  of  lightning 
in  our  brigade  disabled  for  a  time  about  thirty  men,  of  whom  it 
was  said  that  four  died.  The  description  of  that  storm  as  given  ' 
in  the  Richmond  Examiner  the  next  morning  was  most  graphic. 
It  was  remarkable  as  a  literary  production.  In  consequence  of 
these  heavy  rains  the  Chickahominy  River  was  much  swollen, 
and  General  Johnston,  who  had  withdrawn  most  of  his  army  to 
the  south  side  of  that  stream,  thought  it  a  good  time  to  attack 
McClellan,  whose  army  was  on  both  sides  of  the  river.  On  the 
31st  of  May  we  were  hurried  out  in  the  direction  of  Seven 
Pines  and  joined  in  the  attack.  For  a  while  we  drove  the 
enemy  in  fine  style.  They  must  have  been  completely  surprised, 
for  we  passed  through  camps  in  which  we  found  their  dinner  in 
the  kettles  being  cooked,  and  in  some  cases  it  was  smoking-hot 
on  their  camp-tables.  After  driving  them  back  for  a  considera- 
ble distance  they  began  to  make  a  stand,  and  the  fighting  became 
furious.  As  we  afterwards  learned,  we  were  not  far  from  Fair 
Oaks  Station,  and  nearly  opposite  the  "Grape-vine  Bridge," 
which  was  a  new  bridge  constructed  by  them.     Re-inforcemejits 

Sixth  Eegiment.  303 

from  the  north  side  were  pouring  across  this  bridge  and  our 
advance  was  stayed.  General  Johnston,  together  with  President 
Davis  and  General  G.  W.  Smith,  with  a  numerous  staff,  came 
up  in  the  rear  of  our  brigade.  Here  it  was  that  General  John- 
ston was  wounded.  That  was  nearly  night,  and  as  it  was  a  dark 
evening  the  heavy  battle-smoke  soon  made  it  impossible  to  see, 
and  the  firing  ceased  and  we  made  no  further  advance.  The 
next  morning,  Sunday,  June  1st,  found  the  two  armies  still  in 
front  of  each  other.  But  no  heavy  fighting  was  done  on  our 
part  of  the  line.  They  did  considerable  shelling  from  the  north 
side  of  the  Chickahominy.  So  ended  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines 
and  Fair  Oaks.  After  this  battle  Colonel  Pender  was  promoted 
and  Captain  I.  E.  Avery  was  made  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the 
Sixth  Regiment. 

About  the  12th  to  13th  of  June  our  division  was  placed 
aboard  the  cars  at  Richmond  and  carried  by  way  of  Lynchburg 
and  Charlottsville  to  Staunton,  and  disembarking  there,  started 
down  the  Valley.  But  we  made  only  one  march  in  that  direction 
when  we  met  General  Jackson's  men  coming  up  the  Valley  pike 
■  towards  Staunton.  We  were  turned  about  and  marched  by  way 
of  Waynesboro  and  across  the  Blue  Ridge  at  Rockfish  Gap 
towards  Charlottsville.  Our  road  was  nearly  along  the  railroad, 
and  we  could  see  train-load  after  train-load  of  troops  moving 
east.  Finally  our  turn  came,  and  we  were  taken  up  and  hauled 
to  Trevillian's  Depot,  and  thence  were  marched,  bearing  at  first 
towards  Fredericksburg,  but  at  last  turned  to  Ashland.  Here 
we  were  told  that  Lee  was  going  to  capture  McCIellau's  army  or 
drive  him  away  from  Richmond.  We  were  on  his  right  flank, 
and  were  to  move  early  in  the  morning  of  the  26th.  We  did 
so,  but  before  we  had  gotten  in  rear  of  McClellan's  right,  or 
had  time  to  attack  him,  the  Confederates  in  front  of  his  lines  at 
and  near  Mechanicsville  charged  him  in  front.  They  carried  the 
works,  but  at  fearful  loss.  Our  brigade.  Whiting's,  had  had 
only  a  slight  skirmish  in  crossing  Totapotamoi  Creek,  and  if 
Jackson  had  been  allowed  a  little  longer  time  the  enemy  could 
not  have  awaited  the  attack  in  front,  for  Jackson  was  about  to 

304  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

strike  him  in  the  rear.     Whose  fault  or  by  whose  mistake  was 
the  great  loss  of  Confederates  at  Mechanicsville? 

On  the  27th  we  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Gaines'  Mill,  or  Cold 
Harbor,  one  of  the  most  noted  and  hotly-contested  battles  of 
the  war.  The  enemy,  under  General  Fitzjohn  Porter,  was 
strongly  posted  on  the  east  bank  of  Powhite  Creek.  His 
artillery  was  on  top  of  the  ridge,  in  front  of  which  were  two 
lines  of  infantry,  so  placed  on  the  hill-side  that  the  artillery  and 
the  two  lines  of  infantry  could  all  fire  over  each  other  on  the 
advancing  Confederates;  and  to  reach  their  line  we  had  to  cross 
the  creek  in  a  deep  ravine.  They  had  felled  the  timber  so  as  to 
hinder  an  attacking  force.  Our  brigade,  Whiting's,  was  formed 
in  line,  with  Hood's  (Texas)  Brigade,  as  I  recollect,  on  our  left, 
and  had  moved  forward  until  we  were  about  within  range  of  the 
enemy's  musketry.  A  short  halt  was  made.  The  field  of  bat- 
tle was  before  us:  cannons  belching  forth  fire  and  smoke;  burst- 
ing shells;  riderless  horses  rushing  wildly  about;  smoking  lines 
of  infantry  ;  charging  columns  gallantly  led  by  mounted  officers; 
wounded  men  being  borne  to  the  rear,  whilst  the  dead  lay 
motionless  and  still !  It  was  the  reality  of  the  pictures  given 
us  by  artists.  There  had  been  an  unsuccessful  attempt  to  drive 
the  enemy  from  his  strong  position.  Our  line  Was  in  readiness. 
The  gallant  Whiting,  riding  along  in  front  of  the  line,  was 
cheered  by  our  men,  and,  turning  to  the  line,  raised  his  hat  in 
acknowledgment  of  the  salute,  and  called  out,  saying:  "Boys, 
you  can  take  it ! "  and  motioned  towards  the  enemy's  position. 
"Forward!"  was  the  command  all  along  the  line.  The  advance 
across  the  open  field  on  the  west  side  of  the  creek;  crossing  the 
creek  and  working  our  way  up  the  hill  through  the  fallen  timber; 
driving  the  two  lines  of  infantry  from  behind  their  breastworks 
and  capturing  the  artillery  posted  on  the  ridge  behind  them,  was 
a  severe  test  of  those  qualities  which  have  made  the  Confederate 
soldier  famous.  It  was  a  military  feat  which  the  historians  of 
the  war  do  not  seem  to  have  appreciated.  The  Sixth  Regiment 
did  its  part  in  driving  the  enemy  from  a  position  which,  after 
we  had  taken  it  and  had  time  to  view  the  situation,  looked  as  if 

Sixth  Regiment.  305 

it  shpiild  have  been  impregnable  to  troops  attacking  it  in  front. 
It  has  been  said  that  President  Davis  watched  this  attack  from 
where  he  was  on  the  south  side  of  the  Chickahominy;  saw  its 
success,  and,  not  knowing  the  troops  or  their  commander,  eulo- 
gized them,  and  said:  "That  charge  has  saved  Richmond." 
When  the  battle  ended  it  was  getting  dark.  The  loss  of  this 
position  compelled  the  Federals  to  withdraw  to  the  south  side  of 
the  Chickahominy,  which  they  did  during  that  night,  destroy- 
ing the  bridges.  McClellan  was  retreating  to  the  James.  Our 
pursuit  was  delayed  until  the  bridges  could  be  rebuilt.  When 
we  crossed  to  the  south  side  the  battle  of  Savage  Station  had 
been  won.  We  passed  through  the  battlefield  on  the  30th  and 
assisted  in  forcing  the  passage  of  White  Oak  Swamp,  which  the 
enemy  was  stubbornly  holding,  in  order  to  give  time  for  his 
trains  to  get  away.  We  were  on  the  left  of  the  line  at  Malvern 
Hill,  and  although  under  a  terrible  fire,  supporting  our  artillery, 
we  were  not  ordered  to  charge  the  enemy.  On  the  morning  of 
the  2d  of  July  the  enemy  was  gone,  and  we  were  marched  in 
pursuit,  and  found  him  at  Harrison's  Lauding.  Our  lines  were 
formed  promptly,  skirmishing  began,  and  we  thought  we  were 
to  attack  him  at  once,  but  General  Lee  concluded  that  his  posi- 
tion, protected  as  it  was  by  gun-boats,  was  too  strong.  McCIel- 
lan's  army  had  not  been  captured,  but  the  seige  of  Richmond 
had  been  raised. 

After  watching  the  enemy  for  a  few  days,  we  were  marched 
back  to  the  neighborhood  of  Richmond,  where  we  camped  until 
August,  when  we  started  on  the  campaign  known  as  the  Pope 
campaign,  so  called  because  the  Federal  army  was  commanded 
by  General  John  Pope,  who  rendered  himself  infamous  by  his 
uncivilized  warfare  and  cruel  treatment  of  citizens,  and  who 
withal  made  himself  ridiculous  by  his  braggadocio  orders,  which 
were  followed  by  bad  generalship  and  consequent  defeat.  Our 
brigade  was  commanded  by  Colonel  (afterwards  General)  E.  M. 
Law,  and  was  in  General  Hood's  Division. 

We  took  part  in  a  number  of  skirmishes  along  the  Rappa- 
hannock, and  near  Warrentou  Springs,  and  when  General  Jack- 

306  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

son,  at  Manassas  and  Bull  Run,  was  about  to  be  separated  from 
the  other  portion  of  the  army,  whilst  we  were  marching  hur- 
riedly to  his  relief,  we  found  the  enemy  disputing  our  passage 
through  Thoroughfare  Gap.  No  time  was  to  be  lost.  Com- 
munication with  Jackson  was  necessary.  We  were  filed  by  a 
narrow  path  up  the  mountain  side  to  the  summit  on  the  left  of 
the  pass.  The  enemy  was  driven  back  and  left  the  pass  or  gap 
open.  From  our  position  on  the  top  of  the  mountain,  on  the 
evening  of  the  28th,  we  could  see  the  firing  of  the  guns  and  the 
explosion  of  the  shells  in  the  fight  against  Jackson,  far  away  on 
Bull  Run,  or  near  it,  but  we  could  not  hear  the  sound  of  a  gun. 
Early  on  the  29th  we  were  on  the  march  to  the  relief  of  Jack- 
son, who  had  hard  fighting,  as  we  judged  by  the  heavy  firing 
which  was  then  plainly  to  be  heard.  As  soon  as  we  came  up 
our  division.  Hood's,  was  formed  in  line  across  the  Warrenton 
turnpike  and  moved  forward  to  attack  the  enemy's  line,  which 
was  then  pressing  hard  upon  Jackson.  We  drove  him  back. 
We  were  heavily  engaged  also  on  the  30th,  when  the  enemy 
was  forced  to  give  up  the  field.  When  the  battle  was  over  we 
found  that  the  two  armies  had  occupied  about  the  same  positions 
that  were  held  by  them  on  the  21st  of  July,  1861,  except  that 
they  were  reversed.  The  last  stand  by  the  enemy  was  made  on 
the  ridge  or  plateau  on  which  stood  the  "  Henry  House,"  made 
famous  as  the  scene  of  the  severest  part  of  the  battle  known  as 
First  Manassas. 

After  the  battle  of  Ox  Hill  on  the  30th  we  were  marched 
towards  the  Potomac,  and  fording  it,  we  marched  to  Monocacy 
Bridge,  near  Frederick,  in  Maryland.  Thence  we  went  along 
the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  turnpike,  crossing  the  mountains  at 
Boonsboro,  marching  by  the  side  of  our  wagon-trains  all  the 
way  to  Hagerstown.  We  were  there  only  a  short  time,  when  we 
heard  cannonading  in  the  direction  of  Boonsboro.  We  were 
hurried  back,  and  when  we  reached  Boonsboro  we  heard  heavy 
fighting  upon  the  mountain.  We  were  carried  up  to  the  pass 
and  were  first  formed  in  line  on  the  south  side  of  the  pike,  and 
then  to  the  north  side  and  afterwards  to  the  south  side  again, 

Sixth  Regiment.  307 

but  we  were  not  heavily  engaged  in  the  battle.  Early  the  next 
morning  we  found  that  our  army  had  moved  in  the  direction  of 
the  Potomac,  and  we  were  acting  as  the  rearguard.  Many  times 
during  the  day  our  regiment  was  formed  into  line  across  the 
road,  as  the  army  fell  back  towards  Sharpsburg.  The  enemy 
came  in  sight  several  times,  but  did  not  attack.  When  we  reached 
the  top  of  the  hill  above  Sharpsburg,  where  the  Federal  ceme- 
tery now  is,  we  found  a  considerable  part  of  the  army  resting 
there.  Lee  and  his  staff  were  there,  and  soon  a  courier  arrived 
bringing  news  of  the  capture  of  Harper's  Ferry.  About  that 
time  the  enemy  was  seen  placing  a  battery  in  the  field  north  of 
the  Antietam.  He  began  throwing  shells.  The.  camp-follow- 
ers were  soon  going  further  towards  Virginia.  But,  under  the 
direction  of  General  Lee,  the  different  commands  were  deploying 
into  line.     He  was  retreating  no  longer. 

Our  brigade  was  carried  west  along  the  Hagerstown  road  to 
the  Dunkard  Church — St.  Mumma's — where  the  Smoketown 
road  branches  off  to  the  north.  Forming  our  line  along  the 
Hagerstown  road,  we  remained  there  during  the  rest  of  that  day, 
the  15th  of  September,  and  on  the  16th  until  late  in  the  evening. 
Then  the  cavalry  reported  that  the  enemy  was  moving  with 
strong  lines  and  coming  up  in  front  of  us.  Our  lines  were  then 
pushed  forward  in  the  direction  of  the  Smoketown  road  ^ome 
distance,  perhaps  a  quarter  of  a  mile.  Our  regiment  was  on  the 
east  side  of  the  Smoketown  road,  along  a  fence  and  skirt  of 
woods,  known  as  East  Woods  in  the  accounts  of  the  battle. 
Sometime  after  dark  a  line  of  men  was  discovered  moving  along 
our  front  from  our  right  towards  our  left,  so  unconcernedly  that 
they  were  at  first  supposed  to  be  Confederates,  but  when  they 
were  hailed  and  found  to  be  enemies  one  volley  from  our  line 
scattered  them  and  we  were  not  molested  further  that  night.  At 
sometime  during  the  night,  perhaps  about  one  or  two  o'clock, 
we  were  carried  back  to  (what  was  then)  woods  near  the  Dunk- 
ard Church.  It  is  now  a  cleared  field.  Here  we  were  told  to 
rest.  But  early  in  the  morning  of  the  17th,  when  it  was  hardly 
light,  the  battle  opened.     Our  position,  though  we  were  then  in 

North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

the  second  line,  was  a  very  trying  one.  The  enemy's  guns  in  our 
front  poured  shot  and  shell  into  us,  whilst  we  were  exposed  to  a 
cross-fire  from  his  long-range  guns,  posted  on  the  northeast  side 
of  Antietam  Creek.  The  infantry  in  our  front  were  soon 
engaged.  There  was  an  incessant  roar  of  cannonading,  and  the 
roll  of  musketry  was  terrific.  Wounded  men  were  going  back 
through  our  lines  by  scores.  The  battle  was  raging  awfully. 
Our  line  was  called  into  action,  and  moved  to  the  front  up  the 
Smoketown  road  and  between  it  and  the  Hagerstown  pike.  The 
front  line  had  made  a  noble  stand,  but  it  was  being  pressed 
back.  The  enemy,  with  fresh  lines,  was  pushing  forward  when 
we  met  him.  Here  it  was  that,  for  the  first  time  in  the  war,  I 
saw  our  men  fix  their  bayonets  in  action,  which  they  did  at  the 
command  of  General  Hood,  who  was  riding  up  and  down  the 
line.  We  broke  the  enemy's  line  and  held  our  place  for  a  while, 
but  he  was  bringing  up  fresh  columns  and(  overlapping  our 
left,  and  we  were  forced  back.  The  enemy  seemed  to  be  over- 
coming us  until  our  left  was  re-inforced  by  troops  that  were 
ordered  up  from  our  right.  They  engaged  the  enemy  and  drove 
him  back  again  to  the  north  of  the  Dunkard  Church,  and  our 
lines  were  re-established.  There  was  no  further  heavy  fighting 
on  that  part  of  the  line.  The  heavy  fighting  in  the  afternoon 
was  near  the  stone  bridge  east  of  the  town. 

If  the  future  historian  will  study  the  battle  of  Sharpsburg, 
the  positions  of  the  two  armies  and  the  number  of  troops  belong- 
ing to  each,  he  will  be  forced  to  conclude  that  it  should  be  con- 
sidered one  of  the  most  noted  battles  of  the  war,  and  that  Lee's 
army  covered  itself  with  glory  there. 

Remaining  on  the  field  during  the  afternoon  and  night  of  the 
17th  and  all  day  of  the  18th  without  any  renewal  of  attack,  the 
army  on  the  night  of  the  18th  moved  across  the  Potomac  into 
Virginia.  We  camped  there  for  sometime  near  a  big  spring 
northwest  of  Winchester.  Toward  the  latter  part  of  October, 
General  McClellan  showed  signs  of  an  intention  to  advance  into 
Virginia,  east  of  the  Blue  Ridge.  So  we  were  marched  across 
the  mountains,  and  were  kept  marching  until  we  were  brought 

Sixth  Regiment.  309 

up  in  front  of  Fredericksburg.  Here  we  learned  that  McClellan 
had  been  removed  and  that  Burnside  had  been  placed  in  com- 
mand of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac.  As  we  neared  Fredericks- 
burg we  met  old  men  and  old  women  and  children,  some  on  foot, 
some  in  carriages,  some  being  hauled  in  wagons;  many  of  them 
apparently  too  sick  to  travel ;  all  vacating  the  town  because  the 
Federal  commander  had  threatened  to  bombard  it,  which  he  did 
do  a  few  days  thereafter. 

It  had  been  decided  to  organize  the  army  anew  and  to  brigade 
the  troops  by  States,  but  the  Sixth  remained  with  Law's  Brigade 
until  after  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg,  when  it  was  placed, 
together  with  the  Twenty-first,  the  Fifty-fourth  and  Fifty-sev- 
enth North  Carolina  Regiments,  in  a  brigade  commanded  by 
General  R.  F.  Hoke. 

Our  brigade  during  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg  was  on  the 
line  between  Hamilton's  Crossing  and  the  to.wn,  about  in  front 
of  the  Barnard  House.  General  Franklin  commanded  that  por- 
tion of  the  Federal  army  which  confronted  us.  His  attack  was 
very  powerful,  and  soon  after  the  battle  began  the  enemy  took 
advantage  of  an  interval  that  was  inadvertently  allowed  in  the 
line  on  our  right  towards  Hamilton's  Crossing  and  broke  through. 
Here  it  was  that  General  Gregg,  of  South  Carolina,  was  mortally 
wounded.  But  the  enemy's  success  was  only  temporary,  for 
he  was  soon  repulsed,  and  he  did  not,  after  that,  show  much 
disposition  to  press  forward.  Late  in  the  afternoon  our  brigade 
was  called  upon  to  drive  the  enemy  from  an  advanced  position 
which  he  was  holding  along  the  railroad  where  it  crossed 
Hazel  Run  or  Deep  Run.  The  Fifty-fourth  and  Fifty-seventh 
Regiments  (N.  C.)  were  placed  in  advance  by  General  Law,  at 
the  request  of  their  Colonels,  McDowell  and  Godwin,  and  they 
drove  the  enemy  in  handsome  style  clear  away  from  the  railroad. 
General  Law's  Aide-de-camp,  Lieutenant  Smith,  was  killed  in 
the  effort  to  stop  the  two  regiments  in  the  pursuit  of  the  enemy. 
This  line  we  held.  On  the  morning  of  the  second  day  thereafter 
we  found  that  there  was  no  enemy  in  front  of  us.     He  was 

310  North  Carolina  Tkoops,  1861-65. 

on  the  north  side  of  the  Rappahannock.     The  campaigns    of 
1862  were  over. 

We  went  into  winter-quarters  on  the  hills  southwest  of 
Hamilton's  Crossing  in  December,  1862,  but  were  removed  to 
Hoke's  Brigade  during  the  winter,  which  was  in  camp  near 
Jackson's  headquarters  on  the  right  of  the  line,  and  during  the 
winter  did  our  share  of  picketing  along  the  river  between 
Fredericksburg  and  Port  Royal. 

General  Burnside  made  an  unsuccessful  attempt  to  advance  in 
January,  1863,  but   was  forced  to  abandon  it  on  account  of  the 
mud,    and    that  movement    was  known    as   Burnside's    "Mud 
March."     He  resigned,  and  General  Hooker  was  placed  in  com- 
mand of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac.     When  he  made  his  advance 
in  what  is  known  as  the  Chancellorsville  or  the  Wilderness  cam- 
paign, our  brigade  was  near  the  same  part  of  the  line  which  we 
occupied  during  the  battle  in  December  before.     There  was  no 
very  heavy  fighting  near  Fredericksburg  until  the  4th.     General 
Sedgwick,  who  was  in  command   of  the  enemy's  forces  about 
Fredericksburg,  moved  out  of  the  town,  attacked  and  captured 
Marye's  Hill,  where  there  had  been  such  awful  destruction  of  life 
in  December  previous;  and  he  appeared  to  be  moving  so  as  to 
strike  the  right  of  General  Lee's  line  of  battle  up  toward  Chan- 
cellorsville.    Our  brigade  was  commanded  by  General  Hoke, 
and  we  were  at  once  moved  from  our  position  below  Deep  Run, 
so  as  to  attack  the  enemy,  who  was  then  on  the  hills  south  of 
the  town.     The  conflict  was  sharp,  but  short,  and  the  enemy  was 
soon  on  the  retreat.     In  this  fight  General  Hoke  was  wounded. 
By  the  next  morning  Hooker  and  his  army  were  again  on  the 
north  side  of  the  Rappahannock.     After  a  short  rest  our  brigade 
was  moved  westward  and  crossed  the  Rapidan  towards  Culpep- 
per Court  House;  and  after  the  battle  of   Brandy  Station  we 
were  carried   by  long,  hurried  marches  over  the  Blue  Ridge, 
crossing  the  Shanandoah  at  Port  Royal,  and  thence  to   Win- 
chester.    There  we  took  part  in  the  battle  which  resulted  in  the 
capture  of  Milroy's  command,  although    he    himself  escaped. 
There  was  a  large  number  of  prisoners,  and  one  of  our  regi- 

Sixth  Regiment.  311 

ments,  the  Fifty- fourth,  was  detailed  to  guard  them  and  carry 
them  up  the  Valley  to  Staunton.  The  Sixth  Regiment  and  the 
other  two  regiments  of  the  brigade  went  on  in  that  series  of 
movements  which  culmiaated  at  Gettysburg.  We  crossed  the 
Potomac  near  Shepherdstown  and  passed  through  Sharpsburg, 
where  we  had  lost  so  many  of  our  regiment  in  September  before ; 
thence  on  past  Hagerstown,  and  nearly'  to  Chambersburg.  We 
then  bore  to  the  right  or  easterly  across  the  mountains,  passing 
Heidlersburg,  Berlin  and  other  towns,  and  on  to  York.  There 
we  stopped  and  rested  for  a  few  days,  camping  in  the  old  Fair 
Grounds.  General  Gordon,  with  a  brigade  of  our  division, 
pushed  on  still  further  towards  Philadelphia  and  burned  the 
bridge  over  the  Susquehanna  at  Columbia.  Leaving  York,  we 
soon  found  that  we  were  retracing  our  march.  On  the  afternoon 
of  the  1st  of  July,  when  we,  as  it  afterwards  appeared,  were  within 
a  few  miles  of  Gettysburg,  and  whilst  halted  for  a  rest,  although 
we  could  not  hear  or  see  any  signs  of  battle,  an  order  was  passed 
along  down  the  line  to  inspect  arms  and  examine  the  cartridge- 
boxes  and  see  that  all  were  well  supplied  with  ammunition,  and 
directing  also  that  there  should  be  no  straggling.  Moving  for- 
ward, we  soon  heard  cannonading  in  our  front,  andsoon  there- 
after we  were  in  hearing  of  musketry.  The  road  was  cleared 
for  the  artillery  to  come  forward,  and  we  were  formed  into  line 
of  battle  to  protect  it.  The  battle  was  raging  on  the  west  and 
northwest  of  the  town,  and  we  were  engaging  the  lines  that  were 
formed  on  the  north  of  the  town.  In  the  artillery  duel  that 
took  place  here,  one  of  the  guns  which  our  regiment  supported 
was  disabled  by  a  shot  from  one  of  the  enemy's  guns,  which 
struck  our  gun  exactly  in  the  muzzle  and  split  it.  That  might 
be  called  a  center-shot.  The  enemy  seemed  to  fight  with  more 
desperation  and  gallantry  than  we  had  been  accustomed  to  in 
our  engagements  with  him  in  Virginia.  He  was  upon  his 
own  soil,  and  it  was  no  longer  a  sentiment  about  the  old  flag,  it 
was  a  fight  for  home.  But  our  mfen  were  never  more  unfalter- 
ing. The  long  line  of  battle  moved  with  great  steadiness  across 
the  wide-extended  fields  of  wheat  which  were  just  ready  for  the 

312  JS^OETH  CaeolixVa  Troops,  1861-'65. 

reaper.  There  was,  on  that  field,  another  Eeaper  gathering  in  a 
numerous  harvest  from  the  fields  of  Time.  As  we  moved  for- 
ward, one  by  one  our  men  were  left  dead  or  wounded  on  the  field 
behind  us,  but  still  our  line  advanced,  and  although  the  enemy 
made  a  determined  stand  we  could  see  his  line  thinning  down. 
Just  north  of  the  town,  and  a  little  to  the  east  of  the  depot, 
he  held  his  line  until  Our  men  crossed  bayonets  with  him. 
Swords  were  used  on  him,  and  when  the  artillery  which  he 
was  protecting  fired  its  last  round  the  stream  of  fire  from  the 
mouth  of  the  gun  crossed  our  line.  It  was  necessary  for  him 
to  be  thus  desperate  in  holding  this  position  in  order  to  protect 
the  retreat  from  Seminary  Ridge.  The  artillery  was  being  car- 
ried back  from  Seminary  Ridge,  through  the  town,  to  Cemetery 
Hill.  He  was  in  full  retreat  through  the  town.  We  thought 
the  battle  of  Gettysburg  was  over ;  and  so  it  was,  for  when  we 
passed  to  the  southeast  side  of  the  town  and  got  in  sight  of 
Cemetery  Hill  we  could  see  him  placing  his  first  gun  on  East 
Cemetery  Hill,  and  we  could  see  no  troops  out  east  of  Cemetery 
Hill  towards  Culp's  Hill.  Our  men  were  anxious  to  proceed 
and  take  possession  of  Cemetery  Hill,  and  it  was  only  by  posi- 
tive orders  that  a  halt  was  made.  The  line  was  soon  reformed 
along  a  little  rivulet  that  runs  northeastwardly  from  Cemetery 
Hill,  and  between  the  town  and  Culp's  Hill.  But  we  had  no 
orders  for  any  further  advance.  As  soon  as  it  began  to  grow 
dark  we  could  hear  sounds  of  what  might  have  been  thousands 
of  axes  cutting  down  the  timber  on  Culp's  Hill.  He  made 
breastworks  and  lined  the  Cemetery  Hill  with  artillery,  and 
placed  a  battery  on  a  small  hill  between  Cemetery  Hill  and 
Culp's  Hill,  and  his  guns  were  also  protected  by  earth-works 
which  he  threw  up  during  the  night. 

By  the  morning  of  the  2d  all  these  places  were  full  of  infan- 
try, and  his  artillery  was  so  posted  as  to  be  able  to  fire  over 
the  heads  of  his  infantry,  whilst  a  strong  line  of  skirmishers 
was  in  front  of  all,  which  was  frequently  relieved.  He  kept 
up  a  galling  fire  on  us  all  day.  There  was  a  terrific  cannonade 
between  the  enemy's  guns  and  ours,  which  were  posted  on  the 

Sixth  Regiment.  313 

north  and  east  of  the  town.  This  was  not  very  destructive  to 
our  infantry  line,  because,  being  in  the  valley,  the  shots  passed 
over  us. 

But  late  in  the  afternoon,  after  the  artillery  had  about  ceased 
firing,  couriers  and  aids  were  seen  riding  rapidly  from  one  com- 
manding officer  to  another.  We  knew  what  that  meant.  The 
order  was  given:  "Forward,  Guide  Eight!"  Hays'  Brigade  of 
Louisiana  was  on  our  right;  ours,  the  Sixth  Regiment,  was  next 
to  Hays';  Colonel  Isaac  E.  Avery,  of  the  Sixth,  was  in  command 
of  our  brigade;  Lieutenant-Colonel  S.  McD.  Tate  was  in  com- 
mand of  the  regiment.  Never  can  that  time  be  forgotten.  Every 
man  in  the  line  knew  what  was  before  him.  We  had  seen  the  enemy 
gathering  on  Cemetery  Hill;  we  had  laid  under  the  fire  of  his 
numerous  guns;  we  knew  the  preparations  he  had  made  for 
us.  Yet,  promptly  at  the  command,  the  line  moved  forward, 
and  in  a  few  minutes  we  were  in  full  view  of  the  enemy's  bat- 
teries and  his  lines  of  infantry.  His  sharp-shooters  emptied 
their  rifles  at  us  and  fell  back  to  their  main  line  at  once,  and 
every  gun  was  brought  to  bear  upon  us.  The  fire  was  terrific, 
but  our  men  moved  forward  very  rapidly,  bearing  to  the  right, 
having  the  batteries  on  Cemetery  Hill  as  their  objective  point. 

As  we  approached  the  hill  the  guns  on  Battery  Hill,  over  to- 
wards Culp's  Hill,  had  an  enfilading  fire  on  us.  Still  our  men 
rushed  forward,  crawled  over  the  stone  wall  near  the  base 
of  the  hill,  drove  from  behind  it  a  strong  line  of  infantry, 
and  went  still  forward  to  the  top  of  the  hill,  and  silenced  the 
numerous  pieces  of  artillery  that  had  been  so  advantageously 
posted.  We  had  full  possession  of  East  Cemetery  Hill,  the  key 
to  General  Meade's  position,  and  we  held  it  for  several  minutes. 

It  was  then  after  daylight  had  gone  down,  the  smoke  was  very 
dense,  and,  although  the  moon  was  rising,  we  could  not  see  what 
the  enemy  was  doing,  but  we  could  hear  him  attempting  to 
rally  his  men,  and  more  than  once  he  rallied  close  up  to  us. 
But  our  men  had  formed  behind  a  rock  wall,  and  as  he  ap- 
proached we  fired  a  volley  into  him,  which  drove  him  back.  This 
occurred  at  least  twice.    No  one  who  has  never  been  in  a  similar 

314  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

position  can  understand  how  anxiously  we  looiied  for  re-inforce- 
ments.  None  came,  however,  and  before  long  orders  came  for 
us  to  fall  back  to  our  original  position. 

By  not  supporting  Hoke's  Brigade  of  North  Carolina  and 
Hays'  Brigade  of  Louisiana  in  the  storming  and  capturing  of 
Cemetery  Hill  the  battle  of  Gettysburg  was  lost.  I  do  not 
know  whose  fault  it  was,  but  I  feel  assured  in  saying  that  it 
was  not  the  fault  of  the  storming  column.  It  did  its  whole 
duty  and  fell  back  only  when  orders  came  for  it  to  do  so. 

Much  has  been  written  about  the  battle  of  Gettysburg,  and 
what  was  accomplished  by  the  different  conamands  and  the  troops 
from  the  different  States.  But,  at  the  risk  of  being  charged  with 
immodesty,  I  venture  to  claim  that  the  storming  and  capturing 
of  Cemetery  Hill  on  the  evening  of  the  second  day  was  not  sur- 
passed by  anything  that  was  done  during  the  three  days'  fight. 
The  facts  on  which  the  claim  is  based  will  appear  to  any  one 
who  will  go  to  the  spot.  He  will  there  see  the  positions  of  the 
contending  armies  and  the  strength  of  the  hill.  The  breastworks 
and  embankments  protecting  the  enemy's  guns  are  still  plainly 
visible.  Its  defenses  and  the  lines  of  the  positions  of  its  de- 
fenders a-re  all  marked  by  durable  monuments.  And  on  the  top- 
most summit  he  will  find  a  cluster  of  monuments,  the  inscrip- 
tions on  which  recite  the  desperate  assault  made  by  Hoke's  and 
Hays'  Brigades  on  the  2d  of  July,  1863,  and  especially  men- 
tion the  hand-to-hand  conflict,  after  the  last  round  of  ammuni- 
tion had  been  fired  and  the  capture  and  spiking  of  the  enemy's 
guns  by  the  Confederates. 

I  did  not  know  at  the  time  of  the  battle  that  the  men  had 
spiked  the  enemy's  guns.  But  on  a  visit  to  the  battlefield  since  the 
war  I  met  one  of  the  cannoneers  who  helped  to  man  those  guns 
on  that  evening,  and  he  told  me  of  what  a  terrible  raking  fire 
they  had  at  us  until  we  got  close  up  to  the  hill;  of  how  many 
shots  they  fired  to  the  minute  from  each  gun;  and  he  said  it  was 
a  fact  that  several  of  their  guns  were  found  to  have  been  spiked 
by  our  men,  as  shown  by  the  recitals  inscribed  on  those  monu- 

Sixth  Regiment.  315 

These  are  records  that  cannot  be  gainsaid,  and  they  will 
endure.  I  refer  to  them  with  pride:  not  for  myself,  but  for  my 
regiment,  and  especially  for  and  on  behalf  of  the  troops  from 
North  Carolina,  whose  glorious  deeds  at  Gettysburg  have  been 
so  much  ignored. 

The  noble  soldierly  bearing  of  the  many  regiments  of  North 
Carolina  troops  that  took  part  in  that  three  days'  fight — on  Semi- 
nary Ridge  and  Rock  Creek  on  the  first  day,  and  with  General 
Johnson  on  Gulp's  Hill  on  the  evening  of  the  second  and  morn- 
ing of  the  third  day,  and  in  the  charge  on  Cemetery  Ridge  on 
the  third  day,  have  not  been  given  due  prominence  in  the  accounts 
of  the  battle  of  Gettysburg.  But  here,  on  Cemetery  Hill,  those 
who  felt  the  prowess  of  her  troops  have  contributed  to  their  fame 
by  inscribing  their  deeds  on  imperishable  tablets,  which  they 
have  erected  on  the  highest  ground  and  in  the  most  conspicuous 
position  on  this  most  noted  battlefield  of  the  war — a  battlefield 
which,  by  reason  of  the  vast  sums  of  money  expended  on  it,  is 
destined  to  be  made  one  of  the  most  noted  battlefields  in  the 

The  tourist  or  traveler  visiting  this  field  in  days  to  come,  as 
he  goes  from  point  to  point  with  a  well-informed  guide,  will 
hear  him,  in  describing  the  operations  of  the  two  armies  on  the 
first  day,  on  the  second  day  and  on  the  third  day,  make  frequent 
mention  of  the  North  Carolina  troops. 

From  the  point  known  as  "The  Bloody  Angle"  he  will  de- 
scribe Pickett's  charge,  so  called  because  General  Pickett  was 
in  command  of  the  assaulting  columns,  a  charge  very  unjustly 
spoken  of  as  "  The  charge  of  Pickett  and  his  Virginians,"  to 
the  prejudice  of  troops  from  other  States  that  participated  in  it, 
among  whom  were  several  regiments  of  North  Carolina  troops, 
who  acted  well  their  part,  and  will  be  duly  mentioned  in  all 
true  accounts  of  the  fight. 

When  they  come  to  stand  on  Cemetery  Hill,  to  which  every 
visitor  will  go,  for  from  it  nearly  all  the  field  can  be  pointed  out 
except  Lee's  right  on  the  Emmettsburg  road,  and  Meade's  left 
on  Roundtop,  the  guide  will  point  westward  toward  Cashtown 

316  NoETH  Carolina  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

and  the  Chambersburg  pike,  where  the  fighting  began.     North 
Carolina  was  there. 

He  will  then  point  out  Seminary  Ridge,  beyond  which  the 
Federal  General  Reynolds  was  killed;  the  railroad  cut;  and  the 
rock  wall  from  which  the  Federals  were  driven  after  a  most 
determined  stand.  North  Carolina  was  there.  He  will  turn 
towards  the  field  on  the  north  of  the  town,  where  Ewell's  Corps 
came  in  and  where  the  Federal  General  Bartow  was  killed ;  and 
still  further  to  the  east,  where  Early's  Division  fought  along 
Rock  Creek  and  near  the  brick-yard,  and  through  the  town. 
North  Carolina  was  all  along  there.  Turning  then  directly  east, 
he  will  call  attention  to  the  monuments,  two  or  three  miles  off, 
which  mark  the  place  of  the  cavalry  fighting.  North  Carolina 
was  there  too.  Then  he  will  show  Gulp's  Hill,  where  General 
Johnson  and  his  men  did  such  noble  work  and  came  so  near 
being  successful  in  their  efforts  to  turn  Meade's  right  flank. 
North  Carolina  was  there. 

And  to  conclude  his  description  from  this  point  of  view,  the 
guide  will  then  tell  how  Hays'  Louisiana  Brigade  and  Hoke's 
North  Carolina  Brigade  (then  commanded  by  Colonel  I.  E. 
Avery),  after  laying  under  fire  all  day,  some  of  which  was  a  ter- 
rible cannonade,  emerged  in  line  of  battle  from  the  little  valley 
that  runs  through  Gulp's  field,  and  charged  up  the  hill  through 
the  shot  and  shell  and  grape  and  canister  and  ball  that  was 
poured  upon  them  by  the  well-posted  Federals.  He  will  point 
to  where  Avery  fell,  and  tell  how  they  still  came  on  and  on, 
driving  back  the  infantry  and  then  encountering  the  gunners, 
who  resisted  even  to  a  hand-to-hand  struggle,  until  finally  the 
guns  were  silenced  and  spiked;  and  he  will  then  ask  that  the 
records  of  those  facts  may  be  read  in  the  inscriptions  on  the 
costly,  durable  monuments  erected  there  by  the  Federal  regi- 
ments and  batteries  that  were  in  the  fight.  North  Carolina  loas 

The  Confederate  soldier — the  North  Carolina  Confederate 
soldier — may  glory  in  the  records  of  Gettysburg. 

In  the  charge  on  this  hill,  the  Sixth  Regiment  being  on  the 

Sixth  Regiment.  317 

right  of  the  brigade,  next  to  Hays'  Brigade,  was  the  only  regi- 
ment of  the  North  Carolina  brigade  which  went  on  Cemetery 
Hill,  towards  which  its  advance  was  directed  by  Colonel  Tate. 
The  other  regiments  of  the  brigade,  the  Twenty-first  and  Fifty- 
seventh,  being  on  the  left,  were  brought  up  more  directly  against 
Culp's  Hill. 

On  the  3d  day  we  remained  in  line  along  near  the  southern 
edge  of  town.  We  could  hear  the  fighting  to  the  south  of  us 
along  the  Emmettsburg  road,  but  we  were  not  heavily  engaged 
at  any  time  during  the  day — only  constant  firing  on  the  skirmish 

On  the  4th  we  were  in  line  along  Seminary  Ridge.  On  the 
night  of  the  4th  we  could  see  that  our  army  was  leaving  Get- 
tysburg, and  when  day  came  on  the  5th  we  found  that  our 
brigade  was  again  given  the  post  of  honor  as  the  rearguard  on 
one  of  the  roads  by  which  the  army  was  crossing  the  mountains 
towards  Hagerstown. 

It  is  claimed  that  General  Meade  was  victorious  at  Gettys- 
burg, and  in  one  sense  he  was,  but  it  was  by  no  means  a  decisive 

We  were  all  day  on  the  5th  making  the  short  distance  be- 
tween Gettysburg  and  the  foot  of  the  mountains,  and  we  were 
not  seriously  molested  by  any  pursuit  until  late  in  the  evening, 
after  sundown,  when  we  were  well  in  the  mountains.  The  enemy 
ran  up  on  a  hill  in  our  rear  and  threw  a  few  shells  at  us,  but 
when  our  sharp-shooters  deployed  and  started  towards  him  he 
suddenly  fell  back,  and  we  were  molested  no  more. 

We  next  formed  our  line  of  battle  up  and  down  the  Potomac, 
near  Hagerstown,  the  river,  by  reason'  of  the  continued  rains, 
being  too  deep  to  be  forded.  Here  was  another  chance  for  Gen- 
eral Meade,  if  his  army  was  elated  by  his  achievements  at 

General  Lee's  army  remained  in  line  ready  for  an  expected 
attack,  but  no  attack  was  made.  When  the  river  became 
passable  the  pontoons  were  placed,  and  portions  of  the  army 

318  iSfoETH  Carolina  Teoops,  1861-65. 

crossed  on  the  bridge,  whilst  others  forded.  "We  were  back  into 
Virginia  again.  The  Gettj'sburg  campaign  was  over,  but  many, 
many  noble  soldiers  who  crossed  over  with  us  in  June  now  failed 
to  answer  to  their  names  at  roll-call. 

After  getting  into  Virginia  we  were  carried  back  and  camped 
a  few  miles  northwest  of  Winchester.  Whilst  stationed  there 
we  were  ordered  to  prepare  for  marching,  and  late  one  evening 
we  started  westward  toward  the  Alleghany  mountains.  We 
marched  all  night,  and  in  the  morning  we  were  at  the  western 
base  of  the  mountains  in  West  Virginia,  and  took  the  roads 
leading  northward.  The  object  of  our  expedition  was  to  capture 
some  of  the  enemy's  forces  that  were  guarding  a  gap  to  the  north 
of  us;  but  they  had  gotten  information  of  our  movements  and 
escaped,  and  we  came  back  to  camp. 

We  were  soon  in  motion  again,  and  were  marched  up  the  Valley 
and  crossed  over  to  the  eastern  side  of  the  Blue  Ridge  and  on  to  the 
neighborhood  of  Culpepper  Court  House  and  the  line  of  the  Rapi- 
dan.  We  took  part  in  all  those  movements  and  engagements  in  the 
early  part  of  October,  along  the  Rappahannock  and  near  Warren- 
ton  Springs,  which  led  up  to  the  disastrous  engagement  at  Bris- 
tow  Station  on  the  14th  of  October. 

Meade's  army  was  falling  back  towards  Washington,  and  we 
were  in  pursuit.  Our  brigade  had  formed  east  and  west  across 
the  road  in  his  rear,  and  we  were  fast  closing  in  on  him.  But 
General  Hill  struck  him  on  the  flank,  near  Bristow,  just  south 
of  Cedar  Run,  with  two  brigades.  General  Warren  turned  his 
whole  force  on  him  and  played  on  him  with  artillery  that  was 
posted  on  the  north  side  of  the  run.  Hill's  brigades  were  re- 
pulsed with  terrible  loss.  The  eifort  to  cut  the  enemy  in  his 
retreat  had  failed.  We  then  fell  back  to  the  north  side  of  the 
Rappahannock,  tearing  up  the  railroad  from  Cub's  Run  all  the 
way  back  to  Rappahannock  Station. 

As  every  thing  grew  quiet  we  were  directed  to  prepare  winter- 
quarters,  and  did  so  with  a  hearty  good-will.  By  the  7th  of 
November  we  were  tolerably  well  prepared  for  winter;  but  in 

Sixth  Regiment.  319 

the  middle  of  the  afternoon  on  that  day  the  "long-roll"  was 
beat  and  we  were  marched  about  seven  miles,  double-quick  for  a 
great  part  of  the  way,  to  Rappahannock  Station. 

West  of  the  railroad  bridge  the  river  bends  to  the  south,  and 
a  pontoon  bridge  was  kept  across  the  river.  On  the  north  side 
of  the  river  there  was  a  line  of  trenches,  and  we  were  hurried 
over  into  them.  There  were  three  or  four  pieces  of  artillery  on 
a  bluff  near  the  river,  just  opposite  the  pontoon  bridge,  to  our 
right.  There  Hays'  Louisiana  Brigade  was  posted.  The  ene- 
my's lines  soon  appeared  in  our  front.  Owing  to  some  unusual 
state  of  the  atmosphere,  or  currents  of  the  air,  we  could  see  him 
firing  at  us,  but  could  not  hear  the  report  of  his  guns  until 
he  was  close  up  to  us.  He  seemed  to  know  the  ground, 
and  his  heaviest  attack  was  on  our  right  nearest  the  pontoon 
bridge.  The  conformation  of  the  ground  was  such  that  we 
could  not  direct  our  fire  so  as  to  bear  upon  the  heavy  lines  that 
were  thrown  against  Hays,  and  he,  after  a  gallant  resistance, 
was  overcome,  and  the  enemy  had  the  battery  and  was  in  full 
view  of  the  pontoon  bridge,  which  was  then  within  musket-range 
from  him,  and  he  had  an  enfilading  fire  on  our  part  of  the 
line,  which  was  also  receiving  a  fire  from  the  enemy  in  our  front. 
Our  men  were  ordered  out  of  the  trenches  to  form  a  line  to  try 
and  retake  the  battery,  but  with  the  enemy  advancing  in  our 
front  and  the  severe  fire  from  the  hill  on  which  the  battery  was 
situated,  it  was  impossible  to  do  so.  No  supporting  troops  were 
coming  from  the  south  side  of  the  river.  Hays'  men  were  re- 
treating, and  the  enemy  was  pouring  a  deadly  fire  into  the 
stream  of  men  who  were  rushing  across  the  pontoon  bridge  to 
the  south  side  of  the  river.  Our  regiment  and  those  to  our  left 
were  cut  off  and  the  river  was  too  deep  to  be  forded.  The  only 
chance  of  escape  was  to  run  the  gauntlet  or  swim  the  river.  It 
was  getting  dark.  Some  ran  the  gauntlet  across  the  bridge; 
some  swam  the  river.  The  writer  was  one  of  a  considerable 
number  who  rushed  across  the  bridge  and  reached  the  south  bank 
safely,  whilst  many  who  attempted  it  fell  pierced  with  balls  and 
tumbled  headlong  into  the  river.     A  large  portion  of  the  brigade 

320  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

was  captured.  The  enemy  was  so  intent  on  crowding  our  men 
back  into  the  horse-shoe  bend  of  the  river  that  a  considerable 
number,  after  formally  throwing  down  their  guns  and  being 
ordered  to  the  rear,  in  going  back  found  that  the  bridge  was 
not  guarded,  and  so  slipped  across  to  the  south  side.  This  fight, 
though  of  short  duration,  was  a  severe  one  and  against  great 
odds.     We  had  no  support  or  re-inforcements. 

The  wisdom  of  the  generalship  by  which  our  two  brigades  were 
placed  on  the  north  bank  of  a  deep  river  to  meet  the  advance  of  a 
great  army  is  not  apparent.  Those  of  us  who  escaped  capture  re- 
formed our  companies,  and  by  the  addition  of  some  recruits  the 
regiment  was  intact  again.  But  we  were  not  permitted  to  go 
into  winter-quarters  any  more.  We  were  kept  moving,  watching 
the  enemy.  He  was  somewhat  emboldened,  and  attempted  what 
was  known  to  our  men  as  the  "Mine  Run  Campaign."  It  was 
about  the  last  of  November,  and  the  weather  was  bitter  cold.  Al- 
though we  were  under  a  considerable  artillery  fire,  and  did  some 
heavy  skirmishing  between  the  lines  of  battle  formed  by  the  two 
armies,  yet  there  was  no  general  engagement,  and  the  enemy  gave 
up  the  movement,  and  on  December  2d  withdrew  his  forces  to  the 
north  side  of  the  Rapidan  again. 

The^campaigns  of  1863  were  ended. 

Early  in  January,  1864,  we  were  started  again  and  were  car- 
ried through  Richmond  and  Petersburg,  and  thence  to  Garys- 
burg,  N.  C.  Our  men  began  almost  to  believe  the  rumor  that 
we  were  being  carried  to  North  Carolina  to  hunt  up  deserters. 
Unpleasant  as  such  duty  would  have  been,  there  was  rejoicing 
at  the  thought  of  being  nearer  home,  and  with  a  pathos  that  can-  ' 
not  be  described,  the  men  sang  Gaston's  glorious  hymn : 

"Carolina,  Carolina,  Heaven's  blessings  attend  her," 
"While  we  live  we  will  cherish,  protect  and  defend  her." 

Taking  the  cars  again,  we  headed  towards  Weldon,  but  there, 
instead  of  going  on  the  Gaston  road,  we  went  towards  Golds- 
boro  and  thence  to  Kinston.     We  joined  in  the  expedition  to 

Sixth  Eegiment.  321 

New  Bern,  took  part  in  the  engagement  at  Bachelor's  Creek 
Bridge  and  formed  our  line  in  sight  of  the  enemy's  breastworks 
in  front  of  New  Bern.  But  no  attack  was  made.  After  a  day 
or  two  there,  we  marched  back  to  Kinston.  When  we  left  Kins- 
ton  we  were  carried  by  way  of  Goldsboro  and  Rocky  Mount  to 
Tarboro,  and  thence  were  marched  hurriedly  to  Plymouth. 
We  took  part  in  the  storming  of  the  outer  works  and  final  cap- 
ture of  Plymouth,  April  20th.  It  was  in  this  battle  and  whilst 
storming  Fort  Wessels  that  we  first  had  to  contend  with  hand-gre- 
nades. Whilst  our  men  were  in  the  ditch  around  the  fort  the  enemy 
threw  hand-grenades  quite  freely,  but  they  did  not  prove  to  be 
very  destructive,  and  the  fort  soon  surrendered.  This  was  about 
dark  on  the  first  day,  and  the  surrender  of  this  fort  brought 
us  in  front  of  the  main  line  of  works  around  the  town. 
Early  in  the  morning  the  battle  was  renewed  all  along  the 
line,  and  the' Ram  "Albemarle"  was  brought  down  the  river  to 
assist.  The  battle  soon  resulted  in  the  capture  of  the  town,  with 
a  large  number  of  prisoners  and  considerable  stores.  We  then 
marched  on  Little  Washington  on  Tar  River,  but  the  enemy 
vacated  it  before  we  got  there. 

Spring  was  now  well  advanced  and  serious  work  was  threat- 
ened in  Virginia.  Grant  was  moving  on  the  Rapidan,  and  the 
Petersburg  &  Weldon  Railroad  was  threatened  by  troops  on  the 
south  side  of  the  James.  We  were  hurried  back  towards  Rich- 
mond, but  were  stopped  near  Belfield  and  Hicksford  to  protect 
the  bridges  in  that  neighborhood  for  a  few  days.  Then  we  were 
carried  to  Petersburg  to  prevent  Butler's  forces  from  capturing 
the  city.  Then  Butler,  failing  to  get  into  Petersburg,  made  a 
heavy  demonstration  out  from  Bermuda  Hundreds,  threatening 
the  Petersburg  &  Richmond  Railroad.  We  were  marched  over 
there.  Butler  failed  to  take  the  railroad,  and,  as  Grant  said, 
was  "bottled  up." 

We  were  marched  over  to  Richmond  and  northward  towards 
Fredericksburg,  and  next  formed  in  line  of  battle  a  little  to  the 


322  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

north  of  Hanover  Junction.     We  were  back  with  the  army  of 
Northern  Virginia  again. 

An  attacii  from  Grant's  army  was  hourly  expected.  But 
there  was  no  general  engagement,  only  some  skirmishing  on  our 
part  of  the  line.  As  General  Grant  swung  around  down  the 
river,  we  were  marched  so  as  to  conform  to  his  movements,  and 
keep  between  him  and  Richmond.  When  he  got  to  a  point 
nearly  north  of  Richmond  he  crossed  over  the  Pamunkey  River 
and  advanced  directly  toward  the  city.  Our  line  was  along  the 

On  Sunday  evening,  May  29,  1864,  the  writer  of  this  sketch 
had  his  own  company  and  two  other  companies  on  the  skirmish 
line  quite  hotly  engaged  until  after  dark.  After  night-fall 
everything  was  quiet,  and  early  in  the  morning,  before  it  was 
light,  we  had  orders  to  fall  back  to  the  main  line.  But  hardly 
had  we  gotten  back  to  the  regiment  when  orders  were  brought 
to  him  to  take  the  same  men  back  to  the  same  skirmish  line  and 
hold  it  until  heavily  pressed  by  the  enemy;  and,  as  they  pressed 
us,  to  fall  back  to  the  main  line.  We  were  soon  in  our  place, 
and  it  was  not  long  before  the  enemy  came  up  in  force  in  our 
front  and  as  far  as  we  could  see  to  our  right  and  to  our  left. 
We  were  on  the  north  side  of  the  creek,  along  the  brow  of  the 
hill ;  in  front  of  us  was  a  level  field,  in  our  rear  wa^  a  valley 
which  had  been  cleared  for  cultivation,  and  the  ground  sloped 
from  our  line  back  to  the  run  of  the  creek,  and  then  up 
on  the  south  side,  which  was  wooded,  back  to  the  main  line 
on  the  brow  of  the  hill.  The  skirmishing  soon  became  furious 
all  along  the  line.  In  falling  back  our  part  of  the  line  had  to 
traverse  the  cleared  ground  until  we  began  to  ascend  the  slope 
on  the  south  side  of  the  creek,  and  the  enemy,  who  rushed 
to  the  brow  of  the  hill,  poured  a  destructive  fire  into  us. 
After  we  had  gotten  on  the  south  side  of  the  creek  the  writer, 
in  passing  from  the  left  to  the  right  along  the  line,  received  a 
shot  in  the  ankle  which  disabled  him  entirely.  Fearing  capture, 
he,  without  waiting  for  the  litter-bearers,  called  on  his  men  to 
carry  him  back.     Oh !  how  true  and  good  and  faithful  those 

Sixth  Regiment.  323 

men  had,  under  all  circumstances,  been  to  him.  Promptly  when 
the  call  was  made,  three  or  four  good  soldiers  of  his  company 
lifted  him  and  carried  him  back  till  the  litter-bearers  were  met. 
He  was  then  carried  by  them  to  the  ambulance  station,  and 
thence  to  the  hospital,  and  there,  when  his  turn  came,  he  was 
placed  on  the  operating-table,  and  when  he  awoke  his  left 
foot  was  gone — the  surgeons  said  amputation  was  necessary. 
And  so  ended  his  career  as  an  active  soldier.  Any  further 
history  of  the  regiment  is  based  on  information  derived  from 
other  sources. 

The  fighting  above  referred  to  was  preliminary  to  the  great 
battle  of  Cold  Harbor  on  the  31st  of  May  and  on  the  1st,  2d 
and  3d  of  June,  in  which  the  Federal  losses  were  awfully  heavy. 
The  Confederate  loss  was  comparatively  small.  The  one  was 
reported  at  about  twelve  hundred,  the  other  at  about  thirteen 

Those  who  eulogize  General  Grant  have  a  difficult  task  in 
vindicating  the  orders  which  caused  such  fearful  losses  in  this 
battle.  History  tells  it  that  he  ordered  charge  after  charge,  and 
only  desisted  when  his  men  declined  to  charge  again. 

The  writer,  whilst  lying  on  his  cot  in  the  hospital  in  Rich- 
mond, was  told  by  the  doctor  in  charge  that  s(jme  of  his  old 
comrades  had  come  in  to  see  him,  and  when  he  looked  up  he 
saw  that  it  was  some  of  the  Sixth  Regiment,  North  Carolina 
Troops,  who  had  been  wounded  at  Cold  Harbor.  They  told  him 
of  the  awful  slaughter  of  Federals  in  front  of  the  Confederate 

The  second  Cold  Harbor  was  a  decisive  battle  and  virtually 
closed  the  overland  campaign  against  Richmond.  General  Grant 
was  foiled  in  his  eifort  to  get  between  Lee  and  Richmond.  Grant 
then  decided  to  transfer  his  forces  to  the  James  River. 

About  the  12th  to  14th  of  June,  when  General  Grant  began 
to  change  his  base  to  the  James,  the  cavalry  was  threatening  the 
line  of  the  railroad  towards  Gordonsville,  and  Hunter  was 
moving  up  the  Valley.  Early's  Division,  to  which  the  Sixth  Regi- 
ment belonged,  was   marched   rapidly  from  the  Chickahominy 

324  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

towards  Gordonsville,  in  which  section  of  the  country  Sheridan's 
Cavalry  was  raiding. 

Hampton's  Cavalry  had  checked  Sheridan.  Early's  forces 
pushed  on  through  the  smoking  ruins  that  marked  the  line  of 
Sheridan's  retreat,  until  near  Gordonsville  a  train  was  met  back- 
ing down  to  carry  them  to  Lynchburg,  which  place  was  reached 
about  sunrise  on  the  morning  of  the  17th.  Jumping  off  the 
cars,  the  men  were  hurriedly  marched  up  the  steep  streets  and 
out  to  the  field  west  of  the  town,  and  were  just  in  time  to  save 
it.  The  cavalry  of  General  Jackson,  sometimes  known  as 
"  Mud-wall  Jaokson,"  were  being  driven  back  by  Hunter's  men, 
who  were  advancing  hilariously.  But  consternation  struck 
them  when  they  met  Lee's  infantry.  Then  followed  the  greatest 
foot-race  ever  witnessed  in  war.  Back  through  Liberty,  Buford's 
Gap,  and  across  the  Valley  into  and  beyond  the  North  Mountain 
the  despoilers  ran,  strewing  the  line  of  their  flight  with  arms, 
blankets,  knapsacks,  and  even  shoes  and  hats. 

General  Hunter,  having  retreated  through  West  Virginia  to- 
ward the  Ohio,  General  Early  moved  rapidly  down  the  Valley, 
the  enemy  falling  back  before  him  until  they  reached  Harper's 
Ferry  and  Maryland  Heights. 

On  the  3d,  of  July  General  Siegel's  force  was  driven  from 
Martinsburg  across  the  Potomac  at  Shepherdstown.  General 
Early  followed,  moving  through  Hagerstown,  and  thence  east- 
ward, occupying  Frederick  City  on  the  7th.  The  militia  that 
opposed  the  advance  were  dispersed  by  our  skirmish  line.  As 
the  army  marched  through  Frederick  the  citizens  tauntingly 
said :  "  Go  ahead  !  You  will  soon  meet  regular  soldiers."  Our 
men  replied :  "  All  right,  they  are  the  fellows  we  are  hunting 

Sure  enough,  at  Monocacy  Bridge,  a  few  miles  east  of  Frede- 
rick, General  Lew  Wallace,  since  of  "  Ben-Hur  "  fame,  had  a  large 
force  in  position  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river.  General  Early 
attacked  him  on  the  8th,  forced  the  passage  of  the  river  and  drove 
General  Wallace  back  towards  Pennsylvania.     That  left  the 

Sixth  Regiment.  325 

road  towards  Washington  and  Baltimore  open.  Early  promptly 
set  out  towards  Washington  and  arrived  at  Rockville  on  the  10th, 
and  on  the  next  day  his  forces  formed  line  of  battle  in  sight  of  the 
Capitol  and  within  easy  range  of  its  powerful  defenses.  The  Sixth 
Regiment  laid  in  the  front  yard  of  F.  P.  Blair's  place,  "Silver 
Spring."  Occasional  shells  Were  thrown  out  from  the  big  guns, 
but  there  was  no  general  engagement.  No  attack  was  made;  the 
works  were  too  strong  and  to'o  well  garrisoned  for  Early's  small 
force.  After  two  or  three  days'  skirmishing  Washington  was  aban- 
doned, and  the  army  recrossed  the  Potomac  at  White's  Ford 
near  Leesburg,  and  two  days  afterward  encamped  near  Berry- 

Late  in  the  evening  of  the  next  day  word  came  that  a  force 
of  the  enemy  was  moving  from  Martinsburg  towards  Winches- 
ter. By  a  forced  night  march  the  brigade,  General  Raraseur 
commanding,  reached  the  front  of  that  town  about  sunrise  the  next 
day.  Some  couriers  came  in  with  reports  of  a  very  large  force  of 
the  enemy  approaching.  General  Ramseur  did  not  seem  to  think 
that  it  was  a  large  force.  He  ordered  the  Sixth  Regiment  to  move 
forward  on  the  Pike  road  about  two  miles,  to  a  piece  of  woods, 
to  meet  the  enemy  there.  After  the  Sixth  Regiment  moved  off, 
however,  upon  further  information,  he  followed  with  the  whole 
brigade.  He  soon  galloped  up  to  the  front  and  gave  orders  for 
the  formation  of  the  line  of  battle.  During  the  execution  of  this 
order  the  enemy  appeared  in  large  numbers.  The  Sixth,  having 
been  in  advance,  had  just  gotten  into  position,  and  had  not  loaded 
their  rifles,  when  the  enemy  began  firing.  It  was  a  critical  mo- 
ment. The  Sixth  charged  single-handed  and  fought  until  nearly 
surrounded ;  but  the  enemy  had  overpowering  numbers,  and 
the  whole  brigade  was  outflanked,  and  all  had  to  fall  back  to- 
gether. This  fight  was  known  in  that  part  of  the  army  as 
"  Ramseur's  defeat ";  but  it  was  not  so  spoken  of  him  in  dis- 
paragement of  him  or  his  generalship,  for  he  was  as  gallant  a 
soldier  as  ever  lived,  and  he  soon  fell  fighting  nobly  at  Cedar 

326  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

During  the  remainder  of  the  summer  and  fall  of  1864  the 
regiment  was  with  Early,  moving  back  and  forth,  up  and  down  the 
Valley,  as  he  would  drive  the  enemy  towards  the  Potomac  and 
Harper's  Ferry,  and  in  turn  be  driven  back  up  the  Valley 
towards  Staunton,  the  enemy  having  overwhelming  odds  always 
against  us.  ' 

About  the  8th  or  10th-  of  August,  General  Sheridan  was 
transferred  from  Grant's  army  and  took  command  in  the  Valley. 
Our  forces  under  Early  had  fallen  back  to  Fisher's  Hill.  Sheri- 
dan, hearing  that  re-inforcements  were  sent  to  Early,  commenced 
retreating,  and  was  pursued  through  Winchester  and  until  he 
withdrew  to  Harper's  Ferry  and  Maryland  Heights. 

Before  daylight  on  the  morning  of  September  18th,  while  posted 
in  front  of  Winchester,  Sheridan,  with  a  force  of  fifty-four  thous- 
and attacked  Early,  who,  according  to  reports,  had  only  about  seven 
thousand  infantry  and  not  more  than  ten  thousand  all  told.  Our 
line  was  drawn  out  very  thin  to  cover  the  approach.  The  enemy 
charged  time  and  again  through  the  open  field,  for  we  had  no  cover. 
Yet  our  line  was  not  broken  until  about  sundown,  and  only  then 
because  the  cavalry  was  thrown  around  our  left  flank.  General 
Rodes,  commanding  the  division,  and  General  Godwin,  com- 
manding the  brigade,  were  killed  here. 

From  Winchester  we  fell  back  to  Fisher's  Hill,  near  Stras- 
burg.  Sheridan  followed,  and  on  the  22d  attacked  us  again, 
sending  two  divisions  of  his  cavalry  (he  is  reported  to  have  had 
ten  thousand  cavalrymen,  splendidly  armed  and  equipped)  np  the 
Luray  Valley  to  intercept,  at  New  Market,  any  retreat  by  Early.  - 
In  this  they  did  not  succeed.  Although  the  battle  of  Fisher's 
Hill  went  against  Early,  he  made  good  his  retreat  to  the  upper 
Valley  and  escaped  Sheridan's  overwhelming  odds. 

Having  been  re-inforced,  Early  again  moved  down  the  Valley, 
and  reached  Cedar  Creek  about  the  18th  of  October.  Sheridan's 
army  was  camped  on  the  heights  overlooking  Strasburg  and 
Cedar  Creek. 

Our  regiment,  together  with  other  infantry,  was  started  about 

Sixth  Eegiment.  327 

midnight  and  marched  by  a  cow-path  or  trail  around  the  end  of 
the  Massanutton  Mountain  ;  forded  the  river  below  the  mouth 
of  Cedar  Creek  ;  formed  line  of  battle  before  it  was  good  day- 
light, and  attacked  the  enemy,  completely  surprising  him,  and 
soon  had  him,  panic-stricken,  flying  down  the  Valley  turnpike 
towards  Middletown.  There  he  attempted  to  rally,  but  the 
Confederates  followed  closely  and  his  retreat  was  continued  on 
towards  Newtown.  The  route  seemed  to  be  so  complete  that 
the  half-famished  and  poorly  clothed  men  of  Early's  army  found 
the  rich  spoils  in  the  captured  camp  and  stores  of  the  Federal 
suttlers  too  tempting,  and  so  many  of  them  straggled  that  when 
General  Wright,  who  was  in  command  of  the  Federals,  reformed 
his  line  near  Newtown,  and  General  Sheridan  came  riding  in 
from  Winchester  and  took  command,  our  lines  were  too  weak  to 
resist  their  attack,  and  before  night  the  Federals  had  regained 
their  camp.  In  this  fight  General  Ramseur,  commanding  our 
division,  was  killed.  General  Early  halted  for  the  night  at 
Fisher's  Hill,  and  on  the  next  day  fell  back  further  up  the 
Valley,  towards  Staunton. 

The  battle  of  Cedar  Creek  was  about  the  last  of  the  Valley 
campaign.  Indeed,  the  Valley  was  so  devastated  by  General 
Sheridan  that  our  army  could  hardly  find  subsistence.  During 
his  advances  and  withdrawals,  according  to  his  own  dispatch  to 
his  Government,  "  the  whole  country  from  the  Blue  Ridge  to  the 
North  Mountain  had  been  made  entirely  untenable  for  a  rebel 
army.  This  destruction  embraced  the  Luray  galley  and  The 
Little  Fort  Valley  as  well  as  the  main  Valley."  Such  cruelties 
and  barbarities  shall  ever  remain  as  a  stain  upon  General  Sheri- 
dan's character,  and  upon  the  War  Department  for  not  rebuking 
him,  and  upon  General  Grant,  who  directed  jt,  and  concluded 
his  letter  to  Sheridan  by  adding:  "  If  the  war  is  to  last  another 
year,  let  the  Shenandoah  Valley  remain  a  barren  waste." 

If  it  be  asked  why,  in  writing  this  short  history  of  the  Sixth 
regiment,  these  charges  of  vandalism  against  such  prominent 
Federal    generals  are   inserted,    the  answer   is :    It   is  part  of 

328  North  Caeolina  Teoops,  1861-65. 

the  history  of  the  war,  and  it  ought  to  be  told  until  all  the 
people  should  know  it.  The  Sixth  North  Carolina  Regiment, 
with  all  Early's  troops,  had  witnessed  this  devastation ;  they 
had  been  marching  through  this  barren  waste;  they  were  tired 
and  hungry  too  when  they  were  roused  up  on  the  night  of  the 
18th,  and  after  marching  all  night  over  a  rugged  road  and  fight- 
ing so  well  on  the  morning  of  the  18th,  it  is  easy  to  understand 
how,  when  tbey  saw  the  enemy  flying  down  the  Valley  pike, 
many  of  the  hungriest  ones  turned  aside  to  help  themselves  out 
of  the  rich  commissary  stores  that  they  had  captured.  They 
ought  not  to  have  done  so,  but  some  of  them  did;  and  Early's 
force  was  so  small,  reported  at  only  nine  thousand  men  all  told, 
that,  counting  out  the  killed  aud  wounded  and  the  stragglers,  it  is 
not  surprising  that  Sheridan  was  able  to  drive  back  those  remain- 
ing in  line.  No  one  but  those  who  have  tried  it  can  tell  how  hard 
it  is  to  restrain  hungry  men  when  in  sight  of  the  food  they 
crave.  But  in  all  these  engagements  and  reverses  the  Sixth  regi- 
ment maintained  its  organization  and  was  able  to  show  its  colors 
after  every  fight. 

Towards  the  close  of  the  fall  the  Sixth  Regiment,  together 
with  the  remaining  troops  of  Ramseur's  and  Rodes'  Divisions, 
were  placed  under  General  Gordon  and  sent. back  to  Petersburg. 
The  Sixth  Regiment  occupied  the  line  of  intrenchments  opposite 
the  "Tall  Tower"  until  January,  1865,  when  it  was  carried  to 
the  right,  near  Burgess's  Mill  and  Hatcher's' Run. 

The  enemy  made  a  determined  effort  to  turn  the  Confederate 
right  about  the  5th  to  6th  of  February.  The  Sixth  Regiment 
was  heavily  engaged  in  the  attempt  to  beat  him  back.  In  this 
fighting  General  Pegram,  commanding  our  division,  was  killed. 
General  Grant  was  trying  to  get  to  the  South  Side  Railroad;  he 
failed  in  this,  but  he  secured  an  extension  of  his  lines  to  Hatch- 
er's Run.  Fighting  was  now  going  on  constantly  oii  the  out- 
posts and  picket  lines. 

Soon  after  the  battle  of  Hatcher's  Run  the  Sixth  Regiment  was 
carried  back  again  through  Petersburg  to  the  trenches  opposite 

Sixth  Regiment.  329 

Fort  Steadman.  There  it  remained  in  the  mud,  as  mauy  of 
them  expressed  it,  holding  this  part  of  the  line  until  the  25th 
of  March. 

Before  day,  on  the  25th  of  March,  the  Sixth  Regiment  and 
other  troops  were  ordered  to  move  out  noiselessly  in  front  of  the 
trenches,  and  to  dash  across  the  narrow  space  that  divided  the 
two  armies  (not  more  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  yards);  men 
with  axes  were  to  cut  and  tear  away  the  abatis ;  and  as  soon  as 
it  could  be  done,  the  men  were  to  rush  in,  capture  the  fort  and 
the  lines  to  the  right  and  left.  That  the  men  might  know  their 
friends,  each  man  of  the  attacking  force  was  to  have  a  piece  of 
white  cloth  tied  around  his  left  arm.  This  looked  like  a  des- 
perate attack.  The  Sixth  Regiment  and  other  troops  immedi- 
ately in  front  of  Fort  Steadman,  the  lines  being  nearest  together 
there,  were  to  lead.  They  did  what  they  were  ordered  to  do, 
and,  perhaps  to  the  surprise  of  our  own  people,  and  certainly  to 
the  surprise  of  the  enemy,  it  worked  well  for  a  while.  Every 
one  did  his  part.  The  abatis  was  cut  and  pulled  away  in  short 
order.  The  men  rushed  through,  captured  Fort  Steadman  and  bat- 
teries to  the  right  and- left  of  it.  A  large  number  of  prisoners 
were  taken  and  several  pieces  of  artillery.  The  troops  that  were 
to  support  this  movement  on  the  right,  towards  Fort  Haskell, 
did  not  succeed  so  well,  and  failed  to  capture  it.  Daylight  soon 
came;  the  Federals  recovered  from  their  surprise  and  turned 
upon  us  their  artillery,  whiqh,  together  with  the  massed  lines  of 
infantry,  made  it,  to  use  the  words  of  one  of  the  Sixth  Regiment, 
a  very  hell  for  us. 

It  soon  became  evident  that  the  position  was  untenable.  The 
supporting  troops  were  being  withdrawn.  The  Sixth  Regiment 
had,  in  desperation,  been  charged  against  a  mass  of  infantry 
coming  up  in  their  front,  and  they  were  the  last  to  withdraw. 
They  returned  to  their  ditches  under  a  severe  cross-fire — more 
to  be  dreaded  than  any  forward  movement;  but,  to  use  the 
language  of  one  who  was  there,  "they  came  back  leaving  none  but 
their  dead." 

330  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Within  a  few  days  Lee's  army  was  compelled  to  abandon 
Petersburg.  The  battle  at  Five  Forks  was  lost  on  April  1st,  and 
at  day-break  on  Sunday,  April  2d,  the  Confederate  line  in  front  of 
Petersburg  was  broken  and  the  Federal  artillery  opened  all  along 
our  front.  When  night  came  the  Confederates,  although  ground 
had  been  lost,  were  still  holding  Petersburg,  but  the  evacuation  of 
the  city,  and,  as  a  consequence,  of  Richmond  also,  had  been  deter- 
mined on.  That  night  the  army  withdrew,  and  whilst  fires  were 
blazing  up  here  and  there,  and  heavy  explosions  which  shook  the 
very  ground  followed  each  other  in  rapid  succession  along  the  Con- 
federate lines  from  Petersburg  to  Richmond,  the  Federals  failed  to 
move  forward  to  ascertain  the  cause;  and  by  daylight  of  the  3d 
the  Confederates  were  all  on  the  Chesterfield  side,  and  well  away 
from  the  two  cities,  on  the  roads  towards  Amelia  Court  House. 

In  the  almost  continued  movements,  fightings  and  skirmish- 
ings of  the  next  few  days  the  regiment  bore  its  part  with  Gor- 
don's Corps.  Hoping  to  find  at  Amelia  Court  House  commis- 
sary stores,  the  troops,  having  then  been  without  rations  for 
nearly  two  days,  were  told  that  no  rations  were  there.  The  for- 
agers who  were  sent  out  to  seek  supplies  -returned  with  almost 
nothing.     Many  of  them  were  captured  in  their  search  for  food. 

The  road  to  Burkeville  was  occupied  by  -the  enemy,  and  the 
retreat  bore  further  to  the  north  through  Deatousville,  and  thence 
toward  Farmville.  The  enemy's  cavalry  was  striking  all  along 
the  retreating  line,  sometimes  repulsed  and  sometimes  capturing 
artillery  and  wagons  which  the  horses  were  too  weak  to  move 
with  any  degree  of  rapidity. 

On  the  6th  the  Appomattox  was  crossed  at  the  High  Bridge. 
On  the  morning  of  the  7th  a  sharp  attack  was  made  and  a  rush 
made  for  the  Confederate  wagon  train.  General  Gordon  turned 
on  them  and  compelled  them  to  withdraw,  capturing  some  pris- 
oners.    The  retreat  was  then  continued. 

On  the  evening  of  the  8th  Appomattox  Court  House  was 
reached.  It  was  then  an  insignificant  court-house  village.  It 
is  now  an  historic  place,  for  there,  on  the  9th  of  April,  1866, 
the  Amy  of  Northern  Virginia  ceased  to  contend  with  the  armies 

Sixth  Eegimbnt.  331 

of  the  United  States,  and  General  Lee  on  that  day  accepted  the 
ter^s  of  surrender  offered  by  Generial  Grant.  Having  men- 
tioned General  Grant's  inhumane  directions  to  General  Sheridan 
in  the  fall  of  1864  to  devastate  the  Valley,  it  is  a  pleasure  now 
to  note  that  the  terms  of  surrender  were  generous;  and  he  is  to 
be  commended,  in  that  afterwards,  when  blood-thirsty  civilians 
were  disposed  to  disregard  them,  he  insisted  that  his  Government 
should  comply  with  them,  and  used  his  power  and  influence  to 
that  end. 

A  flag  of  truce  appeared  on  Gordon's  line.  General  Lee 
was  seen  riding  back  to  the  village,  and  it  was  soon  known 
all  along  the  line  that  the  army  was  to  be  surrendered.  When 
General  Lee  returned  from  his  interview  with  General  Grant, 
the  lines  of  battle  broke  and  the  men  crowded  up  around 
him,  anxious  to  take  him  by  the  hand.  Many  attempts  have 
been  made  to  describe  the  great  soldier's  final  farewell  to  his 
troops  as,  overpowered  by  his  feelings,  he  sobbed:  " Men,  loe  have 
fought  through  the  war  together — /  have  done  the  best  I  could  for 
you,"  and  sadly  rode  away.  The  emotions  of  that  scene — a  great 
general  and  his  brave,  faithful  soldiers  weeping  farewell  to  each 
other — cannot  be  described. 

The  soldier-victors  were  generous  and  gave  rations  to  the  half- 
starved  Confederates  without  any  insulting  taunts.  Would  that 
the  same  could  be  said  of  the  political  victors  who  controlled 
affairs  at  Washington. 

The  10th  and  11th  were  occupied  in  preparing  the  lists  and 
schedules  and  other  papers  for  the  surrender,  and  on  the  morn- 
ing of  the  12th  the  troops,  the  remains  of  the  Army  of  North- 
ern Virginia,  formed  for  the  last  time.  The  artillery  was  drawn 
up  by  poor,  bony  horses  and  parked,  the  arms  were  stacked,  the 
accoutrements  deposited  and  the  battle  flags  laid  down. 

The  Sixth  Regiment  was  there,  and  of  the  perhaps  two  thou- 
sand men  whose  names  had  been  on  the  roll,  about  one  hundred 
and  forty-three  answered  to  that  final  roll-call. 

We  had  a  regimental  flag,  a  beautiful  silken  banner,  on  which 
the  sister  of  Colonel  Fisher  had  beautifully  embroidered  the  coat- 

332  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

of-arms  of  North  Carolina  and  presented  it  to  the  regiment  at 
its  organization.  It  was  highly  prized ;  it  waved  over  the  regi- 
ment at  the  capture  of  Eickett's  Battery  at  First  Manassas,  and 
over  Eickett's  Battery  and  Weidrick's  Battery  on  Cemetery 
Heights  at  Gettysburg,  July  2d,  1863.  It  was  not  always  used 
in  battle,  especially  after  battle  flags  had  been  distributed  to  the 
army.  It  was  generally  brought  out  on  parades  and  general 
reviews;  but  it  was  not  displayed  at  Appomattox.  It  was  care- 
fully preserved  and  brought  to  North  Carolina.  It  is  the  same 
that  was  shown  at  the  laying  of  the  corner-stone  of  the  Confed- 
erate Monument  at  Raleigh,  May  20,  1894. 

The  war  was  over;  the  Sixth  Eegiment  had  served  out  the 
time  for  which  it  had  enlisted. 

I  have  thus  briefly  sketched  the  principal  movements  and 
engagements  in  the  Confederate  war  in  which  the  Sixth  North 
Carolina  State  Troops  took  part.  As  an  organization  it  was  dis- 
tinguished for  its  discipline  and  soldierly  bearing.  It  was  led 
to  the  field  by  one  of  the  most  heroic  souls  that  ever  drew  blade, 
Colonel  C.  F.  Fisher,  who  was  killed  at  First  Manassas.  The 
example  he  set  in  his  short  career  was  not  lost  on  the  officers  and 
men  of  his  command.  They  were  taught  that,  when  ordered  to 
charge  a  line  or  battery  they  must  succeed,  and  that  having  taken 
a  position  it  was  to  be  held  until  they  were  ordered  to  move  from 
it.  No  politicians  held  commissions  in  this  regiment.  There 
was  no  bickering  or  scheming  for  office  or  promotion,  no  seeking 
for  newspaper  notoriety.  Their  thought  and  desire  seemed  to 
be  to  serve  the  State  that  sent  them  to  the  field  for  the  purpose 
of  sustaining  State  rights  and  constitutional  liberty. 

Nothing  has  been  written  concerning  "the  privations  of  the 
camp  or  toils  of  the  march,"  of  feet  bleeding  and  forms  shiver- 
ing for  lack  of  shoes  and  clothing,  of  how  our  men,  beginning 
at  First  Manassas,  supplied  themselves  with  improved  arms  cap- 
tured from  the  enemy,  seeking  first  to  get  a  good  rifle  and  accou- 
trements and  then  the  best  they  could  find  in  the  way  of  cloth- 
ing, hats,  shoes  and  blankets. 

But  the  soldier's  life  was  not  all  hardship  and  suffering  for 

Sixth  Regiment.  333 

duty's  sake.  It  would  be  interesting  to  tell  how  they  whiled 
away  the  hours  when  not  on  duty  by  games  and  plays,  and  even 
theatrical  performances  which  they  improvised.  Banjos,  fiddles 
and  accordeons  were  often  heard  in  camp  and  on  the  march,  and 
sometimes  on  the  line  of  battle.  Many  and  many  are  the  humor- 
ous jokes  and  anecdotes  that  originated  with  the  soldier,  and  he 
always  enjoyed  the  ludicrous  and  ridiculous  things  that  ^ere 
happening,  even  when  under  the  fire  of  the  enemy.  One  of  my 
men,  telling  what  he  saw  in  one  of  our  battles,  says:  "I  tell  you, 
Captain,  there's  a  heap  of  funny  things  happens  in  battle  if  it 
were  not  for  being  so  scared  of  getting  killed." 

Much,  too,  might  be  written  of  the  religious  life  that  many 
of  them  led.  Several  instances  occurred  within  our  command 
in  which  the  Bible  or  Testament  in  the  breast-pocket  turned  the 
ball  which  otherwise  would  probably  have  caused  a  mortal  wound. 
So,  too,  we  can  hope  that  at  religious  meetings  in  field  and  camp — 
camp-meetings,  indeed — many  a  soldier  learned  how  to  turn  the 
deadly  shafts  of  sin.  One  specially  solemn  scene  recurs  to  me 
as  I  write.  It  was  when  the  regiment  assembled  at  the  regi- 
mental headquarters.  Colonel  Pender's  tent,  to  witness  his  public 
profession  of  Christianity. 

I  have  spoken  of  it  only  as  a  regiment;  no  mention  is  made 
of  individual  acts  of  heroism  or  bravery — there  were  many ;  the 
limits  of  this  article  would  not  permit  it;  nor  is  there  any  refer- 
ence to  the  few  who  behaved  unworthily — and  I  feel  justified  in 
saying  there  were  only  a  few.  It  would  be  unreasonable  to  claim 
that,  of  the  two  thousand  men  whose  names  were  on  the  rolls, 
all  were  good  and  true. 

No  boast  is  made  for  the  regiment  that  it  did  more  than  its 
proportionate  part,  or  that  it  engaged  in  more  battles,  or  that 
it  went  further  into  the  enemy's  country,  or  that  it  lost  in 
battle  a  greater  per  cent,  of  its  men  —  a  doubtful  boast. 
Its  record  was  made  and  must  speak  for  itself.  The  only 
purpose  of  this  sketch  is  to  bring  that  record,  in  part,  before  the 
public,  that  it  may  have  in  condensed  form  what  this  regi- 
ment, in  common  with  many  others,  did  in  the  great  struggle 

334  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

which  made  the  Confederate  soldier  famous  for  all  time — a  struggle 
in  which  a  most  conspicuous  part  was  borne  by  the  North  Caro- 
lina troops,  not  the  least  among  which  was  the  Sixth  North 
Carolina  Troops. 

At  the  first  call  her  men  volunteered  for  the  war,  and  has- 
tened to  the  Northern  border  of  Virginia  to  meet  the  enemy  at 
the  forefront.  From  July,  1861,  to  the  closing  scene  at  Appo- 
mattox, they  shared  the  fortunes  of  the  Army  of  Northern  Vir- 
ginia, Their  blood,  in  common  with  thousands  of  others,  wet 
the  soil  of  Manassas  Plains  on  July  21st,  1861.  During  the  fall 
and  winter  of  that  year  they  listened  to  the  roar  of  guns  and 
whistling  of  shells  along  the  banks  of  the  Potomac. 

They  were  at  Yorktown  and  Eltham's  Landing,  Barhanis- 
ville,  at  Seven  Pines  and  Fair  Oaks,  Gaines'  Mill,  Savage  Sta- 
tion, White  Oak  Swamp,  Malvern  Hill,  Harrison's  Landing, 
Warrenton  Springs,  Thoroughfare  Gap,  Manassas  Plains  in  Au- 
gust, 1862;  at  Ox  Hill,  Boonsboro,  Sharpsburg,  Fredericks- 
burg in  December,  1862;  at  Fredericksburg  and  the  Wilderness  in 
May,  1863;  at  Winchester  in  June,  1863;  at  Gettysburg,  Hagers- 
town,  Bristow  Station,  Rappahannock  Station,  Mine  Run,  Bache- 
lor's Creek,  near  New  Bern,  N.  C;  Plymouth,  Petersburg,  Han- 
over Junction,  Totapotamoi  Creek,  Cold  Harbor,  Lynchburg, 
Martihsburg,  Monocacy,  Washington,  Winchester  in  July  and 
September,  1864;  at  Fisher's  Hill  and  Cedar  Creek,  at  Burgess's 
Mill,  and  numerous  other  skirmishings  and  fightings  from  July, 
1861,  to  November,  1864;  and  the  assault,  as  a  forlorn-hope, on 
Fort  Steadman  on  the  morning  of  the  25th  of  March,  1865,  and 
in  the  trenches  at  Petersburg,  and  on  the  retreat  to  Appomattox. 
Three  times  they  went  into  the  enemy's  territory  in  Maryland 
and  Pennsylvania,  fording  the  Potomac  six  times. 

Theirs  was  not  garrison  or  post-duty;  it  was  their  lot  to  fight 
the  enemy  in  the  field,  to  meet  him  in  his  advances,  to  check 
him  when  possible,  and  to  follow  him  back  and  fight  him 
in  his  own  country  and  in  his  own  strongholds;  to  contest  inch 
by  inch,  day  after  day,  week  after  week  and  month  after  month, 
the  enemy's  investment    and  gradual  closing  in  on  the  lines 

Sixth  Eegiment.  335 

around  Petersburg  and  Richmond ;  and  when  numbers  prevailed 
over  the  thinned  and  thinning  lines  of  the  Army  of  Northern 
Virginia,  to  fall  back  and  back  with  them,  until  finally  hemmed 
in  and  compelled  to  surrender. 

Much  of  blood  and  treasure  and  many  precious  lives  had  been 
sacrificed,  and,  as  it  has  been  said,  the  cause  was  lost;  that  is  to 
say,  the  Confederates,  numbering  all  told,  from  first  to  last,  about 
six  hundred  thousand  men,  with  very  limited  resources,  were, 
after  four  years  of  varying  success  and  disaster,  finally  over- 
powered by  armies  numbering  about  two  million  and  six  hun- 
dred thousand  men  who  had  unlimited  resources.  But  the  prin- 
ciples of  right,  of  truth  and  of  duty,  which  urged  those  men  to 
the  fray,  and  sustained  them  in  the  long-drawn  struggle,  will 
never  die. 

"  If  their  memories  part 
From  our  land  and  heart, 
'Twould  be  a  wrong  to  them,  and  a  shame  for  us." 

It  is  vain  for  any  one  to  attempt  to  brand  the  Confederate 
soldiers  or  their  leaders  as  traitors  or  to  write  them  down  as 
rebels.  So-called  statesmen — men  of  place  and  power,  in  the 
smallness  of  their  souls — may  speak  of  them  as  such ;  demagogic 
politicians  may  roll  such  words  under  their  tongues,  the  Govern- 
ment may  provide  a  place  to  keep  the  "  Rebellion  Records,"  and 
statisticians  may  compile  therefrom,  monuments  may  dot  those 
battlefields  of  "  the  rebellion  "  on  which  the  "  rebels "  were 
defeated,  but  such  efforts  cannot  succeed.  The  words  "  traitor  " 
and  "  rebel "  lose  all  their  repulsiveness  when  applied  to  Lee 
and  Jackson,  or  when  coupled  with  the  Confederate  soldiers. 
Theirs  was  an  heroic  struggle  for  rights  which  the  fathers 
contemplated  and  guarded  when  they  declined  to  ratify  or  adopt 
the  Constitution  until  it  had  been  amended  so  as  to  expressly 
reserve  "  to  the  States  respectively  or  to  the  people  "  "powers  not 
delegated,"  as  also  "powers  not  prohibited  "  by  it.  For  such  rights 
they  had,  on  the  hustings  and  in  the  halls  of  CougresSj  urged 
their  plea,  supported  by  unanswerable  arguments  based  on  the 

336  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Constitution  and  on  the  principles  that  underlie  true  republican 
government.  But  they  were  overruled  by  a  majority  of  those 
who  had  sworn  to  support  the  Constitution,  and  further  encroach- 
ments on  their  chartered  rights  were  imminent,  and,  as  a  last 
resort,  an  appeal  was  made  to  arms.  In  that,  as  we  have  seen, 
Might,  backed  by  overwhelming  numbers,  prevailed.  The  Con- 
federate soldier  surrendered.  His  case  is  before  the  world. 
The  rights  which  were  guaranteed  us,  and  the  wrongs  which 
drove  us  to  war,  have  all  been  written  down  and  published ; 
his  heroism  and  his  bravery,  his  courage  and  his  devotion  to  his 
country,  his  State  and  his  people,  are  all  recorded  in  his  deeds  in 
four  years  of  war;  and,  none  the  less,. in  his  submission  after- 
terwards  to  laws  that  were  forced  upon  us  to  humiliate  us. 
His  rights,  his  wrongs,  his  appeals  to  law  and  law-makers,  and 
their  denial  of  his  rights,  his  final  appeal  to  arms,  his  struggle, 
his  defeat  and  his  submission  to  power  make  up  his  case.  He 
dreads  not  the  scrutiny  of  candid  historians  or  searchers  after 
truth,  nor  does  he  fear  the  world's  judgment  on  his  record. 

Neill  W.  E,ay. 

Faybtteville,  N.  C. 


1.    B.  F.  White,  Captain,  Co.  F.  4.    W.  G.  Tiirnei-,  2d  Lieat,  Co.  E. 

S.    Benj  Ruel.  Smith,  Captain,  Co.  G.  5.    William  Preston  Mangum,  2d  Lieut., 

3.    N.  W.  Ray,  Captain,  Co.  D.  co.  B. 

6.    George  W.  Houck,  Private,  Co.  D. 


By  major  a.  C.  AVERY. 


Wheu  Lincoln  issued  his  proclamation  calling  on  the  State  of 
North  Carolina  to  furnish  troops  to  suppress  the  so-called  insur- 
rection in  her  sister  States  of  the  South,  our  people  with  one 
mind  united  in  the  determination  to  stand  by  our  South- 
ern brethren  rather  than  aid  an  invading  foe,  though  marching 
under  the  flag  of  the  nation.  So  soon  as  the  tocsin  of  war  was 
sounded  the  companies  of  the  State  militia,  already  organized 
and  drilled,  were  rushed  into  the  forts  on  our  coast,  till  then  garri- 
soned by  a  single  non-commissioned  officer  quartered  in  each  of 
the  three.  The  first  regiment  organized  was  the  First  Volunteer 
or  "  Bethel"  Regiment.  The  men  were  allowed  to  enlist  for  six 
months.  After  that  a  number  of  other  regiments  were  formed 
of  men  enlisted  for  twelve  months. 

Meantime  the  Legislature  had  met  in  extra  session  and  had 
called  a  convention  of  the  people  to  meet  in  May.  Colonel 
Charles  F.  Fisher  and  others — men  of  broad  views  and  cool 
heads — thinking  that  they  foresaw  a  protracted  and  bloody 
struggle,  prevailed  upon  the  Legislature  to  pass  a  bill  author- 
izing the  formation  of  ten  regiments  of  men  enlisted  for  three 
years  or  the  war,  and  empowered  the  Governor  to  appoint  the 
regimental  staff  and  company  officers.  Colonel  Fisher  was  se- 
lected by  Governor  Ellis  as  Colonel  of  the  Sixth,  and  began 
with  characteristic  energy  to  select  men  to  aid  him  in  recruiting 
ten  companies. 

After  the  Democrats  had  acquired  control  of  the  State,  he  had 

338  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

been  elected  President  of  the  North  Carolina  Railroad  Company, 
Partisan  spirit  ran  high,  and  for  years,  though  one  of  the  most 
competent,  honoi;able  and  successful  railroad  presidents  in  the 
country.  Colonel  Fisher  was  bitterly  abused  and  denounced.  He 
met  denunciation  in  one  or  two  instances,  as  Southern  men  of 
that  day  often  did,  by  challenging  the  author  to  mortal  combat, 
and  posting  him  as  a  coward  when  he  declined  to  make  amends. 
He  was  one  of  the  most  amiable  of  men,  and,  though  quiet  and 
undemonstrative,  was  affectionate  to  family  and  friends,  and  full 
of  sympathy  for  suffering — the  last  man  one  would  have  thought 
liable  to  yield  to  this  imperious  custom  of  the  times.  With  a 
grim  determination  to  devote  life  and  fortune  to  the  cause  he 
had  espoused  came  the  resolve  to  demand  an  investigation  and 
settlement  running  through  his  entire  administration  of  the  af- 
fairs of  the  railroad  company  before  leading  his  regiijnent  to  the 
scene  of  approaching  conflicts.  Consequently,  after  some  of  the 
companies  were  drilled  for  a  time  at  Charlotte,  all  of  them  were 
brought  together,  organized  and  drilled  as  a  regiment  at  Com- 
pany Shops,  now  Burlington.  Honorable  W.  T.  Dortch  was 
first  appointed  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Charles  E.  Lightfoot,  a 
Virginian,  who  had  been  a  teacher  at  Tew's  Military  Academy 
at  Hillsboro,  was  commissioned  as  Major.  Major  Lightfoot 
devoted  himself  to  drilling  the  regiment  while  it  was  at  Com- 
pany Shops.  Colonel  Fisher  worked  day  and  night,  and  divided 
his  time  between  providing  uniforms  and  equipments  for  his 
men,  advancing  out  of  his  own  means  the  money  needed  for  the 
purpose,  and  reviewing,  with  a  committee  of  directors,  of  which 
Mr.  Edwin  Holt  was  chairman,  the  railroad  accounts  during  his 
administration  of  the  affairs  of  the  company. 

As  the  result  of  his  restless  energy,  liberality  and  capacity  for 
organization,  the  Sixth  was  the  first  of  the  ten  war  regiments 
ready  for  the  field.  Before  it  was  fully  equipped  he  was  heard 
often  to  say,  in  response  to  some  expression  of  fear  by  the  young 
officers  that  they  would  be  too  late  to  participate  in  the  struggle, 
that  our  people  ought  to  be  educated  up  to  the  idea  of  fighting 
long  and  desperately.     He  had  graduated  at  Yale,  knew  the 

Sixth  Regiment.  339 

Yankee  character,  and  realized,  as  few  of  our  leading  men  did, 
the  incalculable  advantage  of  having  a  navy  sufficient  to  block- 
ade our  ports,  and  opportunity  not  6nly  to  ^manufacture  war 
supplies  in  the  immense  establishments  in  the  Eastern  States, 
but  to  bring  them  without  hindrance  from  abroad. 

On  the  day  that  Colonel  Fisher  reported  his  regiment  ready 
to  go  to  the  front,  our  first  war  Governor,  John  W.  Ellis,  died, 
and  the  regiment  commanded  by  his  friend  and  townsman  was 
taken  to  Raleigh  to  act  as  funeral  escort.  Honorable  Henry  T. 
Clark,  being  Speaker  of  the  Senate,  was  ioaugurated  as  Gov- 
ernor, and  W.  T.  Dortch,  being  the  Speaker  of  the  House  of 
Commons,  and  next  in  the  line  of  succession  to  Governor  Clark, 
was  induced  to  resign.  Major  Lightfoot  became  Lieutenant- 
Colonel,  and  Captain  R.  F.  Webb,  senior  Captain,  was  commis- 
sioned Major. 

From  Raleigh  the  regiment  was  sent  to  Richmond,  where  it 
was  reviewed  by  President  Davis,  accompanied  by  General  R. 
E.  Lee,  and  ordered  on  the  same  day  to  embark  on  the  train 
for  Winchester,  where  Joseph  E.  Johnston  was  in  command — 
with  Jackson,  Kirby  Smith  and  Bee  as  subordinates.  The 
regiment  left  Richmond  with  rations  for  a  day  only,  and  failed 
to  get  supplies  in  passing  Manassas.  Consequently  at  Strasburg 
and  on  the  first  march  thence  to  Winchester  the  men  for  the 
first  time  had  a  foretaste  of  the  privations  in  store  for  them 
during  the  years  that  were  to  follow.  Except  the  two  mountain 
companies  (D  and  E),  the  men  were  without  food  from  the  time 
they  reached  Strasburg  till  the  second  morning  after,  when  they 
had  taken  their  place  in  the  line  north  of  Winchester.  The 
regiment  was  assigned  to  Bee's  Brigade,  composed  then  of  the 
Second  and  Eleventh  Mississippi,  the  Fourth  Alabama  and  the 
First  Tennessee  Regiments.  The  names  of  the  officers  are  given  in 
Volume  I,  page  1 97,  of  the  "Roster  of  North  Carolina  Troops,"  and 
need  not  be  inserted  here.  Colonel  Fisher  had  R.  M.  McKinney 
commissioned  Captain  of  Company  A,  and  the  writer  of  this 
First  Lieutenant,  but  Captain  McKinney  was  elected  Colonel  of 
the  Fifteenth  North  Carolina  Regiment  before  a  vacancy  occurred 

340  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

amongst  the  field  officers,  and  the  writer  exchanged  with  Lieu- 
tenant Samuel  S.  Kirkland  and  took  the  same  position  in  Com- 
pany E,  in  order  to  satisfy  the  men  recruited  by  him. 

On  the  second  morning  after  the  regiment  arrived  at  Win- 
chester drums  began  to  beat,  brigade  after  brigade  fell  into  line 
and  marched  into  the  town  of  Winchester.  All  day  we  could 
bear  the  terrific  old  rebel  yell  as  the  men  passed  through  the  open 
field  beyond  the  town ;  but  it  was  not  till  near  night  that  we 
moved  under  orders  to  the  same  point,  and  were  halted  to  hear 
for  the  first  time  a  battle  order,  full  of  the  Napoleonic  ring. 
General  Johnston  announced,  by  having  this  order  read  to  each 
regiment  as  it  passed,  that  the  President  had  called  upon  him  to 
make  a  forced  march  to  re-inforce  General  Beauregard  at  Ma- 
nassas, and  save  the  country.  The  men  forgot  for  the  time  the 
pangs  of  hunger  and  the  sting  of  blistered  feet,  and  moved  off 
as  if  willing  to  run  to  the  relief  of  their  threatened  comrades. 
The  raw  recruit  never  forgets,  though  he  may  not  be  able  to  de- 
scribe, the  suffering  endured  in  undergoing,  the  tortures  of  such 
a  hardening  process,  so  soon  after  enjoying  the  ease  and  luxury 
of  home-life.  It  is  the  first  test  of  his  powers  of  physical  en- 
durance, his  strength  of  will  and  of  constitution.  After  such 
an  experience  comes  the  camp  fevers,  invited  by  the  depleted 
condition  of  the  system,  and  then  is  witnessed  in  a  physical 
sense  the  survival  of  the  fittest.  The  regiment  arrived  at  Pied- 
mont Station  a  short  time  before  daylight,  and  the  men  fell  rather 
than  laid  down  amongst  the  thickly  stacked  shocks  of  a  wheat 
field  just  harvested.  We  had  not  then  begun  to  practice  the 
apostolic  plan  of  rubbing  out  the  wheat  for  food,  but  some  of 
us  stretched  on  a  hill-side  upon  shocks  used  as  beds,  covering 
head  and  all,  and  found  in  the  morning  that  a  heavy  rain  had 
washed  out  trenches  under  us  and  between  the  bundles. 

on   to   MANASSAS. 

The  regiment  had  marched  near  the  rear  of  the  column  and  had 
separated  from  Bee's  other  regiments,  and,  as  we  rested  in  the  field, 
it  seemed  for  a  time  that  we  would  be  the  last  to  embark  on  the 

Sixth  Regiment.  341 

train  from  Piedmont  Station  for  the  scene  of  conflict.  In  vol- 
unteering to  render  an  important  service,  Colonel  Fisher  won  for 
his  regiment  the  right  to  a  place  in  advance  of  Kirby  Smith's 
Brigade,  and  the  opportunity,  which  proved  fatal  to  him,  to  take 
part  in  the  iirst  great  battle  of  the  civil  war.  It  was  reported 
to  him  that  a  train  had  been  derailed,  a  portion  of  it  wrecked, 
and  that  the  movements  of  the  remaining  regiments  wouJd  be 
greatly  delayed.  He  sought  the  senior  officer  and  told  him  that 
he  himself  was  a  railroad  president  and  a  railroad  contractor, 
and  had  in  his  command  civil  engineers  and  enlisted  men  who 
had  been  employed  in  track-laying  and  section  work.  As  a 
reward  for  hurriedly  putting  the  track  in  order,  the  Sixth  em- 
barked on  the  next  train  that  left  for  Manassas. 

The  first  Confederate  troops  that  opposed  McDowell's  flank- 
ing column,  after  it  crossed  Bull  Run  on  the  left  of  our  line, 
was  the  command  of  Colonel  Evans,  composed  of  eleven  com- 
panies of  infantry  and  two  field  pieces,  stationed  in  the  woods, 
near  the  intersection  of  the  Warrenton  turnpike  and  the  Sedley 
road.  (See  report  of  General  Johnston,  "Official  Records,"  Series 
I,  Volume  XT,  page  474).  "  Here  (says  the  report  referred  to) 
he  (Evans)  was  attacked  by  the  enemy  in  immensely  superior 
numbers,  against  which  he  maintained  himself  with  skill  and 
unshrinking  courage.  General  Bee,  moving  toward  the  enemy, 
guided  by  the  firing,  with  a  soldier's  eye  selected  the  position 
near  the  Henry  house  and  formed  his  troops  upon  it.  They 
were  the  Seventh  and  Eighth  Georgia,  Fourth  Alabama,  Second 
Mississippi,  and  two  companies  of  the  Eleventh  Mississippi, 
with  Iraboden's  Battery.  Being  compelled,  however,  to  sustain 
Colonel  Evans,  he  crossed  the  valley  and  formed  on  the  right 
and  somewhat  in  advance  of  his  position.  Here  the  joint  forces, 
little  exceeding  five  regiments,  with  six  field  pieces,  held  the 
ground  against  about  fifteen  thousand  United  States  troops  for 
about  an  hour,  until,  finding  themselves  outflanked  by  the  con- 
tinually arriving  troops  of  the  enemy,  they  fell  back  to  General 
Bee's  first  position,  upon  the  line  of  which  Jackson,  just  ar- 
riving, formed  his  brigade  at  Stanard's  Battery.     Colonel  Hamp- 

342  NoETH  Caeolina  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

ton,  who  had  by  this  time  advanced  with  his  legion  as  far  as  the 
turnpike,  rendered  efficient  aid  in  maintaining  the  orderly  char- 
acter of  the  retreat  from  that  point,  and  here  fell  the  gallant 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Johnson,  his  second  in  command.     *     * 

"Orders  were  dispatched  to  hasten  the  march  of  General  Holmes, 
Colonel  Early  and  General  Bonham's  regiments.  *  *  * 
Many  of  the  broken  troops,  fragments  of  companies  and  indi- 
vidual stragglers  were  reformed  and  brought  into  action  with  the 
aid  of  my  staff  and  a  portion  of  General  Beauregard's.  Colonel 
(late  Governor)  Smith  with  his  battalion  and  Colonel  Hinton 
with  his  regiment  were  ordered  up  to  re-inforce  the  right.  *  * 
*  *  Colonel  Smith's  cheerful  courage  had  a  fine  influence,  not 
only  upon  the  spirit  of  our  men,  but  upon  the  stragglers  of  the 
troops  engaged.  *  *  *  '^y  headquarters  were  now  estab- 
lished at  the  Lewis  house." 

Up  to  this  time  the  Sixth  North  Carolina  Regiment,  having 
been  detached  and  left  behind  the  rest  of  Bee's  command,  which 
was  now  increased  by  the  addition  ofBartow's  and  another  Georgia 
regiment,  had  not  arrived  on  the  field.  Attention  is  here  called 
to  the  fact  that  General  Johnston  reports  Colonel  (late  Governor) 
Smith's  Battalion  in  action  while  he  was  in  the  field,  and  before 
he  established  his  headquarters  at  the  Lewis  house.  General 
Johnston's  report  of  the  movements  of  Colonel  Smith,  and  of  the 
time  when  he  engaged  the  enemy  is  quoted  from  to  show,  in 
connection  with  other  undisputed  facts,  that  the  gallant  old  soldier 
was  mistaken  when  he  made  certain  charges  against  the  Sixth, 
which  are  alluded  to  by  Professor  Hill  in  his  history  of  North 
Carolina  troops  recently  published.  I  shall  rely  on  the  foregoing 
report  of  General  Johnston,  General  Beauregard's  and  Colonel 
Smith's  own  report,  made  when  the  smoke  of  the  battle  had  just 
passed  away,  to  disprove  his  statement  made  from  memory  years 
afterward?,  and  published  in  the  Century  Magazine. 

It  was  not  until  about  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  that  Colonel 
Fisher  reported  with  his  regiment  at  the  Lewis  house,  after  Gen- 
eral Johnston  had  left  Colonel  Smith  upon  the  field  and  estab- 
lished his  headquarters  there.     Colonel  Fisher  halted  his  regi- 

Sixth  Regiment.  343 

ment  in  a  road  running  along  a  line  of  fence  under  the  hill  from 
the  Lewis  house,  and  had  his  horse  crippled  so  as  to  force  him 
to  dismount  in  going  up  the  hill  or  returning  from  the  Lewis 
house,  where  he  reported  for  orders. 

In  confirmation  of  the  foregoing  statement  as  to  the  time  of 
the  arrival  on  the  field,  the  following  extract  from  General 
Johnston's  report  (at  page  476)  is  relied  on : 

"About  two  o'clock  an  officer  of  General  Beauregard's  Adju- 
tant-General's office  galloped  from  Manassas  to  report  that  a 
United  States  army  had  reached  the  line  of  the  Manassas  Gap 
Railroad,  was  marching  towards  us,  and  was  then  but  three  miles 
from  our  left  flank.  *  *  *  Within  a  half-hour  the  two 
regiments  of  General  Bonham's  Brigade  (Capp's  and  Kershaw's) 
came  up  and  were  directed  against  the  enemy's  right,  which  he 
seemed  to  be  strengthening.  Fisher's  North  Carolina  regiment 
was  soon  after  sent  in  the  same  direction.  About  three  o'clock, 
while  the  enemy  seemed  to  be  striving  to  outflank  and  drive 
back  our  left,  and  thus  separate  us  from  Manassas,  General  E.  K. 
Smith  arrived  with  three  regiments  of  Elzey's  Brigade.  He  was 
instructed  to  attack  the  right  flank  of  the  enemy,  now  exposed  to 
us.  Before  the  movement  was  completed  he  fell  severely 
wounded.  Colonel  Elzey,  at  once  taking  command,  executed  it 
with  great  promptitude  and  vigor.  General  Beauregard  rapidly 
seized  the  opportunity  affijrded  him,  and  threw  forward  his  whole 
line.  The  enemy  was  driven  back  from  the  long  contested  hill, 
and  victory  was  no  longer  doubtful." 

The  time  of  Fisher's  arrival  on  the  battlefield  is  therefore  fixed 
at  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon.  The  regiment  advanced  from  a 
point  a  few  hundred  yards  to  the  left  of  the  Lewis  house.  Col- 
onel Fisher  had  reconnoitered  in  our  front  and  his  evident  pur- 
pose was  to  lead  us  by  the  flank  up  a  deep  ravine,  which  could 
not  be  seen  on  account  of  intervening  woods,  by  Rickett,  who 
was  in  command  of  a  section  of  Sherman's  Battery,  or  by  the 
Brooklyn  Zouaves,  who  were  supporting  it,  and  who  were  sta- 
tioned on  the  hill  above  the  upper  end  of  the  ravine.  The  regi- 
ment moved  up  this  ravine  by  the  flank.     When  the  column 

344  NoBTH  Carolina  Tkoops,  1861-'65. 

reached  a  point  near  the  upper  end  of  the  ravine,  however,  the 
enemy  on  the  hill  discovered  its  approach  and  opened  with  shrap- 
nel from  the  field  pieces  which  had  previously  been  shelling  the 
hill  near  the  Lewis  house,  but  they  were  unable  to  depress  their 
guns  so  as  to  reach  us  with  the  shrapnel,  even  after  the  regiment 
moved  out  of  the  gulley.  Instead  of  moving  forward  into  line 
all  of  the  rear  companies,  a  movement  that  might  have  been 
contemplated  by  Colonel  Fisher  but  for  the  fire  of  the  enemy, 
the  men  in  front  filed  to  the  right  and  those  nearer  the  center, 
including  most  of  seven  companies,  moved  forward  into  line 
without  orders  through  a  piece  of  woods  till  they  came  into 
an  open  field  about  eighty  yards  from  the  guns  and  the  sup- 
porting line.  Three  companies  (A,  C  and  D),  with  a  portion  of 
a  third  company,  with  whom  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lightfoot  re- 
mained, did  not  go  into  action,  being  cut  oif  in  the  rear  (see  Cap- 
tain White's  diary).  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lightfoot  took  offense  be- 
cause Colonel  Fisher  refused  his  request  to  allow  him  to  give  the 
commands  to  the  regiment  about  the  time  it  advanced  towards  the 
enemy.  The  soldiers  delivered  a  well-aimed  and  fearfully  de- 
structive fire  into  the  line  of  the  enemy's  infantry,  but  especially 
into  the  artillerists.  After  firing  a  number  of  rounds,  every 
soldier  loading  and  firing  at  will,  the  enemy's  guns  were  silenced, 
and  but  few  muskets  were  being  fired  by  the  Zouaves.  At  this 
juncture  Colonel  Fisher  was  standing  near  Captain  Isaac  E. 
Avery,  who  was  commanding  the  color  company,  when  Captain 
Avery  said  to  Colonel  Fisher:  "Colonel,  don't  you  thiqk  we 
ought  to  charge?"  Colonel  Fisher's  reply  was  "Yes,  Captain," 
and  addressing  the  men,  "  Charge ! "  Most  of  us  charged  straight 
up  the  face  of  the  hill  towards  the  field  pieces,  but  Colonel 
Fisher,  after  giving  this  command,  his  last  utterance,  advanced 
obliquely  towards  the  left,  having  discovered  evidently  at  this 
early  stage  a  reserve  line  of  the  enemy  in  the  woods  to  the  right 
and  rear  of  the  battery.  In  the  rush  his  movements  were  unob- 
served and  his  body  was  found  far  in  advance' of  the  point  reached 
by  any  one  on  the  left  of  our  line,  except  Sergeant  Hannah,  of 

Sixth  Regiment.  345 

Company  A,  who  evidently  advanced  with  him  and  fell  by  his 

When  we  reached  Rickett's  guns  we  found  every  horse  killed 
and  the  ground  covered  with  the  bodies  of  the  dead  and  wounded 
artillerists,  and  of  the  Brooklyn  Zouaves,  who  were  distinguished 
by  their  loose  red  pants.  The  writer  distinctly  recalls  the  fact 
that  he  saw  upon  the  hill  after  the  charge  Major  "Webb,  Lieuten- 
ant (afterwards  Captain)  White,  Captain  Avery  and  his  Lieu- 
tenants, Burns  and  McPherson,  Captain  (afterwards  Colonel) 
Craige,  Lieutenants  Smith  and  Roseboro,  Captain  Parrish,  Lieu- 
tenant Lockhart,  and  more  distinctly  his  old  college  friend,  Lieu- 
tenant Willie  P.  Mangum,  who  about  five  minutes  later  received 
a  wound  in  the  side  which  proved  fatal. 

The  men  fought  as  brave  Southern  men,  who  had  been  drilled 
but  a  few  weeks,  would  be  expected  to  fight.  They  failed  to 
keep  a  perfect  alignment  in  distinct  companies.  The  fact  is  re- 
called that  Lieutenant  Mangum,  whose  company  (Bj  was  next 
in  line  to  his  (E),  remarked  to  the  writer  that  he  was  tired,  and 
sat  down  beside  or  under  the  shadow  of  one  of  the  deserted  guns. 
About  the  same  time  Corporal  Henry  McGee,  of  Company  E, 
was  seen  running  down  through  the  open  field  directly  in  rear  of 
the  guns,  evidently  shooting  at  some  retreating  Zouaves,  when, 
after  being  called  back,  he  reached  the  guns,  he  asked  an  officer 
where  his  brother  was,  and,  on  being  told  that  he  was  near  by, 
said  :  "  If  he  had  run  like  some  of  the  skulkers,  I  would  have 
felt  like  killing  him." 

After  the  regiment  had  driven  back  the  supports  and  captured 
the  guns,  a  fire  was  opened  on  the  men  from  the  woods  on  the 
right  and  rear  of  the  battery  by  soldiers  dressed  in  gray  uniform, 
and  our  men  began  to  return  the  fire  with  spirit.  At  this  junc- 
ture a  number  of  the  officers  ordered  the  men  to  cease  firing, 
telling  them  that  they  were  firing  on  their  friends,  and  called  to 
the  soldiers  in  the  woods  to  cease  firing;  but  the  firing  became 
heavier,  and  when  no  longer  allowed  to  return  it,  the  soldiers  of 
the  Sixth  fell  back  and  reformed  in  the  open  field  from  which 
Colonel  Fisher  had  led  them  into  the  ravine.     Here  they  missed 

346  NoKTH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

their  brave  Colonel,  *and  after  they  had  reformed  they  were 
joined  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lightfoot,  who  assumed  command, 
and  was  ordered  to  move  further  to  the  left.  We  occupied  our 
place  in  line  in  time  to  see  the  advance  of  Kirby  Smith  and  Early 
on  the  left,  and  to  observe  from  the  hill  the  wavering  of  the 
Federal  army  as  its  line  receded  for  a  while  in  a  series  of  curves, 
and  finally  broke  and  stampeded  towards  Center ville.  We  saw 
President  Davis  ride  up  to  the  lines  and  heard  him  speak,  and 
then  we  moved  forward  till  we  were  halted,  at  dark  or  afterward, 
in  the  midst  of  the  knapsacks  and  guns  strewn  along  the  line  of 

For  many  years  the  writer  shared  in  the  opinion  generally 
entertained  by  the  soldiers  of  the  Sixth,  who  participated  in  the 
fight,  that  the  men  who  fired  upon  us,  and  caused  us  to  fall  back, 
were  Confederates ;  but  the  story  was  not  credited  by  the  general 
officers,  who  could  locate  none  of  our  troops  in  the  skirt  of  woods 
referred  to,  and  the  rfegimental  officers  and  men  received  no 
sympathy  or  assistance  from  Colonel  Lightfoot,  who  had  refused 
to  follow  Colonel  Fisher  in  a  fit  of  jealousy,  and  did  not  pretend 
to  claim  for  the  regiment  the  credit  it  deserved.  It  was  because 
of  the  general  criticism  of  his  conduct  that  Governor  Clark 
appointed  Colonel  W.  D.  Pender  (afterwards  Major- General)  to 
succeed  Colonel  Fisher.  When  General  Sherman  wrote  his 
memoirs  it  appeared  from  his  report  that  a  Massachusetts  regi- 
ment in  his  brigade  wore  a  gray  uniform,  and  were  mistaken  by 
Confederates  for  their  own  men.  He  describes  their  position  as 
that  of  the  soldiers  who  occupied  the  woods  to  the  left  and  front 
of  the  Sixth.  The  account  given  by  General  Sherman  is  the 
solution  of  what  before  had  seemed  an  inexplicable  mystery. 
We  were  fired  upon  by  a  regiment  of  the  enemy,  and  not  by 

GOVERNOR   smith's   MISTAKE. 

Governor  Smith  went  into  the  field  as  Colonel  of  the  Forty- 
ninth  Virginia,  and  no  politician  who  entered  the  Confederate 
service  won  or  deserved  to  win,  from  first  to  last,  a  better  reputa- 

Sixth  Regiment.  347 

tion  for  gallantry  than  he.  He  drew  General  D.  H.  Hill  to 
him  at  Seven  Pines  by  giving  a  unique  evidence  of  his  coolness — 
going  into  action  at  the  head  of  his  brigade  with  a  large 
umbrella  hoisted  to  protect  him  from  the  sun.  With  this  preface, 
the  writer  proposes  to  prove  by  reports  of  Generals  Beauregard, 
Johnston,  and  of  Colonel  Smith  himself,  that  he  shamefully  mis- 
represented the  Sixth  Regiment  in  charging  it  with  bad  conduct 
at  Manassas. 

We  have  seen  that  General  Johnston  reported  the  Sixth  as 
going  into  battle  after  two  o'clock,  and  after  he  had  left  Colonel 
Smith  engaging  the  enemy,  and  had  gone  to  the  Lewis  house. 
General  Beauregard  in  his  report  (Official  Records,  Series  I, 
Vol.  II,  pages  492  and  493)  speaks  of  the  line  of  battle  as 
formed  on  the  right  by  Bee,  Evans  and  Jackson's  Brigades 
(with  artillery  etc.)  and  "on  the  left  by  Gartrell's  reduced  ranks 
and  Colonel  Smith's  Battalion,  subsequently  re-inforoed  by  Falk- 
ner's  Second  Mississippi  Regiment  of  the  Army  of  the  Shenandoah, 
just  arrived  upon  the  field,  and  the  Sixth  (Fisher's)  North  Caro- 

It  will  not  be  questioned  that  General  Beauregard  knew  what 
regiments  "subsequently  re-inforced  "  Colonel  Smith's  Battalion, 
as  he  said  he  did,  and  his  account  of  the  time  of  arrival  of  the 
Sixth  and  its  going  into  action  is  corroborated  by  the  extracts 
from  General  Johnston's  report  already  given. 

What  did  Colonel  Smith  report  to  General  Beauregard  only 
ten  days  after  the  battle  as  to  the  conduct  of  the  regiments  sent 
to  re-inforce  him?  On  pages  155  and  552  of  the  volume  con- 
taining Beauregard's  report,  already  referred  to,  we  find  Colonel 
Smith's  report,  and  on  page  552,  after  mentioning  the  advance 
of  a  heavy  column  of  the  enemy  that  was  about  lo  turn  his  left 
flank,  he  said : 

"At  this  critical  moment  two  regiments  came  up,  posted  them- 
selves on  my  left,  protected  my  flank,  and  opened  upon  the 
enemy  at  a  distance  of  about  eighty  yards  with  admirable  effect. 
I  do  not  know  the  names  of  these  regiments  nor  'of  their  command- 
ing officers,  and  have  to  regret  it,  a^s  it  would  afford  me  pleasure  to 

348  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

name  them,  on  account  of  the  critical  and  efficient  service  rendered. 
From  some  persons  acquainted  with  those  regiments,  I  ascer- 
tained that  one  was  from  Mississippi,  and  I  have  an  impression 
that  the  other  was  frcm,  North  Carolina." 

Governor  Smith's  report,  made  ten  days  after  the  battle,  con- 
curs with  the  report  of  Beauregard  and  Johnston,  and  with  the 
account  given  above  by  the  writer,  as  to  the  time  and  place,  and 
as  to  distance  of  the  enemy  from  the  Sixth  Eegiment.  In 
further  corroboration  of  the  claim  that  General  Beauregard  was 
not  mistaken  as  to  the  identity  of  the  regiment  which  rendered 
Colonel  Smith  such  signal  service,  it  may  be  stated  that  the 
Sixth  was  the  only  North  Carolina  regiment  engaged  or  sta- 
tioned on  the  part  of  the  line  referred  to.  The  Fifth  and 
Twenty-first  were  the  only  other  North  Carolina  regiments  in 
Northern  Virginia,  and  they  were  stationed  on  Bull  Run,  on  the 
right  of  the  line — some  distance  from  the  hill  in  front  of  the 
Lewis  house.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  attention  of  the  old 
hero  was  not  called  to  the  cruel  wrong  he  had  done  at  a  later 
date  to  the  comrades  whom  he  wished  in  1861  to  thank  and  to 
honor  for  saving  him  from  retreat  or  ruin. 

If  further  evidence  is  needed  to  prove,  not  only  that  Fisher's 
regiment  was  not  stampeded,  but  that  it  rendered  service  quite 
as  important  as  that  of  Colonel  Smith's  Battalion,  it  will  be 
found  in  the  report  of  Adjutant- General  Rhett,  on  page  569  of 
the  volume  already  referred  to,  that  the  Sixth  was  among  the 
regiments  engaged  in  the  fight,  and  his  report  of  casualties,  on 
page  570,  which  shows  that  the  loss  of  the  Sixth  was  one  officer 
and  twenty-two  men  killed  and  four  officers  and  forty-six  en- 
listed men  wounded,  and  the  loss  of  the  Second  Mississippi  was 
four  officers  and  twenty-one  men  killed,  and  three  officers  and 
seventy-nine  men  wounded,  while  the  loss  of  the  Forty-ninth 
Virginia  (Colonel  Smith)  was  one  officer  and  nine  men  killed 
and  one  officer  and  twenty-nine  men  wounded.  So  it  appears 
that  both  of  the  re-inforcing  regiments  suffered  greater  loss  than 
the  regiment  they  relieved.  Of  the  four  officers  reported 
wounded,  the  writer  recalls  only  the  names  of  Lieutenant  W. 

Sixth  Eegiment.  349 

P.  Mangum,  who  afterwards  died,  and  Captain  I.  E.  Avery, 
who  received  a  flesh  wound  from  a  buckshot,  which  lodged  in 
the  calf  of  the  leg,  but  remained  with  his  company  to  the  close 
of  the  day.  The  lamented  Fisher  was  the  first  of  our  officers  to 
lay  down  his  life  in  the  struggle.  He  fell  like  Bartow,  gallantly 
leading  his  men,  and  North  Carolina  ought  to  have  imitated 
the  example  of  Georgia  in  doing  honor  to  her  brave  son  and 
perpetuating  his  fame  by  naming  one  of  its  counties  for  him. 
Mangum,  who  had  presided  over  the  United  States  Senate,  and 
had  been  prominent  as  a  presidential  candidate,  went  down  to 
his  grave  sorrowing  for  his  only  son.  Like  Webster  he  left  no 
one  to  perpetuate  his  great  and  honored  name. 

THE    OPENING    OP   THE   CAMPAIGN    OF    1862. 

The  Sixth  Regiment  spent  rather  an  uneventful  winter  a  few 
miles  above  Dumfries,  at  Camp  Fisher,  named  in  honor  of  our 
fallen  Colonel.  The  condition  of  the  Sixth  when  it  left  that 
camp  for  Fredericksburg  in  March,  1862,  was  a  vindication  of 
the  wisdom  of  Governor  Clark  in  appointing  Pender  to  succeed 
Fisher.  The  rank  and  file  shared  in  the  pride  of  Pender,  when 
on  review  at  Fredericksburg,  General  Johnston  declared  it  supe- 
rior in  drill  and  discipline  to  any  other  regiment  in  the  Army  of 
Northern  Virginia.  Pender  was  still  more  elated  at  Yorktown 
when  the  regiment  responded  to  the  alarm  signal  at  midnight 
by  forming  in  battle  array  at  the  place  assigned  it  on  the  line 
far  ahead  of  any  other  regiment  of  Smith's  Reserve  Corps. 
These  achievements  were  the  first  fruits  of  the  patient  training 
of  the  best  "all-^ound"  soldier,  in  the  writer's  opinion,  in  the 
Army  of  Northern  Virginia — excepting  only  a  few  of  our  offi- 
cers of  high  rank. 

The  march  from  Fredericksburg  to  Yorktown  would  have 
been  devoid  of  special  interest  but  for  the  terrible  mortality 
amongst  the  new  recruits,  who  were  being  stricken  down  with 
measles  every  day,  as  the  troops  moved  to  and  then  down  the 
Peninsula.  Of  forty-six  recruits  taken  to  Company  E  by  the 
writer,  more  then  twenty  fell  by  the  way-side. 

350  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 


Whiting's  Brigade  was  composed  of  the  Sixth  North  Caro- 
lina, Second  and  Eleventh  Mississippi  and  the  Fourth  Alabama 
Regiments — being  the  command  of  General  Bee  at  Manassas, 
except  the  First  Tennessee,  which  had  been  transferred  to  Hat- 
ton's  (subsequently  Archer's)  Brigade,  and  formed  a  part  of  the 
Corps  (as  it  was  called)  of  Major-General  Gustavus  W.  Smith. 
This  command  had  been  sent  hurriedly  to  re-inforce  Branch, 
near  Hanover  Junction ;  but  had  returned  and  spent  the  night 
before  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines,  or  (as  the  Federals  called  it) 
Fair  Oaks,  in  a  camp  near  Richmond. 

It  moved  to  the  junction  of  the  New  Bridge  and  Nine  Mile 
roads.  (See  General  Johnston's  report,  "War  Records,"  Series 
I,  Vol.  XI,  Part  I,  page  933 ) .  Major-Generals  Hill  and  Long- 
street  attacked  the  left  of  General  Keyes'  command  at  two  o'clock 
p.  M.  of  May  31,  1862,  after  waiting  from  early  morning, 
about  six  hours,  for  Huger  to  get  into  the  position  assigned  him 
by  Johnston's  orders.  (See  "War  Records,"  Series  I,  Vol.  XI, 
Part  I,  page  940).  Owing  to  the  peculiar  condition  of  the 
atmosphere  neither  the  fire  of  musketry  nor  of  cannon  by  Long- 
street's  and  Hill's  commands  could  be  heard  by  Smith's  Corps, 
which  was  accompanied  by  President  Davis  and  General  Joseph 
E.  Johnston.  At  length  Major  Jasper  Whiting,  of  Johnston's 
staff,  was  sent  to  the  right,  and  returning  just  before  four  o'clock 
p.  M.,  reported  that  the  battle  was  raging  on  the  right. 

The  first  regiment  put  in  motion  on  the  Confederate  left  was 
the  Sixth,  under  Pender.  He  was  ordered  tp  press  forward 
rapidly,  with  the  assurance  that  he  would  be  supported,  but  was 
led  to  believe  that  the  enemy  was  not  very  near  to  his  front. 
Hence  he  moved  into  the  dense  woods,  a  short  distance  from  us, 
by  the  flank,  until  the  head  of  the  column  reached  a  road,  when 
the  enemy's  picket  fired  into  him.  The  regiment  was  halted 
instantly  and  ordered  forward  into  line  at  double-quick.  Though 
the  movement  was  executed  in  dense  woods,  the  regiment  had,  in 

Sixth  Regimejst.  351 

a  few  seconds,  formed  a  perfect  line  along  the  road,  and  in  the 
shortest  possible  time  thereafter  Company  K,  Captain  Lea,  was 
thrown  out  as  skirmishers,  and  was  advancing  at  a  quick-step, 
followed  by  the  regiment  in  supporting  distance. 

Though  a  number  of  men  in  the  line  of  battle  were  killed 
and  wounded,  the  company  of  skirmishers  was  not  driven  back 
upon  the  main  line  until  the  regiment  reached  the  woods,  where 
a  part  of  Couch's  command  was  said  to  have  been  in  camp  near 
Fair  Oaks  Station.  The  advance  of  the  regiment  was  not,  how- 
ever, checked  for  a  moment  there,  though  wistful  eyes  were  cast 
at  the  full  haversacks  and  boiling  pots  as  it  passed  through  the 
deserted  camp  of  Couch.  Pender,  true  to  his  training,  obeyed 
orders  by  moving  straight  to  the  front,  trusting  to  his  superiors 
for  support.  The  regiment  passed  rapidly  over  the  road  leading 
to  Couch's  center  (see  Couch's  report,  "War  Records,"  Series 
I,  Vol.  XI,  Part  I,  page  880),  and  advanced  several  hundred 
yards  east  of  it,  when  a  sergeant  called  the  writer's  attention  to 
the  fact  that  several  Federal  flags  were  visible  to  our  left  and 
rear,  the  Federal  regiments  being  so  posted  that  they  could  in 
five  minutes  have  moved  rapidly  down  the  road  which  the  Sixth 
had  crossed  and  cut  it  off  from  retreat  or  support.  The  writer, 
whose  position  as  First  Lieutenant  of  the  color  company,  threw 
him  near  to  Pender,  said:  "Colonel,  there  are  three  Yankee 
flags."  Without  replying,  Colonel  Pender  said,  in  a  low  tone, 
"  Sergeant  Bason,  lower  your  flag."  Then  with  the  ringing  voice, 
which  could  always  be  heard,  and  was  always  heeded,  he  gave 
the  command,  "By  the  left  flank,  file  left,  double-quick!"  This 
was  the  only  possible  combination  of  commands  that  could  have 
saved  us  from  capture,  and  they  were  molded  into  a  single  order 
without  hesitating  for  an  instant.  But  the  danger  of  capture  or 
annihilation  was  not  over  still.  No  supporting  troops  were  in 
sight.  The  enemy's  regiments — the  head  of  Sumner's  Corps, 
which  had  crossed  the  Chickahominy,  but  had  not  yet  effected 
a  junction  with  Keyes — were  resting  in  column  by  company  to 
our  left  and  rear  in  an  open  field,  with  a  swamp  on  their  right. 
Whether  they  had  mistaken   the  Sixth   for  Federals,  or  had 

352  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

determined  to  allow  it  to  go  unchallenged  into  danger,  they  were 
without  doubt  unprepared  for  Pender's  next  movement.  When 
the  center  of  the  regiment  reached  the  road  leading  towards  Fair 
Oaks— without  halting — Pender  gave  the  command,  "By  the 
right  flank,  charge  bayonets!"  Meantime,  as  we  were  moving 
double-quick  towards  the  road,  Pender  had  said  to  his  Adjutant: 
"Go  rapidly  to  the  rear  and  hasten  the  advance  of  the  other 
regiments."  When  the  regiment  had  charged  within  about  one 
hundred  yards  of  the  enemy,  still  massed  in  column  by  company. 
Colonel  Pender  gave  the  order  to  halt  and  to  deliver  .a  fire  into 

This  well  directed  fire  threw  the  columns  of  Sumner  into  con- 
fusion and  gave  Pender  time  to  fall  back  a  short  distance  and 
form  on  the  right  of  the  Mississippi  regiments,  which  had  now 
come  up.  In  a  few  moments  the  regiment  went  forward,  with 
the  Mississippians  on  its  left,  to  a  point  within  eighty  yards  of 
the  enemy,  and  in  the  open  field.  This  position  it  held,  deliver- 
ing a  steady  fire  until  it  was  almost  dark,  and  until  the  com- 
mands of  Pettigrew,  Hatton  and  Hampton  had  made  unsuccess- 
ful attacks  on  the  enemy  posted  in  the  swamps  to  the  left  of 
Pender.  Jefferson  Davis  witnessed  the  movements  of  Pender's 
Regiment,  and  when  the  battle  was  over,  said  to  him:  "Your 
commission  as  Brigadier  bears  date  of  to-day.  I  wish  that  I 
could  give  it  to  you  upon  the  field."  Pender  afterwards  said  to 
his  friend,  General  Stephen  D.  Lee:  "I  could  have  coveted  no 
greater  honor  than  to  be  promoted  by  the  President  on  the  field 
of  battle.'" 

The  attack  on  the  left  was  not  a  success.  General  Hatton  was- 
killed.  General  Hampton  wounded,  General  Pettigrew  wounded 
and  captured,  while  the  aggregate  loss  of  the  Confederates  was 
nearly  twelve  hundred  killed  and  wounded.  The  Sixth  North 
Carolina  won  the  proud  distinction  of  being  the  first  to  engage 
the  enemy  and  the  last  to  leave  the  field. 

Sixth  Regiment.  353 

the  sixth  on  the  second  day  at  gettysburg. 

Visitors  who  pass  over  the  historic  field  of  Gettysburg  are 
impressed  with  the  accounts  by  guides  of  how  Sickles  turned  the 
tide  by  advancing  without  orders  at  a  certain  stage  of  the  battle. 
It  seems  to  be  a  well-attested,  though  not  a  well-known  fact, 
that  General  Lee  had  courteously  requested  Lieutenant-General 
A.  P.  Hill  to  consent  to  his  giving  an  order  directly  to  Pender. 
Major  Engelhard,  Pender's  Adjutant,  stated  that  just  before  he 
was  wounded  he  said:  "It  is  about  time  for  me  to  move  in 
obedience  to  General  Lee's  order."  Major  Engelhard  under- 
stood that  the  movement  was  intended  to  anticipate  and  check- 
mate the  subsequent  advance  of  Sickles.  But  the  exact  purport 
of  the  order  was  known  only  to  Pender  and  Lee,  and  was  never 
disclosed  to  another.  Well  might  Lee  say,  "I  looked  to  him  as 
the  successor  of  Jackson,"  if  he  believed  that  his  untimely  fall 
prevented  the  execution  of  plans  that,  if  carried  out,  would  have 
changed  the  result  of  the  battle  and  given  to  the  Confederacy  a 
proud  position  amongst  the  nations  of  the  earth. 

Column  after  column  of  newspapers  have  been  filled,  and  page 
upon  page  of  histories  and  romances  have  been  printed  to  prove, 
on  the  one  hand,  that  Pickett's  Division  was  entitled  to  all  the 
glory  of  the  desperate  charge  upon  the  heights  at  Gettysburg,  on 
the  third  and  last  day  of  the  fight,  or  on  the  other  hand,  that 
some  of  the  soldiers  of  the  other  twelve  States  of  the  Con- 
federacy could  be  allowed  to  divide  the  honor  with  them,  with- 
out dimming  their  deservedly  bright  record.  Those  who  have 
studied  the  field  and  fitted  the  testimony  to  the  ground  know 
full  well  that  the  point  where  Satterfield,  of  the  Fifty-fifth 
North  Carolina,  fell  was  further  to  the  front  than  the  utmost 
point  reached  by  the  most  venturous  of  Pickett's  men  by  a 
number  of  yards.  True  a  few  of  Pickett's  men  crossed  a  por- 
tion of  the  rock  wall  which  projected  in  front  of  other  parts  of 
it,  but,  after  crossing,  failed  to  keep  in  line  with  Davis'  Brigade 
and  protect  its  right  flaiik  as  it  marched  up  to  the  mouths  of 
musket  and  cannon  which  were  being  fired  from  behind  the 

354  North  Caeolina  Teoops,  1861-65. 

high  and  unbroken  rock  wall  near  the  crest  of  the  hill  and  on 
Pickett's  left. 

However  this  dispute  may  be  settled  by  future  historians, 
another  controversy,  which  has  arisen  as  to  the  honor,  not  simply 
of  crossing,  but  of  entering  and  occupying  Cemetery  Heights  on 
the  second  day,  ought  to  be  settled  without  further  delay,  by 
admitting  that  Hays'  (Louisiana)  and  Avery's  (North  Carolina) 
Brigades  are  entitled  to  share  the  glory  equally. 

Colonel  Tate  contended  that  the  Sixth  Eegiment  was  the  only 
organized  command  that  crossed  the  wall  and  occupied  the 
trenches  behind  it,  though  accompanied  by  a  small  squad  of 
Louisianians  of  Hays'  Brigade.  Colonel  H.  C.  Jones,  the  dis- 
tinguished historian  of  the  Fifty-seventh  North  Carolina,  states 
positively  that  his  command  and  the  Twenty-first,  or  the  whole 
brigade,  commanded  by  Avery,  advanced  in  an  unbroken  line 
and  drove  the  enemy  from  their  intrenchments.  The  historian 
who  contributed  the  article  on  the  Louisiana  troops  for  the  Con- 
federate history,  recently  published  under  the  editorial  super- 
vision of  General  Clement  A.  Evans,  contends,  upon  represen- 
tations of  Hays'  men,  that  they  were  the  only  organized 
command  that  occupied  the  heights,  though  a  small  squad  of  the 
North  Carolinians  joined  them. 

Captain  J.  A.  McPherson  (then  First  Lieutenant),  of  Company 
E,  Sixth  North  Carolina,  who  was  acting  as  Aid-de-camp  to 
Colonel  Avery,  gives  the  following  account  ^of  the  movements 
and  conduct  of  the  brigade: 

"Colonel  I.  E.  Avery  commanded  Hoke's  Brigade,  composed 
then  of  the  Sixth,  Twenty-first,  Twenty-seventh  (the  Fifty- 
fourth  having  been  detached  and  left  in  charge  of  the  prisoners 
captured  at  Winchester).  This  brigade  attacked  a  portion  of 
Reynold's  command  intrenched,  with  a  strong  fence  in  front  of 
the  trenches,  and  after  marching  across  an  open  wheat  field  without 
faltering,  drove  Reynolds  from  his  position  and  through  the  town 
to  the  wall  on  Cemetery  Hill.  Here  brave  Captain  J.  H.  Burns, 
of  the  Sixth,  was  killed  (in  fulfillment  of  a  wish  often  expressed) 
instantly  by  a  ball  piercing  the  brain. 

Sixth  Regiment.  355 

"The  brigade  halted  in  a  wheat  field  near  and  to  the  right  of 
the  Gulp  house,  where  it  remained  all  night  and  until  just  before 
sundown  on  the  next  day,  when  it  was  ordered  to  move  forward 
with  Hays'  Brigade  and  attack  Cemetery  Heights. 

"In  this  attack  Colonel  Avery  led  the  brigade  on  horseback, 
being  the  only  mounted  man  of  the  command,  until  he  fell  from 
his  horse  mortally  wounded  by  a  ball  which  passed  through  his 
neck  and  shoulder.  After  falling  from  his  horse  he  took  from 
his  pocket  a  pencil  and  piece  of  paper,  on  which  he  wrote  in 
indistinct  characters:  'Tell  my  father  I  fell  with  my  face  to  the 
enemy.'  *  *  His  command  moved  forward  and  scaled  the 
heights."     *     *     * 

"In  June,  1896,  I  visited  Gettysburg  in  company  with  Judge 
A.  C.  Avery,  and  located  the  place  where  Colonel  Avery  fell, 
which  was  marked  by  order  of  the  Commissioners." 


In  1890  the  writer  addressed  a  letter  to  General  Early,  asking 
■  what  troops  scaled  the  walls  on  Cemetery  Heights,  to  which  he 
received  the  following  reply  : 

"Lynchburg,  Va.,  July  11,  1890. 
"Dear  Sir: — Your  letter  of  the  4th  has  been  received,  and 
in  reply  I  have  to  inform  you  that  at  the  close  of  the  2d  of  July, 
1863,  at  Gettysburg,  both  Hoke's  Brigade,  under  the  command 
of  Colonel  Isaac  E.  Avery,  and  Hays'  Louisiana  Brigade  at- 
tacked the  enemy's  works  on  Cemetery  Hill,  and  entered  them. 
Of  course  the  Sixth  North  Carolina  Regiment  entered  the  works, 
but  it  was  along  with  the  rest  of  the  brigade.  Hays'  Brigade 
brought  oflF  four  battle  flags  and  one  hundred  prisoners  captured 
from  the  enemy.  The  conduct  of  Hoke's  Brigade,  under  Col- 
onel Avery,  was  all  that  could  be  expected  of  it,  and  the  Sixth 
North  Carolina  Regiment  behaved  well,  as  did  the  rest  of  the 
brigade.  It  was  frequently  the  case  that  the  men  and  ofBcers  of 
a  regiment,  not  being  able  to  see  what  other  troops  did,  imagined 
that  no  other  troops  were  where  they  fought.     In  the  twenty- 

356  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

seventh  volume,  second  part,  of  the  books  entitled,  '  War  of  the 
Eebellion:  Official  Records  of  the  Union  and  Confederate  Armies,' 
published  under  the  authority  of  Congress,  is  contained  my 
official  reports  of  the  campaign  in  1863,  including  the  battle  of 
Gettysburg.  As  it  may  not  be  accessible  to  you,  I  send  you  a 
copy  of  my  statement  in  regard  to  the  attack  on  Cemetery  Hill 
on  the  second  day.  This  is  all  the  information  that  I  can  give 
yon  in  regard  to  that  aifair. 

"  Very  truly  yours, 

"J.  A.  Early." 
A.  C.  Avery,  Esq. 

The  extract  sent  by  General  Early  is  as  follows,  viz. : 

"Official  Records  of  the  Union  and  Confederate  Armies,"  Vol- 
ume XXVII,  Part  II,  pages  470-'71. 

extracts    from    report   of    general   J.    A.    EARLY. 

Extract  First:  "Having  been  subsequently  informed  that  the 
attack  would  begin  at  4  o'clock  p.  M.,  I  directed  General  Gordon  ' 
to  move  his  brigade  to  the  railroad,  in  rear  of  Hays  and  Avery, 
Smith  being  left,  under  J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  to  guard  the  York  road. 
The  fire  from  the  artillery  having  been  opened  on  the  right  and 
left  at  4  o'clock,  and  continued  for  some  time,  I  was  ordered  by 
General  Ewell  to  advance  upon  Cemetery  Hill  with  my  two 
brigades  that  were  in  position  as  soon  as  General  Johnson's 
Division,  which  was  on  the  left,  should  become  engaged  at  the 
wooded  hill  on  the  left,  which  it  was  about  to  attack,  informa- 
tion being  given  us  that  the  advance  would  be  general,  and  made 
also  by  Rodes'  Division  and  Hill's  Division  on  my  right. 

"Accordingly,  as  soon  as  Johnson  became  warmly  engaged, 
which  was  a  little  before  dusk,  I  ordered  Hays  and  Avery  to 
advance  and  carry  the  works  on  the  heights  in  front.  These 
troops  advanced  in  gallant  style  to  the  attack,  passing  over  the 
bridge  in  front*of  them  under  a  heavy  artillery  fire,  and  then 
crossing  a  hollow  between  that  and  Cemetery  Hill,  and  moving 
np  this  hill  in  the  face  of  at  least  two  lines  of  infantry  posted 

Sixth  Eegiment.  357 

behind  stone  and  plank  fences ;  but  these  they  drove  back,  and 
passing  over  all  obstacles,  they  reached  the  crest  of  the  hill  and 
entered  the  enemy's  breastworks,  crossing  it,  getting  possession 
of  one  of  the  batteries.  But  no  attack  was  made  on  the  imme- 
diate right,  as  was  expected,  and  not  meeting  with  support  from 
that  quarter,  these  brigades  could  not  hold  the  positions  that  they 
had  attained,  because  a  very  heavy  force  of  the  enemy  was 
turned  against  them  from  that  part  of  the  line  which  the  divis- 
ions on  the  right  were  to  have  attacked,  and  these  two  brigades 
had,  therefore,  to  fall  back,  which  they  did  with  comparatively 
slight  loss,  considering  the  nature  of  the  ground  over  which  they 
had  passed  and  the  immense  odds  opposed  to  (hem,  and  Hays' 
Brigade  brought  off  four  stands  of  captured  colors.  At  the 
same  time  these  brigades  advanced,  Gordon's  Brigade  was  ordered 
forward  to  support  them,  and  did  advance  to  the  position  from 
which  they  had  moved,  but  M'as  halted  here  because  it  wag  ascer- 
tained that  no  advance  vvas  made  on  the  right,  and  it  was  evident 
that  the  crest  of  the  hill  could  not  be  held  by  my  two  brigades, 
supported  by.  this  one  without  any  other  assistance,  and  that  the 
attempt  would  be  attended  with  a  useless  sacrifice  of  life.  Hays' 
and  Hoke's  Brigades  were  reformed  on  the  line  previously  occu- 
pied by  them,  and  on  the  right  and  left  of  Gordon  respectively. 

"In  this  attack,  Colonel  Avery,  of  the  Sixth  North  Carolina 
Regiment,  commanding  Hoke's  Brigade,  was  mortally  wounded. 
With  this  affair  the  fighting  on  July  the  2d  terminated." 

Extract  Second  (page  473):  "The  conduct  of  my  troops  during 
the  entire  campaign,  on  the  march  as  well  as  in  action,  was  deserv- 
ing of  the  highest  commendation.  To  Brigadier  Generals  Hays 
and  Gordon  I  was  greatly  indebted  for  their  cheerful,  active  and 
intelligent  co-operation  on  all  occasions,  and  their  gallantry  in 
action  was  eminently  conspicuous.  I  had  to  regret  the  absence 
of  Brigadier  General  Hoke,  who  was  severely  wounded  in  the 
action  of  May  6th  at  Fredericksburg,  and  had  not  recovered, 
but  his  place  was  worthily  filled  by  Colonel  Avery,  of  the  Sixth 
North  Carolina  Regiment,  who  fell  mortally  wounded  while 
gallantly  leading  his  brigade  in  the  charge  on  Cemetery  Hill  at 

358  North  Cakolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Gettysburg  on  the  afternoon  of  July  the  2d.     In  his  death  the 
Confederacy  lost  a  good  and  brave  soldier." 

All  of  the  eye-witnesses  concur  in  stating  that  the  Sixth,  com- 
manded by  Major  (afterwards  Lieutenant-Colonel)  S.  McD.  Tate, 
was  gallantly  led,  and  engaged  in  a  hand-to-hand  encounter  with 
the  enemy  intrenched  behind  the  wall  on  the  heights,  in  which 
men  were  not  only  killed  by  bayonets  and  pistol  shots,  but  were 
clubbed  by  muskets  and  ramrods  of  artillerists.  A  letter  from 
W.  A.  Hal],  of  Company  K,  states  that  a  body  of  Hays'  Lou- 
isiana troops  planted  their  flag  upon  one  of  the  enemy's  guns 
on  the  heights,  and  about  the  same  time  the  color-bearer  of  the 
Sixth  was  knocked  senseless  while  planting  his  colors  on  another 
gun  in  the  Federal  line. 

Summing  up  all  of  the  evidence,  there  is  no  room  for  doubt 
that  the  North  Carolinians  commanded  by  Colonel  Avery,  one 
and  all,  covered  themselves  with  glory.  If  the  Sixth  encoun- 
tered the  line  where  it  was  strongest,  it  was  their  good  fortune 
to  find  the  opportunity  for  which  all  alike  were  asking,  to  show 
their  devotion  to  the  cause.  It  is  equally  true  that  the  veteran 
command  of  Hays,  which  had  so  often  marched,  side  by  side  to 
victory,  with  their  Carolina  friends,  did  not  falter  in  the  face  of 
the  terrible  hail  of  shot  and  shell  that  rained  upon  them  from 
Cemetery  Hill,  as  they  moved  in  an  unwavering  line  across  the 
memorable  field  to  the  harvest  of  death. 

The  Sixth  Regiment  was  on  the  left  of  the  Confederate  line, 
and  hence  was  not  in  the  thickest  of  the  third  day's  fight.  It 
enjoyed  again,  however,  proud  distinction  in  being  a  part  of  the 
only  command  that  stormed  and  occupied  any  portion  of  the 
enemy's  line  along  the  heights,  from  the  beginning  to  the  end 
of  the  three  days'  struggle. 

The  writer  has  been  provoked  to  write  an  account  of  the  con- 
duct of  the  Sixth  at  Gettysburg  by  reading  the  Louisiana  his- 
tory. He  feels  that  he  has  so  completely  answered  the  article 
of  Governor  Smith,  that  the  old  hero,  if  alive,  would  concede 
that  he  was  mistaken.  He  believes  now  that  if  the  writer  who 
claimed  a  monopoly  of  the  honor  of  storming  Cemetery  Heights 

Sixth  Regiment.  359 

for  Louisiana  will  calmly  examine  the  "War  Records"  and  listen 
to  proof  and  reason,  he  will  show  that  he  is  animated  by  the 
liberal  and  chivalrous  spirit  of  such  representatives  of  his  State 
as  Beauregard,  Hays,  Gibson  and  Nichols,  by  according  to  the 
comrades  of  Hays  equal  honor  for  the  success  achieved  under 
his  leadership. 

A.  C.  Avery. 

MORG ANTON,  N.  0., 

July  2,  1900. 


1.  Junius  L.  Hill,  Lieut. -Colonel. 

2.  A.  yi.  Sigmon,  Private,  Co.  K. 

John  Hughes,  Captain  and  Assistant 
Q.  M. 


By  captain  J.  S.  HARRIS,  Company  B, 

The  Seventh  Kegiment  North  Carolina  State  Troops  was  en- 
listed for  the  period  of  the  war,  and  organized  at  Camp  Ma- 
son, Alamance  county,  during  the  month  of  August,  1861. 

Reuben  P.  Campbell,  of  Iredell  county,  was  the  Colonel; 
Ed.  Graham  Haywood,  of  "VVake  county,  Lieutenant-Colonel ; 
E.  D.  Hall,  of  New  Hanover  county.  Major ;  First  Lieutenant 
John  E.Brown,  Company  D,  Adjutant ;  Dr.  Wesley  M.  Camp- 
bell, of  Iredell,  Regimental  Surgeon,  and  Dr.  W.  E.  White,  of 
Mecklenburg  county,  was  the  Assistant  Surgeon,  all  to  take 
rank  from  the  16th  of  May,  1861.  Neither  Commissary  nor 
Quartermaster  was  assigned  the  regiment  at  first,  though  officers 
were  temporarily  detailed  for  duty  in  these  departments. 

The  regiment'  was  coniposed  of  the  following  ten  companies, 
to-wit  : 

Company  A — Iredell  and  Alexander  Counties — Captain,  Ju- 
nius L.  Hill. 

Company  B — Cabarrus  County — Captain,  Robert  S.  Young. 

Company  C — New  Hanover  County — Captain,  Robert  B. 

Company  D — MeoUenburg  County — Captain,  'William  Lee 

Company  E — Nash  County — Captain,  A.  J.  Taylor. 

Company  F — Roivan  County- — Captain,  J.  McLeod  Turner. 

Company  G — Wake  County — Captain,  Hiram  Witherspoon. 

Company  H — Cabarrus  County — Captain,  James  G.  Harris. 

Company  I — Iredell  County — Captain,  James  R.  McAulay. 

Company  K — Alexander  County — Captain,  Martin  H.  Peo- 

362  North  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

On  the  21st  of  August,  1861,  the  Seventh  Regiment  North 
Carolina  State  Troops  was  mustered  into  the  military  service  of 
the  State  of  North  Carolina,  and  each  soldier  was  paid  a  bounty 
of  fifteen  dollars.  Captain  A.  Myers  was  the  disbursing  officer, 
and  it  required  nearly  thirteen  thousand  dollars  to  pay  off  the 

Colonel  Campbell  was  a  professional  soldier,  a  graduate  of 
West  Point,  and  had  served  with  distinction  in  the  Mexican  war. 
Possessed  of  fine  administrative  abilities,  he  introduced  and 
practically  enforced  the  discipline  of  the  regular  army.  Upon 
assuming  command,  he  remarked  to  his  officers  that  he  was  not 
confident  of  his  ability  to  control  a  thousand  men,  but  said  he, 
"I  think  I  can  govern  forty  officers." 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Haywood  was  a  man  of  fine  personal  ap- 
pearance, just  in  the  prime  of  life;  was  possessed  of  a  magnifi- 
cent voice  and  brilliant  intellect.  As  a  tactician,  he  was  skillful, 
and  under  his  training  the  regiment  rapidly  acquired  proficiency 
in  the  various  evolutions  of  battalion  drill. 

Two  companies,  A  and  F,  were  armed  with  rifles,  the  others 
with  the  smooth-bore  Springfield  muskets. 


Early  Wednesday  morning,  August  28th,  the  Seventh  Regi- 
ment embarked  by  rail  for  the  Eastern  part  of  the  State,  and 
reached  New  Bern  the  following  morning  at  5  o'clock,  and  was 
assigned  quarters  in  the  Fair  Grounds.  On  Friday,  August  30th, 
the  regiment  was  regularly  mustered  into  the  military  service  of 
the  Conftderate  States  of  America  (more  properly  speaking, 

On  Monday,  September  2d,  the  regiment  marched  to  Fort 
Lane,  on  Neuse  River,  below  town,  and  was  busily  employed  on 
the  river  defenses  until  Sunday,  September  8th,  when  it  was 
taken  by  rail  to  Carolina  City.  Two  companies,  D  and  E,  were 
detached  and  sent  to  Hyde  county  under  command  of  Major 
Hall.  The  remaining  companies  went  by  boat  to  Bogue  Island 
and  encamped  some  four  miles  below  Fort  Macon.     The  Twen- 

Seventh  Regiment.  363 

ty-sixth  Regiment  North  Carolina  Volunteers,  Colonel  Z.  B. 
Vance  commauding,  and  Captain  Pender's  Battery  were  on  duty 
when  we  arrived  on  the  island.  Camp  and  picket  duties  em- 
ployed our  time  until  the  2d  of  October,  when  the  regiment 
recrossed  the  sound  and  encamped  near  Carolina  City.  Early 
in  December  Colonel  Campbell  moved  his  command  up  the  road 
to  Newport  and  constructed  winter-quarters,  and  the  companies 
on  detached  service  rejoined  the  regiment. 

On  the  5th  of  March,  1862,  the  Seventh  Regiment  was  taken 
by  rail  to  New  Bern  and  encamped  in  the  Fair  Grounds  until 
Wednesday  evening,  March  12th,  when  it  was  reported  that  the 
enemy  were  coming  up  the  river,  and  dispositions  were  accord- 
ingly made  to  have  the  troops  in  position  to  meet  them. 


The  Seventh  and  Thirty-third  Regiments,  encamped  in  town, 
crossed  the  river  at  an  early  hour  Thursday  morning,  March 
13th,  and  were  placed  in  reserve  some  two  miles  in  the  rear  of 
the  main  line,  at  a  point  where  the  public  road  from  Beaufort 
crosses  the  Atlantic  &  North  Carolina  Railroad.  Colonel 
Campbell  was  intrusted  by  General  Branch  with  the  command  of 
his  right  wing,  and  was  assigned  the  duty  of  guarding  the  river 
from  Otter  Creek  to  Fort  Thompson,  a  distance  of  several  miles. 
In  consequence  of  vastly  superior  numbers,  and  the  advantages 
afforded  the  enemy  in  landing  troops  at  almost  any  point  on  the 
river  shore,  so  as  to  take  his  line  in  reverse,  Colonel  Campbell, 
in  obedience  to  orders,  retired  to  the  Fort  Thompson  breastworks. 
The  Seventh  Regiment,  Lieutenant-Colonel  E.  G.  Haywood 
commanding,  was  ordered  from  the  reserve  and  was  posted  on 
the  main  line,  one  company  (F)  on  the  left,  and  the  other  nine 
companies  immediately  on  the  right  of  the  Beaufort  road,  and 
about  half-way  from  Fort  Thompson  to  the  railroad — the  dis- 
tance from  the  Fort  to  the  railroad  being  about  one  mile. 

At  an  early  hour  on  Friday  morning,  March  14th,  final  dispo- 
fiitious  were  made  to  receive  the  advancing  foe.  Rain  had  fallen 
in  showers  the  previous  night,  and  the  early  morning  was  obscured 

364  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

by  a  fog,  so  much  so  that  a  party  of  mounted  men  approached 
almost  unobserved  within  musket-range,  evidently  with  the  pur- 
pose of  locating  the  lines.  This  party  was  fired  upon  by  one  of 
Latham's  guns  on  the  Beaufort  road.  This  shot  served  as  a  signal 
for  the  Federal  advance,  and  shortly  thereafter  they  appeared  in 
force  on  the  Beaufort  road  and  opened  fire  immediately  in  front 
of  the  Seventh  Pegiment.  They  were  promptly  responded  to 
with  musketry  and  artillery,  and  with  such  effect  as  to  arrest 
their  advance,  and  in  a  short  while  the  firing  was  general  along 
the  line  to  the  river.  Finding  this  part  of  the  line  to  be  well 
defended,  the  enemy  extended  his  line  and  advanced  up  the  rail- 
road on  the  opposite  side.  The  intrenchments  on  that  side  were 
located  higher  up  the  road,  so  that  when  the  enemy's  skirmishers 
arrived  on  a  line  with  the  breastworks  from  the  river  to  the  rail- 
road, they  were  enabled  to  deliver  a  flank  fire  into  the  troops  (the 
militia  battalion  of  Colonel  H.  J.  B.  Clark)  on  the  opposite  side, 
under  which  they  gave  away,  and  all  efforts  to  rally  them  were 
unavailing.  This  advantage  enabled  the  enemy  to  advance 
troops  through  an  undefended  open  ditch  with  but  little  expo- 
sure, and  the  Thirty-fifth  Regiment  North  Carolina  Troops,  like- 
wise assailed  in  front  and  flank,  gave  way  and  did  not  afterwards 
return  to  the  fight.  Flushed  with  success,  the  enemy  pushed 
along  the  vacant  works,  and  the  Seventh  was  the  next  in  turn 
to  feel  the  brunt  of  his  attack,  and  it,  too,  was  forced  to  retire, 
but  not  in  confusion,  for  it  was  quickly  rallied,  and  advancing 
with  fixed  bayonets,  it  gallantly  drove  the  Federals  over  the 
breastwork's,  recovering  two  of  Brem's  guns  that  had  fallen  into 
their  hands.  The  brave  Major  Hall  led  the  charge,  and  did 
much  to  inspire  the  confidence  and  courage  of  the  Seventh,  for 
the  first  time  so  sorely  tried.  The  regiment  continued  to  hold 
its  position  without  re-inforcements  until  near  noon,  when  it  was 
again  assailed  from  the  same  direction  by  an  overwhelming  force, 
and  the  entire  line,  being  exposed  to  an  enfilade  fire,  gave  way, 
and  the  field  was.  hopelessly  lost. 

Referring  to  the  regiment  on  this  occasion,  General  Branch 
said :  i "  The  brave  Seventh  met  them  with  the  bayonet  and  drove 

Seventh  Regiment.  365 

them  headlong  over  the  parapet,  inflicting  heavy  loss  on  them 
as  they  fled;  but  soon  returning  with  heavy  re-inforcements,  not 
less  than  five  or  six  regiments,  the  Seventh  was  obliged  to  yield, 
falling  back  slowly  and  in  order." 

In  this  ill-fated  afiair,  its  first  fight,  the  regiment  sustained  a 
loss  of  six  killed,  fifteen  wounded  and  thirty  missing. 

Along  with  General  Branch's  command  it  retreated  to  Kinston 
and  remained  about  a  week,  when  the  command  was  taken  by 
rail  to  Falling  Creek,  seven  miles  above  Kinston. 

branch's  brigade  organized. 

On  the  31st  of  March,  1862,  the  Second  Brigade,  consisting 
of  the  Seventh,  Colonel  Campbell;  Thirty-seventh,  Colonel 
Charles C.  Lee ;  Eighteenth,  Colonel  James D.  Eadcliffe;  Twenty- 
eighth, Colonel  James  H.  Lane,  and  the  Thirty-third,  Colonel  C. 
M.  Avery,  all  North  Carolina  regiments,  was  organized,  and  Brig- 
adier-General L.  O'B.  Branch  was  assigned  to  the  command,  and 
on  the  following  day  he  returned  to  his  former  encampment 
below  Kinston. 

While  here  Major  E.  D.  Hall  was  promoted  to  Colouel  of  the 
Forty-sixth  Regiment,  and  Captain  J.  L.  Hill,  Company  A, 
succeeded  him  as  Major  of  the  Seventh.  Adjutant  John  E. 
Brown  was  promoted  to  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the  Forty-second 
Regiment,  and  Lieutenant  F.  D.  Stockton,  of  Company  F,  suc- 
ceeded him  as  Adjutant.  On  the  1st  of  May,  Colonel  Camp- 
bell, in  obedience  to  orders  from  brigade  headquarters,  proceeded 
with  his  regiment.  Captain  Bunting's  Battery  and  a  train  of 
wagons  to  Trenton  for  the  purpose  of  collecting  and  bringing 
back  provisions  for  the  use  of  the  troops,  but  upon  reaching 
his  destination  the  command  was  recalled. 


On  Sunday,  May  4th,  1862,  Branch's  Brigade  went  by  rail  to 
Goldsboro,  thence  by  way  of  Weldon,  Petersburg  and  Richmond 
to  Gordonsville,  Va.,  reaching  the  latter  place  on  the  night  of  the 

366  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

5th,  and  remained  until  about  the  16th,  when  the  command  was 
ordered  towards  the  Valley  of  Virginia,  but  before  reaching 
the  foot-hills  of  the  Blue  Ridge  it  was  ordered  back  to  Gordons- 
ville,  and  from  there  by  rail  to  Hanover  Court  Hoiise,  and  did 
picket  duty  for  some  days  in  that  locality. 


The  battle  of  Hanover  Court  House  was  fought  on  the  even- 
ing of  Tuesday,  May  27th,  between  the  Federal  advance,  under 
Generals  Fitz  John  Porter  and  Sedgewick,  and  Branch's  Brigade, 
Latham's  Battery,  and  two  infantry  regiments,  temporarily  at- 
tached. Twelfth  North  Carolina  and  a  Georgia  regiment. 

In  this  action  the  Seventh  Regiment  was  held  in  reserve,  and 
though  at  no  time  actively  engaged,  it  was  nevertheless  exposed 
to  the  enemy's  fire  (a  severe  test  of  the  metal  of  any  troops) 
without  the  opportunity  of  returning  it.  In  obedience  to  orders, 
General  Branch  fell  back  to  Ashland  during  the  night,  and  the 
Seventh  Regiment  constituted  his  rearguard.  In  this  affair  the 
regiment  sustaiued  a  loss  of  two  killed,  four  wounded  and  two 
missing.  General  Branch  said  in  his  report:  "A  cautious  at- 
tempt was  made  by  the  enemy  to  follow,  but  a  single  volley  from 
the  rearguard  of  the  Seventh  arrested  it."  During  the  early 
days  of  June  Branch's  Brigade  encamped  on  the  Brook  turn- 
pike, three  and  one-half  miles  northwest  of  Richmond,  and 
remained  until  sunset  Wednesday,  June  25,  1862,  when,  in 
obedience  to  orders  from  army  headquarters,  it  marched  up 
Brook  turnpike  to  the  vicinity  of  "Half  Sink"  bridge,  and 
bivouacked  until  morning.  Thursday,  June  26th,  at  10  o'clock 
A.  M.,  the  brigade  was  ordered  to  cross,  and  the  Seventh,  march- 
ing at  the  head  of  the  column,  crossed  the  Chickahominy  and 
directed  its  march  down  stream.  Three  companies.  A,  C  and 
F,  under  command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Haywood,  were  ad- 
vanced to  discover  and  dislodge  the  enemy's  picket.  When 
nearing  the  Virginia  Central  Railroad,  Colonel  Haywood's  com- 
mand encountered  and  dispersed  the  enemy's  advanced  troops. 

Seventh  Regiment.  367 

some  two  hundred  strong,  capturing  from  them  a  flag — the  first 
trophy  of  the  day — before  any  other  brigade  of  General  Lee's 
army  had  crossed  the  Chickahominy,  and  started  MeClellan  on 
"that  retreat  in  which  he  found  no  shelter  until  under  cover  of 
the  guns  of  his  shipping."  Continuing  the  advance,  Colonel 
Haywood's  command  again  encountered  the  enemy's  sharp- 
shooters beyond  Atlee's  Station  and  drove  them  back.  The 
movements  of  Branch's  Brigade  uncovered  Meadow  Bridge,  and 
General  A.  P.  Hill  crossed  and  drove  the  enemy  from  his  in- 
trenched camp  at  Mechanicsville.  Late  in  the  afternoon  Branch's 
Brigade,  marching  by  a  different  road,  reached  the  scene  of  con- 
flict. After  the  repulse  at  Mechanicsville  the  enemy  retired  to 
a  strong  position  at  Ellyson's  Mill,  where  the  Confederates  re- 
newed the  attack,  but  failed  to  dislodge  him.  Branch's  Brigade 
was  ordered  to  the  front,  and  went  some  distance,  when  it  was 
halted,  and  Colonel  Campbell  was  directed  to  hold  his  regiment 
in  readiness  for  an  immediate  advance.  Later  the  regiment  was 
placed  in  position  on  the  left  of  the  road  and  remained  over 

Next  morning,  Friday,  June  27th,  while  awaiting  orders  to 
advance,  it  was  learned  that  the  enemy  had  abandoned  his  posi- 
tion and  was  in  full  flight.  Pursuit  was  immediately  given,  and 
in  the  afternoon  the  battle  was  renewed  beyond  Gaines'  Mill. 
The  Seventh  formed  to  the  left  of  the  road,  and  under  the  lead 
of  the  fearless  Campbell  pushed  forward  through  a  lake  of 
water  and  up  a  long  wooded  slope.  Companies  A  and  F  were 
advanced  as  skirmishers  and  met  with  such  stout  resistance  as 
to  check  their  progress. 

Seeing  that  Turner  and  Knox  were  hard  pressed,  Captain 
Young,  of  Company  B,  called  on  his  men  to  go  to  their  assist- 
ance, and  this  they  did  by  moving  cheerfully  forward  under  a 
heavy  fire  and  rendered  timely  aid  in  forcing  the  enemy  out  of 
the  road  and  from  the  fence  on  top  of  the  hill.  As  the  main 
line  advanced  the  skirmishers  were  directed  to  form  on  the  right 
of  the  regiment,  and  for  some  time  it  maintained  this  advanced 
position  against  superior  odds.     Not  being  supported,  as  he  ex- 

368  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

pected,  and  suffering  frightful  loss,  Colonel  Campbell  ordered 
the  regiment  to  fall  back  to  a  less  exposed  position,  and  the 
three  skirmishing  companies  on  the  right  not  falling  back  at  the 
same  instant,  became  separated  from  the  regiment,  and,  under 
the  command  of  Lieutenant- Colonel  Haywood,  they  were  as- 
signed by  General  A.  P.  Hill's  order  to  another  part  of  the  line, 
and  were  under  fire  to  the  close  of  the  action.  The  other  seven 
companies,  under  Colonel  Campbell,  were  sent  to  charge  a  bat- 
tery on  the  right  of  the  road,  and,  after  moving  the  required 
distance.  Colonel  Campbell  advanced  his  regiment  through  a 
swamp  and  over  fallen  timber  up  the  deadly  slope,  intent  upon 
fulfilling  his  mission.  The  color-bearer,  Henry  T.  Fight,  of 
Company  F,  had  advanced  but  a  little  way  when  he  was  se- 
riously wounded  and  let  the  colors  fall.  Then  Corporal  James 
A.  Harris,  of  Company  I,  caught  them  up  and  bore  them  a 
short  distance,  when  he,  too,  received  a  disabling  wound.  Colo- 
nel Campbell  then  seized  the  flag,  and  advancing  some  twenty 
paces  in  front  of  his  men,  ordered  them  not  to  fire  but  to  follow 
him.  When  within  less  than  a  stone's  throw  of  the  deadly  guns, 
the  heroic  Campbell  was  pierced  by  an  enemy's  bullet  and 
instantly  killed.  Lieutenant  Duncan  C.  Haywood,  of  Company 
E,  promptly  seized  the  flag,  and  in  the  effort  to  bear  it  forward, 
he  in  turn  lost  his  life,  and  seeing  the  utter  impossibility  of  cap- 
turing the  battery,  the  regiment  beat  a  hasty  retreat.  Unwilling 
that  the  flag  should  fall  into  the  enemy's  hands,  private  Nichol- 
son, of  Company  H,  caught  the  end  of  the  broken  staff  and 
trailed  it  after  him  down  the  hill,  and,  from  Colonel  Haywood's 
report,  it  was  borne  from  the  field  by  Corporal  Geary,  of  Com- 
pany C.  The  flag  had  on  it  the  marks  of  thirty-two  bullets, 
indicating  in  some  measure  the  fearful  dangers  to  which  the 
gallant  Seventh  was  exposed  in  attempting  to  accomplish  an 
impossible  result. 

Following  is  a  list  of  officers  killed  and  wounded  in  this 
action : 

Killed — Colonel  Reuben  P.  Campbell*;  Lieutenant  Duncan 

*  Colonel  Campbell  was  born  in  Iredell  county,  N.  C,  April  16, 1818,  and  graduated  at 
West  Pomt,  June  23,1840;  entered  the  service  as  Second  Lieutenant  of  Cavalry :  was 
promoted  Captain  of  Company  B,  Second  Dragoons.  He  was  distinguished  for  gallant 
and  meritorious  conduct  in  the  Mexican  war,  and  resigned  his  commission  to  take  part 
with  his  native  State  m  behalf  of  the  South. 

Seventh  Regiment.  369 

C.  Haywood,  Company  E ;  Lieutenant  William  A.  Closs,  Com- 
pany E ;  Captain  Martin  H.  Peoples,  Company  K ;  Lieutenant 
Joseph  C.  Miller,  Company  K. 

"Wounded — Captain  Eobert  B.  McRae,  Company  C ;  Lieu- 
tenant William  J.  Kerr,  Company  D ;  Captain  James  R.  Mc- 
Aulay,  Company  I. 

The  number  of  enlisted  men  killed  and  wounded  in  this  or 
any  subsequent  action  during  the  seven  days'  fight  cannot  be 
determined  with  any  accuracy,  as  the  official  reports  embraced 
the  entire  campaign  in  the  aggregate. 

On  Sunday  morning,  the  29th  of  June,  Branch's  Brigade  re- 
crossed  the  Chickahominy  in  pursuit  and  again  encountered  the 
enemy  in  a  hard-fought  battle  at  Frazier's  Farm,  lasting  from  5 
o'clock  p.  M.  until  night-fall  on  the  30th  of  June.  In  this  action 
the  Seventh,  under  Colonel  Haywood,  made  a  gallant  charge 
across  an  open  field  that  was  swept  by  musketry  and  artillery, 
and  drove  the  enemy  from  its  front  for  a  considerable  distance — 
every  foot  of  the  ground  being  hotly  contested.  Lieutenant 
John  Milton  Alexander,  Company  H,  was  killed.  Wounded  : 
Lieutenants  E.  G.  Blackmer,  Company  F,  and  W.  N.  Dickey, 
Company  I.    Missing:  Lieutenant  John  P.  Young,  Company  B. 


The  battle  of  Malvern  Hill  was  fought  on  the  afternoon-  of 
Tuesday,  July  1st.  The  Seventh,  as  were  the  other  regiments 
of  the  brigade,  was  ordered  to  the  battlefield  in  support  of  troops 
already  engaged,  and  remained  in  reserve  to  the  close  of  the 
action,  exposed  to  .the  enemy^s  fire,  with  no  opportunity  of  re- 
turning it. 

During  this  "  week  of  battles,"  the  Seventh  Regiment  sus- 
tained a  loss  of  thirty-seven  killed  and  two  hundred  and  two 
wounded  and  fourteen  missing — total,  two  hundred  and  fifty- 


370  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 


Branch's  Brigade  was  sent  by  rail  to  Gordonsville,  July  29th, 
and  on  Saturday,  August  9th,  the  battle  of  Cedar  Run  was 
fought.  About  3  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  there  was  a  spirited 
artillery  duel  between  Confederate  and  Federal  batteries.  About 
5  o'clock  the  infantry  became  hotly  engaged.  At  first  the  enemy 
was  successful  and  drove  the  Confederates  back.  At  the  oppor- 
tune moment  Branch's  Brigade,  marching  at  the  head  of  the 
"  Light  Division,"  advanced  and  checked  the  enemy,  and  in 
turn  drove  him  back  with  loss.  Just  as  it  was  in  the  act  of 
advancing,  the  Seventh  was,  by  General  Jackson's  personal  order, 
directed  to'cross  to  the  right  of  the  main  road  and  pursue  a  de- 
tached body  of  the  enemy  then  in  retreat.  This  movement 
resulted  in  the  capture  of  some  thirty  odd  prisoners,  including 
two  commissioned  officers.  The  regiment  was  little  exposed  in 
this  action.  Its  loss  was  one  killecl  and  one  wounded.  The 
Confederates  recrossed  the  Rapidan  on  the  12th,  and  encamped 
around  Orange  Court  House.  On  the  20th  of  August  there 
was  a  general  advance  of  the  army,  and  Branch's  Brigade  con- 
fronted the  enemy  opposite  Warrenton  Springs  on  the  22d,  and 
was  exposed^to  the  fire  of  several  batteries  during  Saturday  and 
Sunday.  Early  on  Monday,  August  25th,  General  Jackson 
disappeared  from  Pope's  front,  crossed  the  Rappahannock  un- 
molested, aud  arrived  at  Bristoe  Station  on  the  night  of  the  26th, 
and  early  the  following  morning  Branch's  Brigade  reached  Ma- 
nassas Junction,  and  a  few  hours  later  it  chased  Taylor's  New 
Jersey  Brigade  some  miles  beyond  Bull  Run. 

second   battle   of   MANASSAS. 

The  next  time  the  Seventh  confronted  the  enemy  was  on  the 
historic  field  of  Manassas,  where,  on  the  afternoon  of  August 
28th,  it  was  exposed  to  the  fire  of  a  Federal  battery,  but  suf- 
fered slight  loss.  On  Friday  morning,  August  29th,  the  Sev- 
enth was  on  the  right  of  the  brigade,  and  in  rear  of  a  grove  on 

Seventh  Eegiment.  371 

the  Confederate  left,  and  not  far  from  Crenshaw's  Battery. 
Shortly  after  assuming  this  position,  Captain  J.  McLeod  Turner 
was  ordered  to  advance  his  company,  and  soon  the  sound  of  his 
rifles  told  that  he  was  driving  the  enemy's  skirmishers.  During 
the  morning  hours  there  were  heavy  and  irregular  volleys  of 
musketry  on  the  right,  sometimes  nearer,  then  further  away,  as 
one  or  the  other  of  the  combatants  were  forced  to  yield  ground. 
About  3  o'clock  p.  m.  the  Federal  commander  shifted  his  point 
of  attack  and  fell  with  great  fury  on  the  Confederate  left. 

Guided  by  the  sound  of  battle.  General  Branch  advanced  his 
brigade  and  engaged  the  enemy's  troops,  then  flushed  by  tempo- 
rary success,  and  drove  them  across  the  railroad  and  into  the  woods 
beyond.  In  obedience  to  orders,  the  brigade  recrossed  the  railroad 
and  reformed  its  line  of  battle.  Details  were  sent  to  collect  cart- 
ridges from  the  boxes  of  those  who  had  fallen  and  issue  them  to  the 
men  in  ranks  awaiting  the  renewal  of  the  conflict.  Colonel  Hay- 
wood was  wounded  and  Captain  R.  B.  McRae  took  command,  and 
right  gallantly  did  he  discharge  the  duties  thus  imposed  on  him. 
Hardly  were  the  necessary  preparations  complete  before  the 
enemy  advanced  fresh  troops  and  renewed  the  battle  with  great 
energy  and  with  like  results.  The  brigade  successfully  held 
its  position  against  repeated  attacks  until  the  going  down  of  the 

With  evident  feelings  of  pride,  General  Branch  publicly  com- 
plimented his  brigade  for  gallant  conduct.  Said  he :  "Burnside 
whipped  us  at  New  Bern,  but  we  have  whipped  him  this  even- 
ing." The  Seventh  fought  bravely  and  eSiciently.  Not  a  single 
Yankee  was  able  to  cross  the  railroad  in  its  front,  though  efibrts 
were  made  to  do  so  that  were  well-nigh  irresistible.  Its  loss 
was  seven  killed  and  sixty  wounded.  The  following  day, 
though  not  actively  engaged,  it  was  nevertheless  exposed  to  a 
heavy  artillery  fire  and  joined  in  the  pursuit  of  the  enemy  late 
that  afternoon. 

On  the  afternoon  of  Monday,  September  1st,  the  battle  of  Ox 
Hill  was  fought  in  a  blinding  rain-storm.  The  Seventh  ex- 
hibited its  customary  valor  from  the  opening  to  the  close  of  the 

372  North  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

action.  Its  loss  was  eight  killed  and  seventeen  wounded.  Cap- 
tain E.  B.  McRae,  commanding  the  regiment,  was  severely- 
wounded,  and  Captain  J.  G.  Knox,  Company  A,  succeeded  him 
in  command. 

The  Seventh  was  in  the  First  Maryland  campaign,  and  crossed 
the  Potomac  at  Point  of  Rocks  on  the  afternoon  of  September 
4th,  arrived  at  Frederick,  Maryland,  on  the  6th,  and  remained 
for  some  days.  While  here  the  regiment  was  re-inforced  by  one 
hundred  and  thirty  conscripts.  It  recrossed  the  Potomac  at 
Williamsport  on  the  12th,  and  was  part  of  the  force  that  invested 
Harper's  Ferry  on  the  Virginia  sid«  the  following  day. 

On  Sunday  night,  the  14th,  the  Seventh  preceded  the  brigade 
in  its  advance,  successfully  dislodged  the  enemy  from  the  moun- 
tain cliifs  overhanging  the  Shenandoah,  and  secured  possession 
of  Bolivar  Heights,  overlooking  Harper's  Ferry.  This  was 
accomplished  with  a  loss  of  one  killed  and  three  wounded. 

Early  Monday  morning,  September  15th,  the  garrison  of 
Harper's  Ferry  surrendered  after  a  spirited  shelling  from  Con- 
federate batteries  bearing  on  it  from  all  points.  The  Seventh 
Regiment,  up  to  this  time,  armed  with  the  smooth-bore  Spring- 
field musket,  now  exchanged  it  for  the  Springfield  rifle,  a  more 
effective  weapon  at  longer  range.  This  regiment  left  Harper's 
Ferry  on  the  morning  of  September  17th  and  arrived  at  Sharps- 
burg  in  the  afternoon  just  in  time  to  help  repulse  Burnside's 
troops,  then  across  Antietam  Creek,  and  gradually  pushing  the 
Confederate  right  toward  Sharpsburg.  Its  loss  in  this  action 
was  nine  killed  and  forty-three  wounded.  The  brave  General 
Branch  was  killed  near  the  close  of  the  action,  and  Colonel 
James  H.  Lane  assumed  command  of  the  brigade. 

The  battle  was  not  renewed  the  following  day,  and  that  night, 
the  18th,  the  army  recrossed  the  Potomac  at  Shepherdstown. 
Branch's  Brigade  formed  part  of  the  rearguard  and  was  the 
last  command  to  cross  the  river  on  the  19th.  The  rear  of  its 
column  was  shelled  as  it  disappeared  over  the  hills  on  the  Vir- 
ginia side. 

At  Shepherdstown,  on  the   20th   of  September,  the  Seventh 

Seventh  Eegiment.  373 

was  one  of  the  regiments  that  so  gallantly  charged  the  enemy 
across  the  big  corn  field,  notwithstanding  it  was  honey- 
combed by  the  concentrated  fire  of  Federal  batteries  from  the 
opposite  side  of  the  Potomac.  In  this  affair  the  regiment  had 
fifteen  men  wounded. 

The  next  offensive  movement  in  which  it  took  part  was  the 
destruction  of  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Railroad  from  North 
Mountain  Depot  to  Hedgeville.  The  regiment  then  encamped 
near  Bunker  Hill, until  the,lst  of  November,  at  which  time  it 
removed  to  the  vicinity  of  Berryville. 

On  the  1st  of  November,  ,1862,  Colonel  James  H.  Lane  was 
promoted  to  be  Brigadier  General,  and  permanently  assigned  by 
request  to  the  command  of  Branch's  Brigade. 

Early  in  November  the  Federal  army  crossed  the  Potomac  at 
Harper's  Ferry  and  slowly  advanced  along  the  railroad  to  War- 
renton.  Longstreet's  Corps  disappeared  from  the  Valley  and 
confronted  the  enemy  in  the  neighborhood  of  Culpeper. Court 
House.  On  the  22d  of  November  Jackson's  Corps  broke  camp 
above  Winchester  and  moved  rapidly  to  New  Market,  thence 
south  to  the  vicinity  of  Guinea  Station  on  the  railroad  leading 
from  Fredericksburg  to  Richmond. 

Nothing  occurred  to  foreshadow  the  expected  battle  until  the 
night  of  the  11th,  when  firing  was  heard  in  the  direction  of 
Fredericksburg,  which  increased  in  volume  the  following  morn- 
ing— a  sure  warning  of  the  approaching  contest,  in  which  the 
Army  of  Northern  Virginia  would  again  measure  arms  with  its 
old  antagonist,  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  under  its  new  com- 
mander. Genera]  Burnside. 

the  battle  op  peedericksbueg. 

The  battle  of  Fredericksburg  was  fought  Saturday,  December 
13,  1862,  Lane's  Brigade  was  on  Jackson's  left,  some  two 
miles  southeast  of  the  town,  and  the  Seventh  Regiment  was  on 
Lane's  left,  about  two  hundred  yards  distant  from  the  railroad 
and  about  the  same  distance  in  front  of  the  right  of  Pender's 
North  Carolina  brigade.     A  short  distance  beyond  the  railroad 

374  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'66. 

there  was  a  ridge  that  extended  some  distance  to  the  right,  and 
was  lost  in  the  common  level  of  the  surrounding  plain.  This 
ridge  was  occupied  by  a  battalion  of  artillery,  thirteen  guns, 
under  Major  Braxton,  with  instructions  to  play  on  the  enemy's 
infantry  without  replying  to  his  artillery.  Before  the  fight  began 
the  Seventh  Regiment,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Hill  commanding, 
was  advanced  to  the  railroad  to  insure  the  safety  of  the  guns. 
A  fog  hung  over  the  field  and  concealed  the  enemy's  movements 
until  well  under  way. 

About  9  o'clock  A.  M.  a  line  of  battle  advanced  from  under 
cover  of  the  river  bank  and  was  driven  back  by  the  fire  of  the 
artillery  in  front.  By  way  of  retaliation,  several  Federal  bat- 
teries opened  on  Braxton's  guns,  and  also  did  the  Seventh  serious 
injury,  driving  in  its  skirmishers,  ten  of  them  having  been  in- 
jured by  one  shell.  The  enemy's  skirmishers  then  advanced 
and  endangered  the  gunners,  and  on  this  fact  being  reported 
to  Colonel  Hill  by  one  of  their  officers,  he  promptly  advanced 
his  regiment  and  drove  them  off.  Meantime  the  artillery 
left  the  field,  and  to  save  his  men,  Colonel  Hill  ordered  the 
regiment  into  the  railroad  cut  near  by,  where  it  remained 
about  two  hours,  during  which  time  there  was  a  lull  in  the 

In  forming  his  line  of  battle,  General  A.  P.  Hill  had  left  an 
open  space  of  several  hundred  yards,  extending  from  Lane's 
right  to  Archer's  left.  By  noon  the  fog  of  the  early  morning 
had  cleared  away,  and  the  keen-sighted  Yankees  were  not  long 
in  detecting  this  opening,  against  which  they  sent  a  cloud  of 
skirmishers  and  directed  a  powerful  artillery  fire. 

The  Seventh  Regiment  now  left  the  railroad  cut  and  resumed 
its  former  position  on  the  left  of  the  brigade.  In  a  short 
while  the  enemy  advanced  in  great  force  to  the  crest  of  the  hill 
beyond  the  railroad,  several  stands  of  colors  being  visible  in 
front  of  the  Seventh,  but  their  troops  were  not  sufficiently 
exposed  to  invite  its  fire.  Remaining  stationary  for  a  short 
time,  they  retired,  then  adv